Candidate transition variables for cultural domain


Article Sentence
View A broader definition of health including wellbeing and an emphasis on preventative medicine and multi-agency approaches to care within the UK s National Health Service, has facilitated the work of museums and galleries in this area
View The aim of the research project was to assess the impact on wellbeing of taking museum objects into hospitals and healthcare contexts
View heritage health and wellbeing: assessing the impact of a heritage focused intervention on health and wellbeing
View the heritage sector is facing an unprecedented challenge and opportunity in being asked to contribute to arguably the most important issue affecting the word today namely health and wellbeing
View galloway and bell identified that quality of life qol and wellbeing are being factored into public policy making and service delivery across much of the developed world
View the uks museums libraries and archive mla councils outcomes framework recognises the role heritage organisations have in contributing to adult health and general wellbeing as well as children and young peoples health
View numerous other policy directives and related research such as that undertaken by the uk think-tank the new economics foundation also acknowledge the important role culture and heritage play in wellbeing both of individuals and communities
View the museum sector has increasingly been aware of the possibility of valuing their work in terms of health and wellbeing
View culture unlimited for example created a manifesto for museums potential benefit in the mental health field museums of the mind showing that museums strengths in perspective memory beauty and being places of sanctuary could underwrite mental wellbeing
View silvermans the social work of musuems considers museums as places of inspiration and healing and proposes that museums can contribute to individual health in at least five ways: promote relaxation; immediate intervention to affect beneficial changes in physiology emotions or both; encourage introspection; public health advocacy; and enhancing healthcare environments
View although there is considerable anecdotal evidence that the heritage sector makes an important contribution to improving health and wellbeing and several examples of good practice robust empirical and qualitative evidence is scarcer
View arts-in-health also forms a background to the heritage in hospitals research and has a relatively high profile and support from the arts council england commission for architecture and the built environment cabe and the department of health
View staricoffs review of research in this area shows benefits to patients who received art interventions during their hospital stay
View the review focuses on research which demonstrates arts role in the reduction of specific conditions including pain and other health benefits rather than focusing on the more ambiguous wellbeing which although contributing to health remains a more individualised set of benefits
View arts-in-health has benefited from the increased emphasis by the uks department of health on preventative medicine multi-agency approaches and maintenance of wellbeing uk department of health ; mla ; a strategic background that this project capitalises on
View funded by the uks arts and humanities research council the heritage in hospitals project drew upon research in the arts-in-health field and the concept of wellbeing
View falk and dierkings work on learning in museums is also influential in articulating health and wellbeing outcomes
View their research has resulted in the articulation of the interactive learning model which proposes that the physical environment the social context the personal background of the museum visitor and subsequent experiences all affect the learning that happens during a museum visit
View when they have a museum encounter whether in everyday life or in a healthcare institution the impact the museum resource will have on their wellbeing should be affected by their physical environment the social situation and their personal levels of interest motivation and current wellbeing and health
View nef define wellbeing as most usefully thought of as the dynamic process that gives people a sense of how their lives are going through the interaction between their circumstances activities and psychological resources or mental capital nef
View they suggest that in order to achieve wellbeing people need: a sense of individual vitality to undertake activities which are meaningful engaging and which make them feel competent and autonomous a stock of inner resources to help them cope when things go wrong and be resilient to changes beyond their immediate control
View it is also crucial that people feel a sense of relatedness to other people so that in addition to the personal internally focused elements peoples social experiences the degree to which they have supportive relationships and a sense of connection with others form a vital aspect of well-being
View nefs indicator structure adapted from their national accounts framework museums are facing similar challenges in measuring wellbeing to those experienced a few decades ago when trying to measure museum learning in the sense that defining museum wellbeing and then capturing the individuals response is difficult and conflicts with the more formal methods used in traditional health measurements thomson et al
View methodology research contexts the heritage in hospitals project worked within a number of hospitals and healthcare contexts with the research aim to understand the therapeutic effects of a museum intervention on hospital and other healthcare users and to develop a protocol for effective engagement in healthcare contexts
View findings the research identified engagement processes and expressions of wellbeing as key outcomes from museum handling sessions
View there was a range of both phenomena evident in different sessions depending on a complex mix of patient background wellbeing before session personality interest medical condition and the strengths of the session itself
View engagement was found to be an important process for hospital patients because of the specific challenges they were facing including worry and anxiety and even fear boredom pain dwelling on illness uncertainty loss of pre-morbid identity lethargy and depression and lack of stimulation
View most participants expressed improved wellbeing after the intervention such as improved mood calmed anxiety or a feeling of enhanced confidence
View this was partly because the starting point of wellbeing was such an important factor in quick and deep engagement rather than just the experience of the session itself but also because participants had differing levels of ability in articulating their feelings and sense of wellbeing
View the heritage objects proved to be layered in their significance to patients and versatile in use since we observed different patients accessed them sensorily affectively and/or intellectually
View the objects provided several ways through which patients could access these wellbeing benefits
View the term which is used widely in learning and education indicates an active motivation a focus involvement and concentration the first steps to learning but also one could speculate wellbeing
View engagement was not achieved in every session and it ran along a continuum from low response and interest through distraction or the reduction of negative emotion; through stimulation or the increase in positive emotion activity and thoughts ultimately to a sense of wonder
View a high level of engagement created a strong three-way dialogue and rhythm between objects facilitator and participant
View evidence of engagement being drawn into the objects was exhibited through attention wonder curiosity and interaction with the object linking objects to their own lives and experience and cognitions: some participants notably those from a neurological rehabilitation unit and mental health in- patients did not always show signs of engagement for example by facial expressions speech attention but nonetheless appeared engaged
View this is demonstrated by julie a female cancer patient: wellbeing outcomes engagement in the objects provided stimulation and distraction both highly important for wellbeing in the hospital context
View wellbeing in various forms was articulated directly by many participants and carers during and after the sessions and participants mentioned: positive emotions and cheering up; giving new perspectives and thoughts about their lives; producing new learning interest and desire to learn; initiating personal memories and recollections giving a renewed sense of identity; passing time much quicker; creating a positive mood; bringing out a sense of vitality and energy to override depressive or lethargic feelings; relieving anxiety; it was something completely different and stimulated both social interaction and tactile senses which were in short supply in hospital this was particularly noted by staff at the rehabilitation and psychiatric hospitals with long term patients
View patients mentioned factors such as their illness or impairment their treatment the hospital environment and uncertainty of the future as decreasing their sense of wellbeing as one woman described: the hospital context was seen to be blank boring and uncomfortable with long periods of waiting and introspection and when simultaneously combined with illness can strip someone of their more personal attributes normal feelings and individuality watkins
View the object sessions provided a creative opportunity for bringing back some of the pre-morbid self through stimulation of the social intellectual experiential and emotional identity and distraction from the new medicalised standardised and uncertain self-defined by the illness
View wellbeing in many forms was articulated directly by many participants and carers during and after the sessions: table below provides a summary of our qualitative analysis which aimed at gaining an in depth understanding of the process of sessions and the impact of a session on an individuals sense of wellbeing
View impact of heritage on heaqlt and wellbeing : positive feelings excitement enjoyment wonder privilege luck surprise learning competence positive feelings engagement vitality skills and confidence engagement competence self esteem vitality meaning and energy alertness purpose lack of negative frrlings positive mood sense of identity meaning and purpose self esteem vitality inspiring calming absence negative feelings social experience tactile experience competence autonomy vitality self esteem supportive relationships competence autonomy positive feelings
View conclusions the heritage in hospitals research has described the types of engagement and wellbeing benefits possible from a museum intervention in a healthcare context
View the session recordings patient interviews and research field note observations showed that once patient participants were engaged museum objects provided unique and idiosyncratic routes to stimulation and distraction
View the data showed that patients used the heritage objects combined with tailored and easy social interaction sensory stimulus and learning opportunities to tap into concerns about identity emotions energy levels and motivation
View participants reactions to handling museum objects gave an insight into why heritage objects in particular rather than pictures or non-heritage objects produce engagement feelings positive and negative and wellbeing benefits
View interesting completely different and yet able to reach into participants previous experiences knowledge and skills museum sessions quickly drew people into the objects in some cases and in doing so drew people out of their illness and environment
View the multi-centre research also showed that a museum handling session is a versatile and accessible tool to improve wellbeing for long and short term patients and sufferers of mental and physical ill health alike
View further work needs to be undertaken to assess how far improved wellbeing as a result of object handling is sustained and sustaining for patients
View the heritage in hospitals project provides a model for museum work to enhance wellbeing in health care settings
View there is further work to be done to make health and wellbeing a mainstream part of museum programming but with more projects like heritage in hospitals running and more funders interested in health and wellbeing this type of outreach work may well be seen on many museums programming plans and is a powerful way of providing access to previously excluded audiences
View given the future funding landscape and the changing emphasis towards to individual health and wellbeing across social policy the heritage in hospitals project and others like it indicate that the heritage sector has a significant role to play in improving health and wellbeing
View as outlined in chatterjee et al heritage has the potential to play a transitional and transformational role in healthcare and wellbeing
View Theories of cognitive reserve, disuse syndrome and stress have suggested that activities that are mentally engaging, enjoyable and socially interactive could be protective against the development of dementia
View Using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, this study shows that for adults aged 50 and older visiting museums every few months or more was associated with a lower incidence rate of dementia over a 10-year follow-up period compared with less-frequent visiting
View consequently activities that are mentally engaging enjoyable stress-reducing and socially interactive could be protective against the development of dementia and in light of this there has been a call for the identification of more affordable multi- modal public health interventions to decrease the risk of demen- tia for individuals
View a multimodal activity that combines a number of protective factors including intellectual stimulation light physical activity positive affect relaxation and social engagement through interaction with staff fellow visitors or friends is visiting museums art galleries and exhibitions hereafter referred to as museums
View the inclusion of further confounders such as health-related variables and other forms of community engagement had very little effect on results suggesting that the association between visiting museums and dementia onset is independent of factors such as sensory impair- ment depression and vascular conditions and separate from multiple further types of community social engagement
View the com- bined neural and sensory stimulation and cognitive engagement provided by museums make attendance a potential cultural intervention for increasing or maintaining cognitive reserve
View further visiting museums can be seen as a specific type of social engagement: visiting can reduce per- ceived isolation by encouraging people to leave their homes it is an activity that is frequently a focal point for meeting family/friends and even if people attend alone there is casual social contact with museum staff and/or other visitors
View We provide an experimental evaluation of the impact of aesthetic experiences in terms of stress reduction and wellbeing increase
View In addition, a sample of their saliva has been taken, and its cortisol level measured, before and after the experience, and likewise for momentary wellbeing measured on a Visual Analogous Scale
View Subjects reported an average increase of 40% in wellbeing and a decrease of the 60% in the cortisol level
View to the current state of knowledge the channels through which arts and culture participation affects human biology are almost unknown with partial exceptions such as the characterization of the neural pathways through which music affects the brain and allows rehabilitation sarkamo et al
View in this experimental study we make a further step in the direction of the identification of actual physiological mechanisms through which arts and culture participation and in particular their aesthetic dimension goldman affect human health and well-being and relieve stressfocusing in particular on visual art experiences in a strongly characterized cultural heritage environment
View effects and it has been found that music listening causes a reduction in stress levels with a relevant mediating role of the social context linnemann et al
View these results provide a medium-specific elaboration of by now classical evidence konlaan bygren and johansson of the positive effects of physical exercise and cultural participation on the levels of blood lipids blood pressure and prolactin and of the possible pathways of the positive influences of participating in cultural activities via stress reduction that decreases the oxidative dna damage and the formation of -hydrox-ydeoxygua- nosine whose high levels tend to be associated to increased susceptibility to diseases
View ninety per cent of participants registered a remarkable improvement of their wellbeing after the experience
View ninety-five per cent of participants registered a reduction of salivary cortisol after the experience
View the average trend shows a parallel decrease in cortisol values and an increase in wellbeing levels
View tables and list the linear correlation values between factors that are positively related to wellbeing response and cortisol response respectively
View in particular subjective wellbeing response is significantly correlated to high cultural participation whereas cortisol response to low cultural participation
View in other words those who start from high cortisol values and low vas ie the most stressed out wellbeing deprived subjects manifest higher response in cortisol reduction and wellbeing gain
View it seems therefore that intense cultural participation trains the body to a favorable neurobiological response to cultural stimuli
