Details on article

Id 150
Author Markusen , A., ; Godwa, A.,
Title Arts and Culture in Urban or Regional Planning: A Review and Research Agenda

Markusen, A., Godwa, A. (2010). Arts and Culture in Urban or Regional Planning: A Review and Research Agenda. Journal of Planning Education and Research 29(3) 379‑391.

Keywords Cultural planning; Arts planning; Cultural policy; Arts policy; Creative city; Arts impact; Gentrification; Cultural districts; Tourism
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Abstract Amid the buzz on the creative city and cultural economy, knowledge about what works at various urban and regional scales is sorely lacking. This article reviews the state of knowlege about arts and culture as an urban or regional development tool, exploring norms, reviewing evidence for causal relationships, and analyzing stakeholders, bureaucratic fragmentation, and citizen participation in cultural planning. Two strategies—designated cultural districts and tourist-targeted cultural investments— illustrate how better research would inform implementation. In guiding urban cultural development, researchers should examine and clarify the impacts, risks, and opportunity costs of various strategies and the investments and revenue and expenditure patterns associated with each, so that communities and governments avoid squandering “creative city” opportunities.

Metodology Case studies that help the authors to understand the richness of cultural planning and challenges in specific places. The focus is, instead, on articulating the common hypotheses driving creative city initiatives and how these might be tested using existing data, comparative cases, and new methods.

Findings The authors see four areas of inquiry as crucial opportunities for researchers to strengthen understanding of cultural planning theory and practice. First, researchers should unpack, critique, and evaluate cultural planning outcomes according to implicit and explicit norms and goals. Second, researchers should also vet the most frequently employed rational for cultural initiatives—the theorized causal link to economic development. Third, researchers should look be-yond developing metrics to gauge whether or not a cultural plan has generated anticipated out-comes to ask how the process influences the product. Last, what are the merits and weaknesses of specific alternative cultural strategies? They presented theoretical arguments suggesting that minimal clustering and dispersion may be a sounder strategy than concentrated cultural districts on both equity and efficiency grounds, but these hypotheses deserve rigorous testing. Past re-search indicates the cultural tourism strategies are likely to provide only modest, if any, economic development benefits and only for the very largest cities and some highly specialized medium-sized cities.
Open Access YES
DOI DOI: 10.1177/0739456X09354380
Search Database SAGE Journals
Technique Document analysis; Literature review
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