View moreover cortisol responders are strongly associated also to no distress and even wellbeing response and to a lesser extent to lack of religiosity
View on the other hand female gender is more associated to cortisol response whereas male gender to wellbeing response
View auto-cm analysis therefore provides us with a relatively clear profiling of the main characteristics behind both cortisol and wellbeing response and in turn with an equally clear profiling of the characteristics that drive effective versus failed response in both domains
View the aim of the present study was investigating the effect of a highly connoted visual aesthetical experience in terms of certain types of biological stress reduction and psychological wellbeing enhancement responses
View we have found that the chosen experience has significant impacts on both wellbeing and cortisol levels and that such impacts are modulated by specific sets of variables in ways that are consistent with other although still partial and fragmentary results from related literature
View in particular we find that levels of cultural participation modulate cortisol response and also although less directly wellbeing response
View another interesting finding is the preferential association between cortisol response and women versus wellbeing response and men
View likewise although this result is more intuitive for the relationship between wellbeing response and the presence of a moderate pathological state with absence of pathologies and more generally a high baseline wellbeing level as a strong factor of wellbeing non-responsea result that makes a powerful case for a cultural welfare twist in future cultural policies aimed at improving citizens cultural participation by suitably designing specific programs in cultural institutions that target specific physical and mental health issues mckeown et al
View the low correlation between cortisol and wellbeing response moreover makes it clear that the reduction of cortisol is not due as a first instance to a concurrent improvement in wellbeing
View elucidate the role of the selective activation of the prefrontal area in humans during the perception of objects that have been rated as beautiful by subjects
View however recent research has found analogous mechanisms associated to visual stimuli and in particular to the joint activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the striatum as markers of wellbeing enhancement and lower cortisol heller et al
View on the basis of our findings it could be that less educated samples could experience a less significant cortisol reduction or wellbeing improvement from aesthetic experiences
View heritage tourism is one of the most significant and fastest- growing segments of the tourism industry as tourists become increasingly more interested in consuming heritage jimura
View despite the importance of understanding residents swb in heritage tourism empirical tourism research is lacking on an integrative model that can illustrate the key factors influencing residents swb and examine the differential effects of residents swb on their support for tourism
View in the circumstances of tourism perdue long and kang indicate the influences of community safety social changes community involvement crowding changes local political influence and job opportunity changes on residents cognitive well-being in gaming tourism
View social environment is the local social space surrounding one s life repetti
View residents social environment positively influences their subjective well-being by positively inuencing a cognitive well- being and b affective well-being
View residents perceived positive tourism impact positively in- fluences their subjective well-being by positively inuencing a cognitive well-being and b affective well-being
View residents perceived negative tourism impact negatively influences their subjective well-being by negatively inuencing a cognitive well-being and b affective well-being
View ridderstaat croes and nijkamp indicate a bilateral relationship between tourism development and residents swb: tourism development influences residents swb and the impact of residents swb on tourism development appears to affect their support for tourism
View residents perceived economic status was found to positively impact residents cognitive well-being and affective well-being
View sense of community demonstrated a significant posi- tive effect on residents cognitive wellbeing
View residents perceived social environment affected their cognitive wellbeing and affective well-being
View positive tourism impact marginally affected residents affective well-being
View residents sense of community promotes their cognitive swb
View a higher sense of community comprising of sense of belonging autonomy and proudness of living in the community contributes to residents positive cognitive well-being
View social environment significantly affects both cognitive and af- fective components of residents swb
View residents experience more positive affect when they perceive tourism as having positive impacts on the local community
View tourism has helped to increase the standard of living improve local infra- structure and promote local culture and crafts
View with lijiang s tourism development reaching the maturing stage residents perceived positive tourism impact might display a less salient effect on their swb than residents in a growing tourism destination
View higher cognitive well-being and more positive affects reinforce residents support for tourism
View the findings illustrate how each factor influences residents swb demonstrate the relative importance of each factor in explaining residents swb and show the critical role of residents swb in predicting their support for tourism
View in many developing countries and re- gions endowed with natural and cultural heritage sites tourism is touted as a smokeless industry that stimulates economic growth without environmental pollution
View a visit to the van eesteren museum is indeed unlike most other museum experiences in that both the indoor museum and the museum apartment have a homey atmosphere that makes them look and feel almost like a community kitchen as conveyed by the initial vignette while the outdoor museum is the neighbourhood itself
View A growing body of research into the social role and impact of museums suggests that engagement with the concepts of social inclusion and exclusion will require museums - and the profession and sector as a whole - to radically rethink their purposes and goals and to renegotiate their relationship to, and role within, society
View a growing body of research into the social role and impact of museums suggests that engagement with the concepts of social inclusion and exclusion will require museums - and the profession and sector as a whole - to radically rethink their purposes and goals and to renegotiate their relationship to and role within society
View at a community level museums can act as a catalyst for social regeneration empowering communities to increase their self-determination and develop the confidence and skills to take greater control over their lives and the development of the neighbourhoods in which they live
View as agents of individual community and societal change museums have demonstrated their potential to contribute towards the combating of issues such as poor health high crime low educational attainment and unemployment
View a shift towards a more outward looking audience-focused sector is evidenced in a variety of ways; the widespread adoption of the language around inclusion in museum policy increased research activity and increasing attention to the issues through conferences seminars and considerable coverage and debate within the pages of professional journals
View alongside the pronouncement of new government expectations made explicit in their policy guidance research findings have further fuelled the debate presenting empirical evidence of the impact of museums on disadvantage and social inequality
View secondly the publicising of museums contributions to inclusion will serve to increase awareness of the social role and contribution of museums both within and outside of the sector to advocate the benefits of an inclusive approach and to reward those achieving within this area through recognition
View for many this democratisation of the museum and the resultant sharing of power resources skills and knowledge between museum and audience challenges the very notion of the museum professional as expert
View figure suggests that a virtuous circle of diversity can be created through the adoption and implementation of positive action initiatives in recruitment participatory approaches to collecting and programming and targeted approaches to audience development
View latest approaches for the management of heritage in landscapes have emphasized the important role of communities in re-accepting responsibility for conservation initiatives veldpaus and roders enabling the preservation of local values through participatory approaches ragozino
View what is more empirical studies have showed that enhancing sense of place is in turn important for the socially sustainable development of revitalization projects yung and chan ; liu and cheung making it key element for successful heritage projects with place-making elements
View the review shows that themes such as equity poverty alleviation and livelihoods support are increasingly complemented by more intangible and less measurable concepts such as identity sense of place participation and access social capital social cohesion the benefits of social networks happiness and quality of life polse and stren as in kwan esther yung and wan edwin chan
View as such it shows a diverse perspective on social sustainability
View accounting for social cohesion and sense of belonging to community
View perceptions: sense of belonging to community trust and supportive relationships with other communities and institutions social cohesion social inclusion sense of place -place identity dependency and attachment
View our research suggests an approach that comprises of four stages connecting data collection and analysis: identify project types participation typologies and map stakeholders community profiling and social needs analysis identify heritage values and assess changes and analyze social impacts and assess significance
View participants also provided information on perceptions by referring to the specific projects they participated in offering more anchored views about specific heritage sites type of activities learning outcomes and further engagement with the projects
View they referred repeatedly to heritage as an inspiration for creativity relating it to the rich cultural context of orkney and heritage as a secondary public good pointing out issues of inclusion and accessibility to everyone to benefit in terms of knowledge and personal development
View perceptions of heritages role for local sustainable development
View heritage as social benefit -heritage centers as community centers heritage activities as opportunities to deal with mental health cultural institutions as supporting groups for events perceptions of the role and contribution of heritage for socially sustainable development: heritage to support economic development: heritage to support economy based on services and tourism; and heritage to tackle issue of seasonality in interests
View heritage that can sustain place intersects both with social and economic aspects : heritage promotion as place branding as a destination; heritage interpretation rediscovered personal history and connection with place that sustains population; and heritage protection as natural environment and landscape protection
View heritage participation: from values to impact variables and developing indicators
View to capture indirect impacts to livelihoods questions captured also perceptions of the role and contribution of heritage for socially sustainable development referring to interaction of heritage values with sustainable livelihoods covering social sustainability and extending to values stemming from use of heritage outputs
View a direct impacts individual level: social well-being direct impacts: individual level social well-being become part of a social group belonging social capital bridging and bonding make new friends and socialize fight isolation and increase mental health mental health skills for daily use-recreation increase sense of ownership of place and heritage sense of belonging to place/ sense of identity skills for job market knowledge education and personal development create new professional networks awareness about historic evolution development learn more about heritage-increase excitement self-motivation/self-direction abilities won self-empowerment and confidence find life orientation-goals personal satisfaction and pride for service offered b direct impacts community level social well-being: social cohesion direct impacts: community level social well-being increase inclusion of newcomers in community roles social capital bridging /inclusion increase bonding and empowerment via team work social capital bonding /social cohesion intra-generation links mingle with other island residents social capital linking sense of belonging to community collective empowerment unlock potentials for self-enclosed groups c indirect impacts for wider community of place via use of outputs heritage centers utilized as community centers and poles of interest indirect impacts enhanced sense of belonging to group sustained population by supporting access to place enhanced community and place bonds heritage protection projects accountable to community providing further spatial development opportunities increase sense of ownership through recognition of uniqueness of place/identity the impact nodes were grouped into three core categories reflecting different levels of social impacts: individual-level social well-being: volunteering in heritage was pictured by interviewees as providing self-esteem and sense of duty or life orientation to individuals
View finally the benefits of new entrepreneurial and innovative management models used in heritage like social enterprise or cooperative management see ragozino for local development can be proved and their further application in the sector can be encouraged through the use of sia
View To assess psychological wellbeing in a novel social prescription intervention for older adults called Museums on Prescription and to explore the extent of change over time in six self-rated emotions
View Conclusion: Museums can be instrumental in offering museum-based programmes for older adults to improve psychological wellbeing over time
View Participants in the study experienced a sense of privilege, valued the opportunity to liaise with curators, visit parts of the museum closed to the public and handle objects normally behind glass
View Participants appreciated opportunities afforded by creative and co-productive activities to acquire learning and skills, and get to know new people in a different context
View public health england phe stated that communities both place-based and where people share a common identity or affinity have a vital contribution to make in health and wellbeing and that the assets within communities such as the skills and knowledge social networks and community organisations are building blocks for good health p
View social prescribing aligns with local and national agendas to improve health and wellbeing and reduce health inequalities because it is patient-centred; not just what the nhs can do; it is a conduit for involving patients in their community and opening the channels between service sectors p
View nhs england has identified social prescribing as a key means by which patients can benefit from wider provision; voluntary sector organisations in particular play a vital role in assisting the work of general practice in providing access to community-based practical support and help for specific groups such as carers
View in the united kingdom wellbeing has been actively integrated into museum programming to target vulnerable audiences including mental health service users people with dementia stroke survivors and people with physical disability
View research has shown that museum spaces and the collections they house provide opportunities for positive social interactions calming experiences learning and acquisition of new skills leading to increased self-esteem sense of identity inspiration and opportunities for meaning making in addition to reduced social isolation and decreased anxiety
View in a study of hospital patients and care home residents a mixed-methods framework was used to assess the impact of min museum object handling sessions on participants using pre-post session measures of psychological and subjective wellbeing alongside qualitative analysis of session recordings
View quantitative measures showed significant increases in participant wellness and happiness scores
View qualitative analysis revealed that patients used the heritage objects combined with tailored and easy social interaction sensory stimulus and learning opportunities to tap into concerns about identity emotions energy levels and motivation pp
View furthermore the role and value of museums in contributing to wellbeing or wellness agendas was seen to merit broader exploration to reflect on the fit with a wider healthcare landscape of social prescribing and other key health priorities p
View a qualitative study of older adult group discussion of contemporary art found that participants existing cultural and social capital was affected by their initial engagement subsequent relationships and development throughout the three gallery visits of the intervention
View qualitative evaluation of an art gallery intervention with people with dementia found that the setting was seen as valued special and somewhere different it provided intellectual stimulation in terms of engagement with art as a universal interest; offered opportunities for social inclusion carer respite and support; and positively affected public perceptions of people with dementia
View the intervention helped foster social inclusion and social engagement enhance the relationship between carers and people with dementia and stimulate cognitive processes of attention and concentration
View social inclusion is an important outcome in museum interventions as decrease in social isolation is a key contributor to wellbeing in older adults and social engagement remains a critical effects of a museum-based social prescription intervention on quantitative measures of psychological wellbeing in older adults determinant of physical health into late adulthood
View evidence shows that participatory arts in older age groups can challenge ideas of decline re-connect people to communities and target health needs that threaten wellbeing
View a -year trial of a participatory arts activity that assigned older adults and over to either the intervention group choral singing or comparison group usual activity found higher positive effects for the intervention group in self-ratings of physical health eg fewer doctor visits less medication use fewer falls activity level morale and loneliness in contrast with the comparison group that demonstrated a significant decline
View traditional models of successful ageing propose the interdependence of multi- dimensional components such as the low probability of disease and disability maintenance of high cognitive and physical function and sustained engagement with social and productive activities
View a recent study of adaptive ageing in oldest-old adults octogenarians and centenarians noted that this model failed to take into account the influence of subjective wellbeing
View the study suggested that positive affect was directly determined by social resources such as the intensity of social interactions and indirectly affected by cognitive functioning and education
View the reported study was a museum- based intervention that aimed to offer -week programmes of engaging creative and socially interactive sessions of around h each comprising curator talks behind-the-scenes tours object handling and discussion and arts activities inspired by the exhibits
View the mwm-oa assesses psychological wellbeing as an indicator of the mental state of the individual and although there are other aspects of wellbeing such as physical and social wellbeing the measure focuses on levels of self-reported changes in six emotions found to be aspects of wellbeing more likely to change as a result of a relatively short intervention such as participating in a museum or gallery activity
View findings showed that two emotions enlightened and absorbed were responsible for the effect of the interaction and increased more pre-post-session than the other four emotions
View for physiological measures comparison of repeated tests across time has led to an awareness of the level of change constituting a clinically meaningful difference but with health-related quality- of-life measures such as wellbeing the meaning of change is less intuitively apparent not only because it has no familiar units but also because health professionals seldom use quality of life measures in clinical practice p
View described social capital outcomes as bonding between participants bridging between participants and group leaders and linking between participants art educators or researchers
View when interviewed many participants highlighted the opportunity to handle museum objects and engage with collections and curators; they commented on learning new information and being absorbed by it and acquiring new skills which could account for increases in the absorbed and enlightened items of the measure
View it has been argued that when individuals interact with museums and their collections it is the intrinsic physical and material properties of the objects they encounter that trigger memories projections sensory emotional and cognitive associations
View museum objects may function as symbols for aspects of peoples lives such as identity relationships nature society and religion; these symbolic and meaning-making properties could account for their therapeutic potential; and the physical cognitive and emotional interactions elicited by these multiencountered for one or two sessions
View previous authors have shown that high levels of social resources have a direct effect on positive affect and physical health whereas cognitive functioning and education have an indirect effect on positive affect
View the social resources engendered by the museum-based programme directly increased the positive affect demonstrated by significant improvements in the wellbeing emotions and it is likely that physical health for some participants will also improve; one participant reported that since taking part in the museum programme they felt more positive about my life and health and more determined to keep up my practice of photography and painting that required a level of physical fitness as the participant had formed a meet-up group to go sketching in and around a contemporary art gallery
View in terms of developmental adaptation participants seemed keen to share their ideas memories and past experiences pre-post session changes in emotions over programme which they tended to express in a positive light with reference to learning curves and knowing better next time
View the happy museum project for example sought to demonstrate the qualities that cultural institutions can foster in terms of institutional and communal wellbeing and resilience in the face of global challenges
View it is interesting therefore to consider the potential economic impact of culturally oriented social prescribing programmes such as museums on prescription specifically in terms of health and wellbeing but also for community regeneration and forging a more equable society
View museums can be instrumental in offering older adult activities that improve psychological wellbeing and may lead to long-term outcomes such as sustained social capital and enhanced physical health
View although geographically extensive and carried out over years each museum-based programme was relatively short term at weeks and a rolling programme of older adult activities needs to be implemented to examine sustained effects on health and wellbeing over several years
View participants in the museums on prescription study rated highly the experiences of feeling absorbed and enlightened by the sessions and commented on the opportunities afforded by the museum-based activities to acquire new learning and develop new skills
View the high levels of significance and effect sizes in the study infer that findings can be generalised more widely to other populations of vulnerable and lonely older adults at risk of social isolation and imply that provision of socially prescribed museum-based sessions could be scaled up nationally to address social and cultural inequities
View the reported study contributes to a wider body of evidence on how cultural engagement can bring about positive outcomes for older adults at risk of social exclusion by improving positive emotion; it is likely that this occurs through creative processes involving new learning and acquisition of skills and the formation of social capital through co-productivity exchange of ideas and enhanced sense of community and belonging
View The intervention involved weekly outreach sessions using heritage activities such as object handling and museum visits as inspiration for creative responses through a variety of media
View The research used an asset-based approach focused on participant strength and potential, nurtured and enhanced through museum activities
View the study examined the effects of museum outreach sessions on confidence sociability and well-being measures for mental health n and addiction recovery n service-users taking an asset-based approach and research design
View conclusions: creative museum activities showed increases in participant levels of confidence sociability and well- being
View provide a positive social experience reducing social isolation;
View elicit an emotional response that encourages positive feelings such as optimism hope and enjoyment;
View findings draw upon a longer tradition of arts in health research which includes evidence showing how active participation in activities such as music-making creative writing and visual arts can have a measurable impact on physical and mental well-being for reviews see royal society for public health ; staricoff ; stuckey & nobel
View practice-based studies of heritage-in-health interventions have shown how object handling sessions with hospital patients led to improvements in quality of life measures chatterjee vreeland & noble and psychological well-being and happiness thomson et al
View gallery studies have demonstrated the therapeutic role of viewing art in supporting family carers of people with chronic mental ill health roberts et al
View the intervention involved weekly outreach sessions using heritage activities such as object handling and museum visits as inspiration for creative responses through a variety of media
View the ways in which individuals relate to social networks and communities have important effects on peoples health and well-being and social isolation and loneliness can have a negative impact on physical and mh holt-lunstad smith & layton
View recovery-oriented practice in mh and addiction services share many common elements such as a person-centred and long- term approach and like the asset-based model they focus on strengthening individual factors eg confidence well-being and motivation and community support networks granfield & cloud
View in the context of arts and health holt and kaiser showed how viewing and discussing art can motivate patients with addiction issues to change
View in a qualitative study reynolds showed how engaging in creative needlecraft built a sense of achievement self-esteem and confidence which helped participants with depression to manage low moods although conclusions need to be interpreted with caution as diagnosis was ascertained via self- report
View ar participants identified their confidence as deriving from having tried something new and that museum outreach sessions provided an environment where participants could try a new activity without fear of embarrassment
View participants identified new things about specific museum objects and local history
View interestingly activities brought back childhood memories for three participants bringing creativity and a sense of play back into their adult lives: remembering creating mats when i was young and using them as blankets
View the findings suggested that museum activities that are developed within an asset-based model like the current study can contribute to increasing individual social capital for mh and ar service-users
View although it has been suggested that within therapeutic intervention it is the social interaction that is key simmons museum object handling research showed that the presence of objects and the act of touching were central in enhancing intervention benefits paddon et al
View overall this preliminary study contributes to understanding how museum activities can make a positive contribution to recovery for mh and ar service-users by evidencing the effects of museum sessions on confidence sociability and well-being
View the mixed-method data showed that participant levels of confidence sociability and well- being improved over the course of the museum sessions though it is not clear to what extent the nature of the museum-focused activities or participation in a collaborative creative process produced gains above that of being part of a group
View as a non-clinical intervention the programme showed that museum outreach sessions developed within an asset-based model have the potential to contribute to positive outcomes linked to the recovery service-users in mh and addiction services
View reviews of arts-in-health interventions staricoff indicate positive therapeutic and medical outcomes including reduced stress anxiety depression and blood pressure
View a gallery intervention for people with mild-to-moderate dementia eeckelaar camic & springham exploring art-viewing-art-making on prepost cognitive measures showed enhanced episodic memory but inconclusive findings for verbal flu- ency
View it was hypothesized that pre post comparisons would demonstrate enhanced well-being increase in positive emotion wellness and happiness; decrease in negative emotion across settings
View both female facilitators postdoctoral psychologist and postgraduate museum profes- sional received health and safety training infection control from london hospital and object handling from university museum and obtained disclosure and barring service dbs clearance
View psychiatric participants showed the largest reduction in negative panas moderate gains in vas wellness and greater gains in vas happiness
View reported museum sessions gave depressive or anxious participants an additional focus to wondering about their discharge date a finding that could account for increase in happiness but not lack of improvement in positive well-being so alternatively duration of stay was explored
View studies but analysis of audio recordings implied similar cognitive gains of enhanced confidence social interaction and learning
View there has been growing interest from both local and cen- tral government within britain at least into the impact of cul- tural activities upon health and wellbeing over the last few years windsor ; oneill ; cameron and a planned inquiry into britains national wellbeing will presumably include museums and galleries within the cultural activities investigated
View while viewing art has been shown to influence physical sen- sations berleant such as decreasing the perceived inten- sity of painful stimuli de tommaso sardaro & livrea and higher scores of life satisfaction and health status reported by hospital patients after a handling session with museum objects chatterjee vreeland & noble within this research unless stated otherwise when wellbeing is discussed it is in rela- tion to mental wellbeing
View improvements of positive affect which boost mental wellbeing in general can also improve cognitive process- es such as problem solving and social interaction ashby et al
View while research conducted within non-museum environments has illustrated that art and museum artefacts can influence per- ceived wellbeing both physical and mental de tommaso et al
View the stai has been used extensively within other areas of research such as to examine the impact of stress and anxiety upon learning and performance and provides a measure of the partici- pants current state of anxiety sai as well as their trait level of anxiety tai which shows what they consider normal for them- selves spielberger
View participant reported in both sessions that his initial anxiety state before viewing the art was higher than what he would consider normal tai but in both sessions he reported a decrease in his current level of anxi- ety to below his trait level
View although there was not a significant change in the level of anxiety experienced after viewing the artworks with the excep- tion of participant all participants in each session experienced a reduction in anxiety
View it was also suggested that wellbeing was a long term feeling rather than an immediate emotive type reaction
View participants from all three groups agreed that it was and several also stated that it was likely to incorporate other factors such as personality expectations prior experiences and knowledge how visitors felt that day as well as methods of display interpretation and the state of upkeep of the museum building
View this positive experience for museums and art gallery visitors suggests that as well as being seen as educational or enjoyable places to visit that the well-known idea that they are spaces of calm within a busy world can be true and as such museums and art galleries can be seen as places beneficial to personal wellbeing
View This study aims to identify the social role of heritage conservation in urban renewal
View heritage conservation can enrich people s under- standing of their community english heritage
View through public involvement social networks and cohesion can be developed
View conservation of heritage sites can help develop the place- specic character of urban regions swensen and improve the physical conditions of the environment while maintaining and enhancing local life and culture and the uniqueness of a place strange & whitney
View the heritage conservation projects have inevitably destroyed social networks and the sense of community
View it is a district with rich cultural traditions and heritage buildings
View the survey helped to provide valuable insight into the social effects of heritage conservation in urban renewal districts
View this factor consists of eight items related to enhancing social interaction and social networks
View in addition the revitalized heritage buildings can help people continue their daily social lives
View this factor mainly concerns public awareness of local heritage and traditional industries
View more programmes and activities should be generated after revitalization and the diversity of community life enhanced
View moreover feelings of attachment help inhabitants nd their roots and strengthen their sense of local identity belonging and security
View in addition better accessibility to heritage buildings could elicit better public participation
View moreover as part of the urban renewal strategy promoting public awareness of local heritage and the preservation of traditional industries is essential for achieving more successful heritage conservation
View third promote public aware- ness of local heritage and traditional industries through better public education such as organizing guided tours workshops and exhibitions to showcase the histories of the heritage buildings and traditional businesses in the districts
View with the implementation of responsive policies and the orga- nization of community events and activities heritage conservation can enhance social interaction and social networks enrich collec- tive memory and create cultural identity cultural diversity and sense of community
View throsby interprets cultural heritages as local public goods that generate positive spillover effects through their esthetic authentic and historical values which are intrinsic to their location
View our findings indicate that several local level predictors play an important role in explaining growth in human capital
View Aims: To assess the biopsychosocial effects of participation in a unique, combined arts- and nature-based museum intervention, involving engagement with horticulture, artmaking and museum collections, on adult mental health service users
View The study used an exploratory sequential mixed methods design comprising two phases Phase 1 : qualitative research investigating the views of participants through semi-structured interviews and diaries and Phase 2 : quantitative research informed by Phase 1 analysing psychological wellbeing data from participants who completed the UCL Museum Wellbeing Measure prepost programme
View Results: Inductive thematic analysis of Phase 1 interview data revealed increased feelings of wellbeing brought about by improved self-esteem, decreased social isolation and the formation of communities of practice
View Statistical analysis of prepost quantitative measures in Phase 2 found a highly significant increase in psychological wellbeing
View Conclusion: Creative green prescription programmes, using a combination of arts- and nature-based activities, present distinct synergistic benefits that have the potential to make a significant impact on the psychosocial wellbeing of adult mental health service users
View Museums with parks and gardens should consider integrating programmes of outdoor and indoor collections-inspired creative activities permitting combined engagement with nature, art and wellbeing
View The Academys mission is to develop and advance social prescribing to promote health and wellbeing at local and national levels
View Other high impact actions related to social prescribing include active signposting that provides patients with a first point of contact to direct them to an appropriate source of help such as web and app-based portals and supporting people to play a greater role in their own health
View Arts on Prescription has a long history in the UK and the evidence base continues to grow demonstrating a range of psychosocial outcomes that include supporting mental health recovery; combatting social isolation for people with mild to moderate anxiety and depression; as well as increased levels of empowerment and improved quality of life
View A review of Arts on Prescription studies illustrated a body of evidence indicating that participation in creative activities can promote health and wellbeing quality of life levels of empowerment and social inclusion and positively impact people with mental ill-health
View There is also good evidence to show that creative engagement in museums supports health and wellbeing quality of life social inclusion and lifelong learning
View An extensive Museums on Prescription study that carried out -week programmes of museum-based sessions in seven central London and Kent museums with participants found significant wellbeing improvements
View Another type of social prescribing green prescription where outdoor spaces are used to improve health and wellbeing is beginning to gain momentum with a potential for impact across the life span
View The review found that a key characteristic of nature-based health interventions is that a single intervention can potentially improve wellbeing across a range of domains
View Nature prescriptions can promote physical activity leading to positive health outcomes while contact with nature can have an additional restorative effect on mental wellbeing
View The evidence included reduced symptoms of depression and anxiety and a range of self-reported benefits across emotional social physical occupational and spiritual aspects of the lives of mental health service-users
View Qualitative studies further consolidate understanding of the psychotherapeutic mechanisms for how nature prescriptions can impact wellbeing and mental health in particular
View In addition as meaningful activities with opportunities for knowledge and skills developments nature-based interventions help to consolidate selfreliance and bolster self-esteem; factors known to improve individual psychosocial wellbeing
View The current UK-based study utilised the trend by museums and art galleries starting to use their outdoor spaces with a wider focus on wellbeing activities
View The aim of this study was to explore the health and wellbeing outcomes derived from engagement in a combined programme of horticulture and creative arts-based activities
View Phase used a quantitative within participants design with an independent variable of pre- and post-intervention and dependent variable of psychological wellbeing score on the UCL Museum Wellbeing Measure specifically the positive generic wellbeing measure with high reliability
View Materials Materials included the participant information leaflet consent form museum activity schedule interview protocol weekly diaries with guideline questions and the UCL Museum Wellbeing Measure a positive mood scale where participants rate each of six mood items on a -point scale
View Decreasing social isolation Another effect of the intervention was related to enabling participants to gain motivation and a positive reason to leave their homes
View Participants felt that the intervention gave them routine and structure with an opportunity to engage positively with others which in turn decreased the sense of social isolation and was felt to support wellbeing and the potential of recovery
View Or even maintaining wellbeing interacting with others
View Descriptive statistics showed that mean total scores for wellbeing increased postintervention compared with preintervention
View DISCUSSION The aim of the study was to explore the health and wellbeing outcomes derived from a combined programme of naturebased horticulture and arts-based responses to museum collections as part of a creative green prescription
View Although mental wellbeing was not mentioned explicitly by all participants most of the themes they expressed had positive outcomes with many related to improvements in quality of life and individual psychological wellbeing; consequently it was appropriate to use the positive mood UCL Museum Wellbeing Measure for Phase of the study
View Furthermore support for selfesteem and allied confidence agency ability and sense of purpose are theorised to improve individual psychosocial wellbeing
View It was interesting that all of the six mood items on the Wellbeing Measure increased significantly after the -week programme particularly Excited and Inspired that linked into the overall creative and outdoor experience of the intervention
View Active also contributed to overall wellbeing which could be related to the physical elements of the programme in particular the outdoor horticultural activities
View As a creative green prescription for adults with mental health issues this study focused on engagement with a dual arts- and nature-based intervention and found predominantly positive biopsychosocial outcomes
View Given the positive improvements for the two groups of participants in this study held in a museum with adjacent parkland it appears that green prescriptions combining creative arts- and naturebased activities have the potential to significantly impact the lives of adult mental health service users
View Museums with outdoor spaces need to recognise the health wellbeing and quality of life benefits in green prescribing and the opportunities for combining creative outdoor and indoor activities using their spaces and collections
View Further research exploring interconnections between creativity arts nature health and wellbeing outcomes is warranted to fully explain the dual and potentially synergistic benefits of creative arts and green prescriptions
View The rooms moved forward in time in a loose chronology implicitly tied to phases of scientific discovery including the identification of the HIV virus through to the development of effective medical treatments as the posters shift in emphasis from warning of a deadly disease to depicting people living with HIV
View Economics inequality in sexual relationships social marginalisation mental health and addiction issues poor nutrition low levels of education lack of access to services or a safe place to live all contribute to the risk factors for contracting the virus as well as the impact this will have on an individuals health and wellbeing
View Archivists and curators institutionalise remembering and forgetting by accessioning objects and transforming them into heritage
View Notably the extent to which older adults perceive their lives as meaningful and purposeful has been robustly linked with extended longevity improved physical and mental health and social engagement
View Across art forms increasing evidence suggests that engagement with arts-based activities can contribute to multiple aspects of experienced evaluative and eudaimonic well-being such as enriched experience enjoyment meaning bonding and aesthetic appreciation
View Both forms of engagement often difficult to delineate clearly in real life are believed to provide unique individual encounters with the arts which can inspire; aid exploration and expression of ones identity emotions and talents; facilitate social interaction; and provide a temporary escape rest and catharsis
View Repeated Engagement Experienced and evaluative well-being In the fully adjusted models there was no difference in experienced and evaluative well-being outcomes between participants who reported repeated engagement in any of the arts activities and those who reported no or infrequent arts engagement at all waves
View Sustained Engagement Experienced well-being In the fully adjusted model sustained engagement with the theater/concerts/opera compared with no or infrequent engagement at all waves was associated with higher odds of maximum score of positive affect
View The findings therefore suggest that although receptive arts engagement is associated with well-being in older adults the evidence for the association over time across the activities is the most robust when engagement is sustained
View This finding is in line with a previous study that linked both sustained cultural inactivity and decreasing cultural engagement to the same level of risk of impaired selfreported health and suggested that continued frequent engagement may be necessary for lasting health promotion
View Nonetheless evidence from previous small-scale intervention studies suggests that older adults consider regular participation in creative activities a good means of staying cognitively stimulated as well as seeing them as a purposeful occupation and enriching daily routines
View This is consistent with a previous prospective study linking baseline levels of engagement with music art and theater to enhanced happiness levels years later and in line with intervention studies reporting increases in older adults subjective experiences of pleasure enjoyment and other positive emotions as a result of music-and museum-based interventions
View In relation to eudaimonic well-being we found sustained and repeated arts engagement with galleries/exhibitions/ museums and theater/concerts/opera was associated with increased control/autonomy and self-realization
View These findings are in agreement with intervention studies that suggest that participating in creative and musical activities can foster feelings of control and autonomy as well as providing an opportunity for personal growth and engaging in challenging simulating activities
View For instance participatory musical activities have been previously described to help increase and maintain social cognitive and physical independence in older age through among other factors the physical activity involved in participating in them
View In addition we identified demographic socioeconomic health and social engagement differences in arts engagement profiles
View Finally with some preliminary evidence suggesting that arts-based activities and cultural spaces such as galleries and museums may help older adults to decrease feelings of loneliness and to facilitate positive social interactions future studies should examine these associations further with a particular focus on loneliness and social isolation which are known risk factors for low well-being in older adults
View Conclusion Frequent visits to galleries exhibitions museums the theater concerts or the opera sustained over the majority of a -year time span are associated with increases in experienced evaluative and eudaimonic well-being specifically positive affect life satisfaction perceptions of control/au-tonomy over ones life and self-realization
View The A-Health RCT study provides an opportunity to confirm the benefits of a participatory art-based museum activity on the elderly population and to show the key role played by museums in public health promotion
View Background Participation in creative art activities has been receiving increased interest in the past decade [ ]
View Art-based activities help patients regardless of their disease to build a sense of self transforming the illness experience into a positive experience and improving patients well-being and quality of life [-]
View Wellbeing is positively associated with quality of life and physical health benefits including a decreased risk for disease speedier disease recovery and increased longevity [-]
View In parallel it has been found that art-based activities are positively associated with numerous aspects of individuals physical health like a better immune system response and slower disease progression with these effects being related to well-being improvement [ -]
View Frailty which is used to classify the health condition of older adults and their ability to respond to an intervention is a condition of vulnerability related to an accumulation of morbidities and exposing individuals to incident adverse health events which increase health and social costs [-]
View With a pre-post intervention single arm prospective and longitudinal design we showed that the MMFAs participatory art-based activity improved the well-being quality of life and frailty of older community dwellers in Montreal
View Art therapy is a non-pharmacological approach to improving well-being and quality of life used in patients with cancer neuropsychiatric diseases and physical disabilities []
View In the past decade the field of art therapy has undergone a shift toward novel application art-based activities benefiting individuals other than patients with obvious health and wellness needs and expanding settings to include museums [ ]
View There is growing evidence that art-based activities have positive benefits for patients such as improvements in self-esteem confidence and mood [ ]
View In contrast when compared to those performed in patients there is a limited number of studies showing that participatory art-based activities may improve wellbeing and/or quality of life either in older adults in residential care facilities or in community-dwelling older adults in relatively good health [ ]
View Our previous study Art-Health showed for the first time that it was possible to act on the physical health condition of older community dwellers through participatory art-based activities as the proportion of frail participants decreased after a month cycle of Thursdays at the Museum
View The A-Health RCT is an opportunity to confirm a participatory art-based museum activitys effects on mental and physical health and to show the key role museums can play in health promotion for the elderly population
View But if viewing and making art can lower rates of anxiety and depression and help soothe chronic pain-and if laughter helps blood vessels function better and improves the flow of oxygen to the heart and brain-then perhaps we unwittingly deprive our patrons and patients of an important tool in the health and wellness toolbox
View As a program director at the Art Institute of Chicago I receive many articles crediting art as a healer: it can lower rates of anxiety and depression in both men and women help soothe chronic pain stave off symptoms of dementia and Alzheimers disease and accelerate brain development in young children
View A Psychology Today article points to numerous studies showing that laughter reduces pain increases job performance connects people emotionally helps blood vessels function better and improves the flow of oxygen to the heart and brain
View By unintentionally muting giggles and guffaws do museums and hospitals deprive their patrons and patients of the positive effects that humor could have on their health
View Even so every now and then when laughter bubbled across the hushed ward nurses and doctors smiled the air became lighter and patients and their families displayed a mild sense of relief
View Conclusions: Frequent engagement with certain receptive arts activities and venues, particularly museums, galleries and exhibitions, may be a protective factor against loneliness in older adults
View As loneliness and inadequate social relationships have been previously linked with for instance increased risk of depressive symptoms [] coronary heart disease and stroke [] and mortality [] this demographic change combined with vulnerability to loneliness among older adults poses a significant societal and public health challenge
View The risk of loneliness increases with age due to factors such as bereavement decline in physical health cognitive function and mobility as well as changes in living and socioeconomic circumstances including living alone or in a nursing home [-]
View The role of participatory and receptive arts engagement in preventing or alleviating loneliness among older adults as well as facilitating bonding in new and existing relationships has been also increasingly recognised [ ]
View Studies involving adult populations further suggest that engagement with group-based musical and other creative activities increases the pace of social bonding and perceptions of closeness among participants with some evidence suggesting a stronger effect for singing compared with other activities [ ] albeit inconsistently []
View Health covariates included long-standing illness status eyesight and hearing problems as well as experiences of moderate or severe pain that could hinder ones overall arts engagement
View Similarly the monthly Meet Me at MoMA programme run at the Museum of Modern Art in New York for people in the early and middle stage of Alzheimer's disease and their carers was observed to support and facilitate shared experiences as well as being an inherently social experience []
View Indeed Camie and Chatterjee argue that museums and art galleries play an important social role in the health and wellbeing of communities []
View Other intervention studies also demonstrate that participatory engagement with visual arts within community setting helped older adults to overcome prolonged social isolation and facilitated socialising with others [ ] We found lesser evidence of a longitudinal protective association for older adults' engagement with the theatre concerts and opera and no longitudinal association between engagement with the cinema and loneliness
View Indeed it has been suggested that participatory arts involving active involvement in arts-based activities may be most effective at tackling loneliness and assisting isolated older adults in regaining their confidence to reconnect with others []
View Further research is needed to investigate the differences between art forms and cultural venues in opportunities for social inclusion and shared experiences facilitating positive social contact of older adults
View Relationships created or strengthened as part of engaging with the arts such as making music in local community groups can increase access to different forms of support such as peer or informational support and act as a source of social affirmation [ ]
View More research is also needed to understand barriers and facilitators of arts engagement in lonely and isolated adults
View Future research is needed to understand the mechanisms through which different arts activities in particular receptive arts engagement can contribute to preventing and alleviating feelings of loneliness and facilitating social connectedness among older adults
View As studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of cultural engagement for many of the components of frailty, this study sought to explore whether community cultural engagement is associated both with a reduced risk of becoming frail and a slower trajectory of frailty progression in older adults
View Although related to multi-morbidity and disability frailty is distinct in that it encompasses a multitude of health deficits that include but are not limited to mobility self-reported general health eyesight and hearing; being able to carry out basic tasks of daily living; depressive symptoms; and cognitive function
View It also supports emotion regulation stress reduction wellbeing and helps protect against depression
View Cultural engagement showed a moderate association with broader social engagement and a small negative association with broader civic engagement
View Given that frailty is associated with falls delirium fluctuating disability increased care needs and increased use of health services the identification that engagement with existing community cultural activities is protective is important
View The Hunger for Connection and Meaning in Museum Settings Declines in empathy social participation religious participation and art museum attendance along with rises in narcissism individualism and materialism suggest a crisis of meaning especially among younger American generations
View Be a Model of Empathy First art museums can play an active role in building empathy and social connection within their communities and the first step is to be a model of empathy and warmth for visitors and those who dont currently attend
View The Museums as a Site for Social Action project led by the Minneapolis Museum of Art is working with museum practitioners to actively engage in equity and social justice initiatives both within the art museum and outside the museums walls
View Consider how to encourage people to connect with nature and enjoy quiet moments of reflection on museum grounds
View Their goal is to collaborate with researchers scholars philosophers content experts artists thought leaders and colleagues at other art museums to create and disseminate a number of activities and exercises that can be used to develop empathy and related emotional skills among art museum visitors
View Examples include imitating the actions or expressions of others noticing similarity between self and others caring for vulnerable or young people or animals engaging in role taking or perspective taking engaging in active or reflective listening and being taught to pay attention to and recognise emotional signals in others such as facial expressions and body language
View Both observational and intervention studies have found protective associations or effects between arts participation or cultural engagement and positive wellbeing the prevention of mental illness and the management or treatment of mental health conditions
View For example cultural engagement can support emotion regulation provide protective cognitive stimulation provide social interaction which can be a source of social support as well as buffer stress reduce sedentary behaviours associated with depression and support coping skills
View Background The research aimed to assess, through physiological measurements such as blood pressure and heart rate, whether exposure to art museums and to different art styles was able to enhance visitors well-being in terms of relaxing and stress reduction
View The majority of the participants exposed to figurative art significantly decreased systolic blood pressure compared to those exposed to modern art and museum office
View Conclusion Findings suggest that museum visits can have health benefits, and figurative art may decrease systolic blood pressure
View Using standardized physiological measures may be a good strategy to assess the visitors aesthetic experience in an art museum as they could help more than self-reports to control for the subjective variability linked to individual preferences or cultural differences in the appreciation of museum experiences
View Visits to art museum in particular representational art style may have positive effects on stress decreasing heart rate and blood pressure
View According to the European Society of Hypertension and to the European Society of Cardiology for people suffering by hypertension a difference in the changes of mm Hg in the SBP before and after a behavioural treatment can be considered an index of restorative relaxing and well-being effect
View Studies on figurative art and ancient art museums have reported positive feelings in participants but modern art can arouse negative emotions
View For example in a study with people with dementia and caregivers across traditional and contemporary galleries it was found that both art sites promoted well-being benefits including positive social impact and cognitive capacities enhancement
View Conclusions and implications Taken together our findings suggest that museum visits can have health benefits and figurative art may decrease Systolic Blood Pressure
View If bringing people to museums and showing them a realistic art style can have a positive effect on physiological reaction such as blood pressure we might consider an art-prescription to support medical therapies of patients with hearth-related diseases
View The Le Louvre lhpital study presents a new approach in which the museum moves to the hospital by displaying and discussing artworks with patients interactively
View Decreased anxiety after the art sessions was reported by 1,0 of 2,1 patients
View Out of 4,1 patients, 4,6 said the art program had met their expectations, and 3,2 wished to continue the experience with caregivers
View Early intra-ICU psychological intervention p omotes recovery from posttraumatic stress disorders anxiety and depression sym toms in critically ll patients []
View Listening to music has been shown to have a beneficial effect on anxiety in patients ope ated on during the postop ative period [] in those h spitalized for co onary heart disease [] and for ancer []
View Further previous studies reported health-based nterve tions in museums or art-galleries consisting of m l group tours of ambulatory patients only but this was intended mai ly to patients hospitalized in geriatric rehabilitation units nursin g homes or Alzheimer clinics [-]
View The present Le Lou vre lh pital stud reports a new approach in which th museum moves t the hospi al and t the patie t himself by displaying and discussing on an int ractive basis artworks in patients rooms dining rooms circulation are s a d hospit ls arden
View The program also provided training for hospital paramedics and car givers o subsequently replace the museums staff in managing groups of patients further
View Artworks consisted of large monumental statues displayed over the hospital garde s copies of large masterpieces of p inting displayed over the hospital hall dining rooms and in the circulation areas r productions of sm ll size paintings displayed in the patients rooms
View Hospital-Related Anxiety The subgroup of patients from the department of geriatric medicine was tested for anxiety before and after the small group guided art discussions organized as a coffee-break lasting for about h
View Since changes in anxiety associated with short punctual interventions are rather difficult to rate using conventional scales such as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [-] patients were asked qualitatively for their perception of decreased anxiety after completion of the session
View They also engaged int ractive view with other patients the museum staff member or a paramedic asked o agree or disagree with he first patients perception
View This lasted for a few words in some cases but in most instances patients reported more extensively their perceptions of the artwork the reasons for their choices and the personal life-recollections they advocated about
View Finally visits to the museum concerned patients only while patients attended museum activities inside the hospital ie a -fold lower rate
View This is particularly relevant since paramedics reported that the Museum staff plays an important role in keeping the activities interesting and helping them to feel comfortable and accepted
View Anxiety Among patients hospitalized in the departments of geriatric medicine and asked for anxiety by paramedics before and after a small-group guided art-discussion / reported decreased anxiety after the session
View Patients admitted in the rehabilitation day care unit in the rehabilitation unit and in the long stay care unit reported similar responses
View On average as reported by the museum staff and paramedics attending the sessions patients rated the small group sessions program highly at to out of
View Also according to the museum staff and caregivers participating to the program age association of mild or moderate cognitive impairment as well as the type of disease were not associated with differences in satisfaction of patients
View Discussion Art music cultural programs and participatory-based art interventions have been shown to provide opportunities to enhance quality of life and to reduce hospital-related anxiety and depression in a large panel of inpatients [-]
View The program also included training sessions for healthcare workers to allow further continuation of the hospitals art engagement after the study
View In a subgroup of patients hospitalized in the long term care department art guided discussions reduced hospital-associated anxiety in a substantial proportion of patients including those with mild Alzheimer disease
View Accordingly a museum therapy program in the hospital rather look as a specific therapy targeted to a specific patient than as a nonspecific approach devoted to improve quality of life during hospital stay only
View Finally the training program devoted to healthcare givers and paramedics provided an unrivalled opportunity to optimize further maintenance of the museum art engagement program inside the hospital for the years to follow
View Peer counseling might have been as effective in improving patients anxiety as art intervention especially while helping them speaking about their life and personal recollections
View Conversely patients wanted to speak about their perceptions of art the reasons of their choices and the personal life-recollections they advocated about and this process was not associated with any reactivation of the disease which caused the hospital stay
View Fifty-seven percent of participants reported pain relief during the tour, with an average pain relief of 47%
View Participants reported decreased social disconnection and pain unpleasantness pre- to post-tour
View Participants experienced Art Rx as a positive and inclusive experience, with potential lasting benefit
View Art museum tours for individuals with chronic pain are feasible, and participants reported positive effects on perceived social disconnection and pain
View Intervention Self reported receptive arts engagement
View Conclusions Receptive arts engagement could have a protective association with longevity in older adults
View While previous studies have shown the association between arts engagement and the prevention and treatment of mental and physical health conditions including depression dementia chronic pain and frailty - whether arts engagement actually confers survival benefits remains unclear
View Within health research arts engagement could be linked to longevity by alleviating chronic stress and depression and providing emotional cognitive and social coping resources that support biological regulatory systems and behavioural choices
View Patient and public involvement In addition to broader patient and public involvement in ELSA patients and the public were involved in the formulation of this research question through a public engagement event held at University College London in July that focused on generating new research questions on arts engagement and health outcomes
View Additionally the mortality rate was higher in people with higher depressive symptoms with poor eyesight or hearing with a diagnosis of cancer lung disease cardiovascular disease or other long term condition in people who were physically inactive in those who only rarely drank alcohol and in people who smoked
View This finding is consistent with research that shows that receptive arts engagement can help in preventing and managing depression and that it can provide support in preventing cognitive decline and in developing cognitive reserve
View Further possibilities are that arts engagement improves a sense of purpose in life helps with the regulation of emotions and thereby enhances coping supports the buffering of stress and builds creativity which improves peoples ability to adapt positively to changing life circumstances
View Conclusions and future research questions In conclusion this study suggests that receptive arts engagement could have independent longitudinal protective associations with longevity in older adults
View Aims: The aim of this article is to present a new observational tool for assessing the impacts of museum object handling for people with moderate-to-severe dementia in hospital settings, focusing on wellbeing, social interaction, level of engagement and agitation
View Museum-based activities for wellbeing broadly include supported museum visiting object handling volunteering and a range of creative activities inspired from the sector's wide-ranging museum collections from art making to performing arts and music
View - Museums are increasingly developing services for people with dementia and their caregivers; a recent survey identified that out of over half of UK museums offering wellbeing programmes people with dementia are the second largest target audience
View This was a multi-sited project with multiple health and social care partners exploring the health and wellbeing impact of taking part in cultural activities focused on three audience groups: mental health service-users stroke survivors and people with dementia
View The object handling focused on a non-goal-oriented activity as opposed to reminiscence promoting sensory engagement and conversation at a level appropriate for people with moderate-to-severe dementia in line with recommendations from other nonreminiscence interventions focused on the benefits of cognitive stimulation for dementia
View ENGAGEMENT IN PEOPLE WITH DEMENTIA Engaging a person with dementia in meaningful activity is seen as a priority in care provision to promote wellbeing and quality of life
View - Studies in care homes have shown the adverse effect of prolonged lack of stimulation and inactivity such as increased risk of cognitive decline apathy depression and agitation and the positive impact of participation in activities which can lead to a reduction in challenging behaviours and depression and improvements in mood
View It has been proposed that museum activities including museum visits and object handling sessions are another example of a potential meaningful activity for people with dementia and their carers
View Recent studies reported positive wellbeing impact for people with mild-to-moderate dementia taking part in creative museum activities with their carers including museum object handling and art viewing in a gallery
View A further study defined the environmental attributes of the art gallery and their positive emotional and relational effects for people with dementia and their carers
View The authors found that people with mild dementia could readily engage with complex arts and crafts activities and cognitive activities requiring multi-steps
View Our study aims to examine the experience of engagement with museum objects in the context of a handling session delivered in a hospital ward for people with moderate-to-severe dementia
View COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH FOR CO-DEVELOPING METHODOLOGIES Previous research has highlighted the importance of conducting collaborative research into the efficacy of engagement activities for people with dementia and their carers
View Reminiscence is one of the most widely deployed engagement activities for people with dementia but research regarding the efficacy of reminiscence and other memory-recall activities has revealed mixed findings
View The REMCARE study found no significant differences in outcomes ) between the intervention and control conditions and a significant increase in carer burden anxiety and stress
View We suggest it is also useful to understand commonly used forms of assessment in healthcare settings to further elucidate how impact is framed and measured in terms of health and wellbeing outcomes and from the perspectives of healthcare staff
View Additionally informal feedback can be used with clients and patients during the pilot sessions to capture a sense of their experience and their own understandings of what supports their health and wellbeing
View Within the principles of collaborative research it is also important to factor in time to share with partners both the findings in a digestible form as evidence of the impact of the project as well as the learning applicable to project delivery
View UNDERSTANDING MULTIPLE PERSPECTIVES AND COMMONLY USED ASSESSMENTS IN A DEMENTIA CARE HOSPITAL UNIT The context for the research strand on dementia was a museum project developed for people with moderate-to-severe dementia in a specialised inpatient dementia unit
View The first phase of the study was to understand the perspectives of different individuals involved in the delivery and support of the museum project and those directly engaged in the activities
View The museum professionals wanted the programme to support participant wellbeing by providing an enjoyable time and an opportunity to connect emotionally with museum objects they might remember from their childhood
View A related second aim of the project was to encourage social interaction between patients and between patients and care staff
View The museum activities were framed to fit within this model to address patient mood and agitation provide positive cultural engagement that would capture patients attention and support positive social interaction with other patients on the ward
View While the adapted PAL tool was not appropriate for the study as it focuses on assessing patients level of ability the -item wellbeing element was identified by staff as being more useful and detailed for describing patients mood than shorter scales
View RESULTS: THE MUSEUM ENGAGEMENT OBSERVATION TOOL FOR PWD The observations of the pilot sessions and research conversations with staff and museum facilitators were integrated to identify the key areas of direct benefit for participants with moderate-to-severe dementia in museum object handling activities
View The Museum Engagement Observation Tool measures five dimensions of engagement within a museum object handling session: Attention refers to the level of concentration of participants towards the museum activity from unable to concentrate to concentrates for full periods
View It contains five items that describe the level of engagement with the object from more passive visual engagement or passive handling responding to prompts to higher levels of engagement where the participants explore museum objects in a self-directed manner and where the object sparks discussion
View Social interaction between participants and the facilitator and with other participants
View Situated as a potential adjunct to approaches such as CST object handling as a meaningful activity for people with dementia has considerable potential to take advantage of cultural assets such as museums and art galleries and develop a new suite of cultural engagement activities for people with dementia
View Service users have described how arts engagement has supported their recovery; for example Parrs study illustrates that mental health service users who regularly participated in arts groups/activities experienced a sense of belonging that fosters positive emotion and self-esteem
View Empowerment The study shows that accessing cultural institutions can support feelings of empowerment for service users
View The service users found museums to be places where they found stimulation and a place for learning relaxation and wellbeing: Museums are very important [
View Jens suggests that for him visiting a museum can create a new life perspective and it improves his sense of wellbeing: Visiting a gallery [
View The findings in this study also illustrate that there was awkward communication between the service users and the museum educators resulting in an off-putting experience for some of the service users
View Meaning in life The findings in the study show that the service users have a comprehensive understanding of the role that the arts and cultural activity have in their lives and this understanding makes them experts on their own engagement in the arts and places them in a position to contribute as an engaged expert in their recovery
View The comments offered by the participating service users show that they are aware of the value that arts and cultural activities can bring to their lives in terms of life quality as well as health and wellbeing
View Its physical practical and psychological doing is a functionality that had a positive impact on health and wellbeing for the participating service users
View Being able to develop a creative identity and engaging in arts activities has positive wellbeing benefits and provide purpose and/or meaning in life to some service users
View In this way engagement in arts can be a vital element in rebuilding life contributing to survival and providing meaning in life for a service user and as a positive step in the recovery journey
View Empowerment is a multidimensional social process through which individuals and groups gain better understanding and control over their lives
View The empowerment of individuals aims to help adopt self-determination and autonomy exert more influence on social and political decision-making processes and gain increased self-esteem
View For the material psychosocial and political empowerment that underpins social wellbeing and equitable health it is vital for individuals to be included in society
View The European Pact for Mental Health and Wellbeing notes that people who have experienced mental health problems have valuable expertise and need to play an active role in planning and implementing actions and calls on policy makers and stakeholders to involve people with mental health problems and their families in relevant decision-making processes
View The findings in this study suggest that mental health service users experience a sense of empowerment by visiting museums/galleries and arts engagement
View Arguably the visits to the museums created negative experiences for some of the service servicers partly because of the unpreparedness of the museum educators which caused unintentional outcomes; the institutional logics of not training the museum educators got in the way of the intended positive experiences
View Recognising that mental health service users benefit from arts engagement in terms of the CHIME categories identified arts engagement can arguably play a vital role in the recovery process; it is possible to use arts engagement as a tool in recovery given that it is placed within a framework as arts engagement can add something unique to each personal and complex story and each journey provided that it is facilitated adequately
View Recent studies suggest the arts can promote health and psychological wellbeing and offer a therapeutic tool for many eg adolescents elderly and vulnerable individuals
View In this vein neuroimaging studies highlighted that immediate emotional responses to artwork and low-intensity enduring changes in affective states are associated with recruitment of brain circuitry involved in emotion regulation pleasure and reward
View Moreover the activation of an emotion processing network comprising the ventral and the dorsal striatum the anterior cingulate and medial temporal areas has been associated with the transient mood changes in response to happy and sad classical music
View Moreover in a study with people with dementia and their caregivers viewing traditional and contemporary galleries both art sites promoted well-being including positive social impact and cognitive enhancement
View Museum environment and artifacts offer an extraordinary aesthetic experience that allows the recollection of positive memories and evidence suggests that these reminiscence activities can affect mood self-worth and a general sense of well-being in the elderly
View Clow and Fredhoi reported that levels of salivary cortisol and self-reported measure of stress in healthy young individuals decreased significantly after a visit to the Guildhall Art Gallery of London
View Similarly exposure to figurative art lowers systolic blood pressure which could have relaxing effects
View Results revealed that only figurative art exposure decreased systolic blood pressure
View In fluency theory processing ease increases positive emotional response to artwork
View Wikstrom and colleagues showed that an educational program based on visual art dialogue evoked emotional experiences increasing nurses empathy
View These studies suggest that embedding visual art in healthcare education may increase understanding of emotional experience of chronic pain and suffering of the patients thereby improving nursing care practices
View Here we suggest that the processing of aesthetic artwork relies on the activity of reward-related brain areas resulting in positive emotions and pleasure that modulating affective state increase the individual predisposition to cognitive activities such as learning
View Linking the Brain to Aesthetic Experience The studies reviewed so far demonstrated that the aesthetic value of artwork and their use in educational programs may affect psychological and physiological states thus promoting well-being and enhancing learning
View Enduring predominance of diffuse positive affective states influences mood promotes health and learning
View This is accompanied by greater neural activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex regions strongly associated with the experience of reward and emotion processing
View Specifically defining visual stimuli as artistic prompted participants to judge artworks depicting negative emotional content more positively meaning liked more
View Some authors described the beneficial effects of music listening on the emotional health reporting that listeners use music to enhance positive emotions and regulate negative emotions affecting mood
View For instance a person who is experiencing emotional distress and has an absorptive personality will find pleasure in listening to sad music because being focused on the aesthetic experience of appreciating the beauty of music will disengage him/her from distress promoting positive mood
View In line with these findings a recent study of Ishizu and Zeki showed that images rated as beautiful but evoking opposite emotions modulated activity in OFC but also activated areas that have been found to be involved in positive emotional states such as the temporoparietal junction and the supramarginal gyrus and negative emotional states such as the inferior parietal lobule and the middle frontal gyrus
View Moreover it appears that art-specific emotions and utilitarian emotions found a common neural substrate in brain network involved in emotion processing and reward
View A portrait a sculpture or a piece of music conveying feelings of sadness may be rated as beautiful and produce a modulation onto OFC regions and the centers of reward-related responses similar to artworks conveying positive feelings such as joy and pleasure
View Deeper understanding of the dynamic relationship between bottom-up stimulus properties and top-down cognitive appraisal on emotional experience during the aesthetic appreciation of an artwork might be useful to effective use of art-based tools for promoting individual health and well-being
View The self-rewarding nature of aesthetic experience may influence the beholders affective state possibly improving wellbeing
View Cognitive decline in older adults is a recognised public health challenge with worsening memory and other cognitive abilities associated with a lack of functional independence and lower quality of life as well as signalling the onset of dementias-
View have proposed that it is primarily productive activities that have cognitive benefits suggesting that while receptive activities involve taking part in assimilatory behaviours that use existing skills and schema productive activities require the acquisition of new skills and schema which accounts for their stronger cognitive effect
View Participation in cultural activities showed moderate inter-correlations with going to galleries or museums correlating with going to the theatre concert or opera and with going to the cinema while going to the theatre and going to the cinema also correlated
View In relation to both memory and semantic fluency attending once a year or more appeared to be protective with evidence of a dose-response relationship in particular for semantic fluency indicating that more frequent attendance had a greater effect on cognition
View For example studies of music have found that listening to polyphonic music specifically recruits bilateral temporal frontal and parietal neural circuits that underly memory attention imagery and semantic and syntactic processing
View Broader positive wellbeing is also linked with a reduced risk of cognitive decline amongst older adults at a population level
View There is a wide literature showing benefits for positive affect and wellbeing from engaging with cultural activities such as the theatre concerts and museums
View Stress has been linked with faster cognitive decline such as through weakened prefrontal networks lower systolic blood pressure reactivity or increased cortisol levels-
View Other studies have shown that social isolation and loneliness are associated with poorer cognitive function in older age whereas social activity can be protective against cognitive decline
View Music programmes and combined photography and quilt-making classes have been found to improve executive function while theatre training has been found to improve memory and music-based multitask training has been found to reduce impairments in cognitive function
View Overall this study suggests that pre-existing cultural assets such as galleries museums theatres concerts and opera houses could play a role in supporting cognitive function in older adults
View Background: In line with recovery theories, psychosocial programmes for people diagnosed with severe mental illness should focus more on well-being and social connectivity outcomes rather than clinical symptoms
View For almost a century different disciplines have been studying the impact that creative practices such as writing music dance painting have on people diagnosed with severe mental illness
View Secker Hacking Spandler Kent and Shenton in a qualitative case study found that all participants of creative workshops with a diagnosis of SMI reported improvements in three psychological processes: motivation concentration and connection with others
View Recently museums have been the focus of attention for promoting health and social inclusion
View Based on Crawford Brown Baker Tischler and Abrams our study was framed under the notion of creative practice as mutual recovery: the idea that shared creativity collective experience and mutual benefit can promote resilience in mental health new insights and well-being among patients as well as their carers friends family and other healthcare professionals
View Complex learning process All participants users keyworkers and observers describe a complex learning process that involves various cognitive functions and different skills and knowledge
View Users with more experience participating in the workshops express an increase in their general cultural level and a better knowledge of artists and styles
View The idea that keyworkers had about the functionality ability to think and traits stereotypically attributed to people diagnosed with SMI seems to changes radically when interacting with them and participating in creative activities
View This emphasis on discursive and pragmatic aspects attention training and the effect of release from rumination suggests a value to cognitive rehabilitation through creative practice
View Cognitive training interventions can result in significant improvements in specific cognitive functions across a range of mental illnesses and creative practices have been applied as effective interventions in rehabilitation programmes with people with dementia
View The creative activity we have described enables people diagnosed with SMI to participate in various social practices away from clinical contexts and helps them to increase the quantity and quality of their social activities
View For this reason it is especially important that joint participation in creative activities by people diagnosed with SMI and the general public causes in the latter a transformation of the image of dysfunction associated with mental illness
View Obviously joint participation in creative practices of users professionals and family members or people in the community do not dissolve the tensions between the different agents but we have seen in our results that they help reconfigure the different roles generate new experiences and challenge established institutional practices
View We designed a structured interview with the view to facilitate communication with participants that exhibited different levels of cognitive functionality
View In summary the perceived positive impact of creative workshop activities on recovery their low cost together with the added potential for mutual benefit to health and social care practitioners present tentative evidence to recommend the development of creative activities in non-clinical settings and where possible and feasible in partnership with a varied stakeholder group including people diagnosed with mental disorders
View This paper presents research findings that help to understand how museum programs created opportunities to enhance wellbeing and health, and changed experiences of social isolation in older adults
View These components operated within a context that was enriched by the museum as a place to support wellbeing and enhance social interaction
View To meaningfully support socially isolated older people as part of local public health strategies, museums need to be accessible and engaging places that purposively support social interaction by involving people and objects, participating in multiple sessions over time, that are facilitated by skilled and knowledgeable staff
View Social prescribing is one way to offer interventions focusing on activities of interest rather than perpetuating dependence on clinical interventions such as psychological therapies GP visits and psychotropic medication to improve social inclusion and wellbeing in older people
View Loneliness and social isolation Social isolation is described as a lack of belonging and engagement with others and limited quantity and quality relationships leading to an increased likelihood that people will need to use healthcare services
View found that social relations buffer the effect of neighborhood deprivation on psychologically-related quality of life
View Wellbeing Although a definitive theory of wellbeing remains elusive the notion of psychological wellbeing has been suggested as comprising six key components personal growth self-acceptance autonomy purpose in life positive relationships and environmental mastery
View The role of social factors is apparent in this model recognizing that relationships are important to wellbeing
View Other components that affect psychological wellbeing such as loneliness life satisfaction and self-esteem have also been identified
View The Five Ways to Wellbeing report presented empirical evidence for improving wellbeing
View The report focused on community resources and what needs to be done to encourage and enable people's prosperity and wellbeing potential throughout their lives
View The international evidence base for health and wellbeing benefits of various arts and health interventions is growing
View Evidence has also shown that participatory arts in older age groups can challenge ideas of decline re-connect people to communities and target health needs that threaten wellbeing
View Further research is needed to explore how museum-based social prescribing can be beneficial for socially isolated older people and help address the needs of an ageing population to live healthy and meaningful lives
View Research aims Museums working as public health partners with health and social care services are ideally suited to offer community-based programs to support the wellbeing of socially isolated older people; they are numerous exist across different geographical areas are often free or low cost
View Previous research reported that -week museum programs reduced social isolation and increased wellbeing
View The present study sought to understand how museum-based social prescribing programs reduced social isolation for older people by determining the specific elements and processes involved and how these interacted to create a social and physical environment that enhanced psychological wellbeing
View Intervention As a key component of the research each museum agreed to develop specific activities that sought to enhance opportunities for engaging and participatory experiences based on their respective collections and staff expertise and interests
View From the larger data pool we sampled people with different end of program responses on standardized measures of loneliness and wellbeing measured by the R-UCLA Loneliness Scale Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale and UCL Museums Wellbeing Measure - Older Adult
View For example people reported evaluating themselves and others differently as a result of the group experience communicating more effectively and becoming more socially engaged due to increased confidence
View Interacting social context Museums provided a background context in which programs operated influencing group experience and enhancing the potential for change
View The museums provided unique topics of conversation about objects and their role in history and society as well as a welcoming place that created opportunities to do so it's a nice way to start a conversation and it's a very safe conversation [Pl] and I think the museum was sort of relaxed
View This interacted with the social context creating opportunities for change in both wellbeing and social isolation
View Discussion This study conceptualized how museum programs created opportunities for wellbeing and social inclusion in older people by illustrating the complex interactions between individual and social processes
View For museums to meaningfully support socially isolated older people and to offer programs that can usefully be part of local public health strategies the museum as a social place of interaction involving people and objects needs to be considered
View Along with considerations for place and length of time the role of the facilitator as museum expert and as a socially engaging and welcoming person was seen to be essential
View Theoretical considerations Research suggests that wellbeing is enhanced by a sense of belonging and being part of a community and that older age can limit opportunities for participating in social networks
View These findings lend further understanding to other studies involving older adults which have shown that museum-led programs improve psychological wellbeing provide opportunities for meaning making and exploration of identity provide meaningful social interactions and new learning experiences
View Drawing on Rowe and Kahn's work on successful aging which identified active engagement with life as having two major elements: maintenance of social relations and productive activities longer term museum-based programs such as those presented here contain the possibility of helping to develop and maintain social relations through active engagement in learning and creativity
View found that social resources had a pivotal influence on positive affect among oldest-old adults ; more so than previous life experiences
View Moreover as a way to protect their wellbeing many older people are more influenced by moral character than abilities when judging new people
View Community practice With an ageing population and reduced funding for health care public health is increasingly being utilized to provide interventions that focus on prevention of poor health and enhancing wellbeing
View For example expectations and previous experiences of education and learning may have contributed to differences in museum experiences
View Conclusion This study aimed to explore how museum programs created opportunities for social inclusion and wellbeing in socially isolated older people
View Using grounded theory analysis the proposed model identifies elements of museum programs that created opportunities for change such as providing more intense social experiences that are novel over a longer period of time; role of the facilitator; activities involving interesting and unusual objects; and physical space
View The model links to psychological concepts of self-esteem and wellbeing to build an understanding of individual characteristics and life experiences that constitute important factors in community-based later-life social interventions
View Arts for health initiatives and networks are being developed in a number of countries and an international literature is emerging on the evidence of their benefits to people's health, wellbeing and quality of life
View Engagement in cultural and creative arts by older people can increase their morale and self-confidence and provides opportunities for social connection
View The study has identified the benefits and impacts of the arts for health programme and its feasibility for older people, with or without diagnosed memory loss dementia, living in a care home or supported living facility and their care staff
View Public policy promotes active lives for ageing populations so that older people can maintain their independence continue contributing to society and add quality to their lives
View Ensuring a positive life experience for older people is about promoting their health and functional capacity their social participation and security which contribute to overall quality of life and wellbeing
View Residents mood correlates with reported quality of life and people with dementia in care homes have significant levels of unmet needs relating to lack of stimulating daytime activities and company
View Arts and creative activities form part of social engagement/ involvement and social prescription for health wellbeing and quality of life within communities
View Arts and creative activities have the potential to improve health wellbeing and quality of life for older people in care homes and address inequalities within this vulnerable population
View However there is an emerging body of knowledge which is seeking to establish the impact and benefits of culturally based arts for health projects on wellbeing and quality of life as part of social capital engagement justice and public health
View Reminiscence therapy for older residents in care homes located five trials with activities in groups or individually by qualified health professionals found some evidence to suggest effective in improving mood with effects not well understood
View The third review was also delivered by trained health professionals using cognitive stimulation positive reality orientation to improve cognitive functioning in people with dementia and concluded consistent evidence of benefit
View Older people in care homes are more likely to have restricted activities of living impaired mobility incontinence and depression
View The programme was part of the emerging work of the gallery and museum with the community to promote access to their collections share knowledge and learning social engagement and participation in cultural and creative arts activities
View Methods Aims To identify the benefits and potential impact of an arts for health programme on the wellbeing of older people from supported living and care home populations
View While gallery/museum staff viewed this as a challenge to their presentations and planned sessions care home staff suggested their residents being engaged in everyday activities along with other visitors was positive and normal experience and countered their usual days in their homes which could be quite isolated
View It was noted that exhibits and activities did encourage visitors engagement with their personal and shared history
View Benefits impact on wellbeing feasibility of the sessions and programme The ability of gallery/museum staff to be flexible and respond to older participants needs was a recurring factor throughout the observations and group discussion
View Buildings windows and green spaces have long been known to effect health wellbeing and recovery
View Such programmes can also contribute to social and cultural capital health inequalities social justice and public health by promoting wellbeing and quality of life for the wider public and for those populations who tend to be socially excluded or isolated
View Creativity wellbeing and older people Comments and feedback from older people staff and artists indicate there were immediate and short term benefits to peoples wellbeing through social engagement arts and cultural appreciation and creative activity
View Participating in the programme provided opportunity to enrich peoples lives wellbeing and quality of life in keeping with findings of others and the basis for the arts for health initiatives locally nationally and globally
View Brooker and Duce used the dementia care mapping wellbeing six item scale in their day hospital controlled trial of reminiscence therapy
View Conclusion The study has demonstrated that the arts for health programme is feasible and facilitates older people from care homes and supported living to access public museums and galleries to encourage creative arts cultural appreciation and social engagement which promote wellbeing quality of life and social inclusion
View The museums sector has responded to the global trend of increased awareness of health and well-being challenges by creating programmes for older adults, people with dementia and mental health service users, to name but a few (Chatterjee & Noble, 2,,3)
View The museums sector has responded to the global trend of increased awareness of health and well-being challenges by creating programmes for older adults people with dementia and mental health service users to name but a few
View A growing body of evidence suggests that cultural participation enhances human health and well-being ; however robust studies regarding the efficacy of museum encounters are limited
View Museums are increasingly playing a role in improving health and well-being and evidence shows that engaging with museums provides: positive social experiences leading to reduced social isolation; opportunities for learning and acquiring news skills; calming experiences leading to decreased anxiety; increased positive emotions such as optimism hope and enjoyment; increased self-esteem and sense of identity; increased inspiration and opportunities for meaning making; positive distraction from clinical environments including hospitals and care homes; and increased communication among families caregivers and health professional
View Studies of museum object handling for example show significant benefits for a range of patients in hospitals and care homes by improving mental and physical functioning providing a positive experience during the hospital stay and improving patient-doctor/carer communication
View Camic and Chatterjee propose a framework whereby museums develop strategic partnerships with local healthcare authorities health-care funders and other local museums and galleries to coordinate health and well-being programmes
View Such programmes could offer an on prescription referral service designed and delivered in partnership with health and social care organisations and methods have even been developed to evaluate the efficacy of such programmes in the form of a Museums Wellbeing Measure
View Background: The three year Ways of Seeing project was hosted by an award-winning museum and included adults with long-term diagnoses associated with mental health and physical impairments
View Findings about the benefits of arts participation echoed other studies but participants highlighted some difficulty with the ending of the project
View Museums and art galleries as spaces away from the clinical environment have a pivotal role to play in the public health agenda both in maintaining health and facilitating recovery key objectives of current mental health strategy
View Museum staff contributed sessions to discuss and contextualise what participants had observed on the visits
View A symposium halfway through the ten week exhibition which included the participants brought together interested people from throughout the UK sharing experiences of engaging the public in active ways to promote their health and wellbeing
View Local pride An unexpected finding was the expression of local pride validating the vision of the Lightbox to include local people and the participants achievements: Woking is fortunate to have such a wonderful art gallery
View This raises interesting questions about the emphasis of community arts projects when used to promote health and wellbeing
View People had opportunities to impact on the life of the museum becoming part of the museum itself
View Using resources in this way to widen participation and foster community involvement effectively changes attitudes and promotes social integration
View This study evaluates the impact of an arts-based intervention designed to nurture learner empathy through the provision of facilitated visual literacy activities
View The physician who is able to understand the perspective of another is afforded an enriched framework for understanding a patient which can contribute to accurate deci-sions reduce patient anxiety and encourage adherence
View In this regard visual literacy exercises purport to have a positive impact on learners cognitive processing
View Also noteworthy in the IRI results was a significant control group decrease in the empathy sub-component of PDan affective construct that refers to the discomfort or anxiety that one feels when observing another s negative experienceover the course of the programme
View Establishing the potential of an arts-based programme that nurtures empathy development will provide strong support for embedding arts and humanities training as important and credible parts of core curriculum in medical education
View There are 1,6 VA PRRCs throughout the USA, designed to be transitional learning centers with curriculum-based interventions to help veterans re-integrate into the community and develop meaningful activities independent of the hospital setting
View Many veterans recovering from severe mental illness are served by the VA West Los Angeles Psychosocial Rehabilitation and Recovery Center whose mission is to stimulate hope and promote mental health recovery by offering support education and opportunities so that individuals can successfully achieve their goals in the community
View Expressive art therapies can help individuals have improved sleep and impulse control greater concentration and less depression and anxiety
View Visual art has been shown to alleviate stress and anxiety in patients in healthcare settings
View Expressionist theories claim that the function of art is to communicate on the emotional level ; for veterans who are experiencing disabling emotional distress appreciating art and learning about artists thus could have positive effects on mood self-esteem socialization and community participation and may be a protective factor in suicide prevention
View opening yourself to insight inspiration guidance
View The WLA PRRC is a holistic program centered on the recovery model that provides evidence-based treatments wellness classes and creative arts experiences for veterans with severe mental illness
View The class learned that artists express their feelings and emotions through their art
View Results Program staff have emphasized the serenity the veterans experience as they view the images and absorb knowledge and that their social skills have been enhanced by the gentle encouragement to participate provided by the discussion facilitator
View The data also provide a rationale for continuation of the class with more detailed evaluations of both its subjective impact through measures of psychological functioning and its objective impact through measures of socialization community participation and progress toward independent living
View Conclusion The WLA PRRC Art Appreciation class embraces many aspects of the recovery model for the treatment of severe mental illness in veterans providing a unique learning adventure for the participants
View The class emphasizes cultural diversity and supports community integration combining didactics with community outings to provide places to go to appreciate art a deeper awareness of the lives of artists and in turn deeper insight into the veterans own life stories
View Benefits of arts-in-health interventions are relatively well-documented yet little robust research has been conducted using heritage-in-health interventions, such as those involving museum objects
View Methods: Hospital patients participated in semi-structured, 30.40 minute facilitated interview sessions, discussing and handling museum objects comprising selections of six artefacts and specimens loaned from archaeology, art, geology and natural history collections
View Conclusions: Heritage-in-health sessions enhanced positive mood and social interaction, endorsing the need for provision of well-being-related museum and gallery activities for socially excluded or vulnerable healthcare audiences
View Arts Council England found a considerable and growing evidence base of the effectiveness of arts interventions in healthcare and in promoting well-being that included improving the mental emotional and spiritual state of Health Service users and help medical staff caregivers patients and families to communicate more effectively with each other by offering opportunities for social interaction involvement and empowerment
View The New Economics Foundation define well-being as the dynamic process that gives people a sense of how their lives are going through the interaction between their circumstances activities and psychological resources or mental capital
View Museum object handling sessions carried out with hospital patients by medical students showed improvements in patient quality-of-life measures and student communication observation and research skills
View A study of museum object handling with cancer patients using quantitative measures demonstrated significant improvements in patient psychological well-being and happiness
View Furthermore qualitative research revealed that when experienced nurses took museum objects to patients bedsides the objects acted as a vehicle for communication and emotional disclosure in women facing a gynaecological cancer diagnosis
View Theoretical Framework The multi-disciplinary study reported here used a mixed-methods approach to assess the well-being benefits of handling and discussing museum objects with a range of hospital patients
View Spector Orrell and Woods showed that twice-weekly cognitive stimulation therapy with older adults diagnosed with early stage dementia living in residential care led to increases in two measures of cognition and in a participant-rated quality of life measure when compared with no treatment
View Educational research into stimulating and integrating sensory modalities particularly the deployment of VAK preferences associated with the Montessori Method a method of educating children that stresses the development of initiative and natural ability demonstrated wider appeal and assimilation of learning from the multiple presentation of material
View Field showed that adult participation in lifelong learning had a direct effect on well-being by encouraging people to develop resources and cognitive capacities an indirect impact where people could thrive and increase their resilience to risk and a cumulative effect by influencing the social and economic environment
View Material objects also elicit a sense of identity and play a role in the development of self-awareness through multisensory interaction
View The work of Camic Brooker and Neal on found objects showed that the use of such objects in psychotherapy helped to enhance engagement increase curiosity reduce difficult feelings evoke memories and provide a sense of agency through increased physical activity and environmental action
View Pearce argued that museum objects function as symbols of identity relationships nature society and religion and Dudley suggested that multisensory museum object encounters elicit ideas and meaning-making opportunities
View The study determined that when individuals interact with museum objects the intrinsic physical and material properties of the objects trigger sensory emotional and cognitive associations memories and projections
View The study examined quantitative and qualitative changes in psychological well-being resulting from handling and discussing museum objects in on-to-one facilitated sessions
View The aim of the research was to describe typical features of this intervention consider the factors that influenced the patients contributions to the sessions and examine the relationship of these factors to immediate post-session psychological well-being outcomes in relation to the psycho-educational theories explored above
View The encounter is typical of a patient-object interaction where the opportunity for hands-on object engagement heightened the participant experience and encouraged a sharing of knowledge ideas and feelings
View The posing of questions by patients indicated engagement and a stimulation of curiosity
View Influence of social physical and environmental context was another feature affecting the participant role in the handling sessions
View Craik and Lockharts levels of processing model is relevant in that tactile qualities such as texture shape and weight could have enhanced the kinaesthetic experience of sessions leading to deep and elaborate encoding
View suggested that cognitive stimulation therapy increased cognitive processing and laid down new connections in the brain as a result of encounters with novel stimuli and social interaction
View For example NEF explained that for people to experience personal well-being they need to be engaged in activities take the opportunity to learn new things and feel that their life has meaning and purpose
View In keeping with constructivist models of adult learning participants added to their existing knowledge of objects and linked memories taking the opportunity to question information in order to construct new meanings
View The research showed that objects taken outside the museum space evoked emotion as well as the recall of events people and places
View Mack referred to the role of archive material in triggering memories and Phillips found that when used in reminiscence sessions museum objects specifically coins and medals promoted learning creative thought skills development and greater confidence
View The processes of remembering and reminiscing demonstrated how meaning-making could contribute to the beneficial effect of the session and be used in positive and constructive ways that help build self-esteem and bolster a sense of identity
View The implication of meaning-making in the healthcare setting is explicated by Park who stated that meaning-making plays a central role in the coping and adjustment of most people facing major life stressors
View While meanings are normally developed and built upon through the visual sense in a museum environment object handling in healthcare settings provided participants with the opportunity to experience museum objects through other senses specifically touch
View Arguably the chance to interact through visual auditory and tactile senses in an interesting and engaging way with museum objects triggered recall of long-term memories of events and associated meanings
View This patient-facilitator community was transitory but exhibited some of the features of learning communities notably the facilitation of information exchange knowledge sharing and knowledge construction through continuous interaction built on trust and maintained through a shared understanding
View Conclusions The evaluation of a heritage-in-health intervention conducted across four patient groups in the same hospital suggested that museum object handling sessions produced beneficial and therapeutic effects on patient well-being and happiness
View Findings added weight to the need for provision of arts- and heritage-in-health activities for communities of hospitalized adults temporarily or permanently excluded from gallery and museum visits
View As a non-pharmacological intervention the results of these object handling sessions have shown that meaning-making and thinking have the potential to help patients cope and take part in a positive experience during their hospital stay
View Museums have the potential to reach a vast audience and profoundly shape the way people understand food and make decisions that affect the health of individuals families and communities
View The study investigated the impact of museum object handling sessions on hospital clients receiving occupational therapy in neurological rehabilitation and in an older adult acute inpatient mental health service
View Results: Themes emerging from detailed analysis of discourse involving clients and healthcare staff comprised: distraction and decreasing negative emotion; increasing vitality and participation; tactile stimulation; conversational and social skills; increasing a sense of identity; novel perspectives and thoughts; learning new things; enjoyment and positive emotion
View Museums are increasingly using collections as a bridge to wellbeing social inclusion and learning often taking objects beyond the museum site itself into communities
View Mixed methods research into the benefits of museum object handling sessions in hospitals and care homes showed patients or clients demonstrating an increase in wellbeing and happiness distraction from clinical surroundings and enhanced communication with staff carers and family members
View From this an analysis of clients subjective responses to objects allowed us to both generate new concepts and determine factors for success in achieving wellbeing outcomes
View Museum objects have a distinctive impact on learning and audience engagement since they are intrinsically interesting have physical qualities that tap into different learning styles and can evoke personal connections as well as aesthetic and emotional responses
View Allowing museum objects to be handled encourages a personal exploration that adds a further dimension to the individuals experience
View Research indicates that museum collections spaces expertise and experience can all be employed to promote health and wellbeing
View United Kingdom healthcare strategy has regarded multi-agency approaches and creative or cultural interventions as a means both to increase wellbeing and to reduce the need for later medical intervention
View Museum objects have been used with mental health service users and in residential care to trigger memories ; such reminiscence activities have demonstrated enhanced socialisation orientation and validation of life experiences
View The majority of participants had taken up the activity in later life and the study indicated that needlecraft was mentally and physically relaxing built selfesteem and enhanced perceived control
View Their findings suggested that the tactile aspect of working with clay was beneficial to health and wellbeing
View This research employed museum object handling to enhance health and wellbeing with the aim of examining the impact of the sessions on emotions feelings and life experiences as encouraged through tactile interaction with museum objects
View Method We undertook facilitated museum object handling sessions in three National Health Service healthcare settings where occupational therapists routinely work with clients with cognitive deficits due to vascular and degenerative disorders
View Qualitative analysis considered the ways in which improvements in reported wellbeing health social and physical functioning resulting from the sessions might have occurred
View Key themes included increasing positive emotion decreasing negative emotion enhanced vitality tactile stimulation improved social skills and sense of identity development of novel perspectives and thoughts and acquisition of new knowledge
View Our findings indicated that engaging with objects alleviated some effects of long-term hospitalisation such as the deterioration of confidence and identity; the loss of stimulating social and environmental occupations; rehabilitation goals; discharge of negative emotions and a preoccupation with illness
View In particular neurologically impaired participants for whom the effects of hospitalisation were extreme and deeply embedded demonstrated subtle signs of engagement with the objects and small improvements in wellbeing for which the sensitivity of qualitative methods was appropriate
View The main sign of engagement was an individual being drawn to the objects observable through signs of attention wonder curiosity interaction and from asking questions as well as from finding connections between the object and personal lived experience
View It was evident from our research that object handling stimulated a sense of self-esteem rekindled social intellectual experiential and emotional identity and acted as a distraction from clinical surroundings
View Distraction and decreasing negative emotion Participants in particular mental health clients came to sessions with depressive or anxious moods that could impair engagement
View Sessions visibly calmed anxiety and in some cases increased levels of enjoyment in depressed patients
View Tactile stimulation Being able to touch objects increased participants engagement by drawing them into the session but was also an end in itself
View In the context of a lengthy hospital stay and a transformative health condition preserving a clients sense of identity is especially important
View Many personal objects people and places are stripped away from their daily experience and their illness or condition can come to dominate their personality and become connected with much of what they do and think about on a daily basis
View Participants in our sessions tended to learn something about the objects or new skills and this increased their feelings of confidence and competence
View In line with Symonss et als research involving participants with neurological conditions undergoing rehabilitation using art materials engagement with museum objects helped to increase enjoyment and positive emotion for around two-thirds of the clients in this study
View Object sessions provided a therapeutic activity to fill time meaningfully between interventions
View Our study analysed qualitative data from considerably more participants and revealed reported increases in feelings of vitality as a result of participation
View Reynolds found that many adults had taken up needlecraft to help moderate depressive symptoms
View Similarly discussing and handling museum objects with others and contributing associated personal knowledge or life experiences could help endorse a sense of achievement and increased confidence in participants in addition to positive emotions such as self esteem
View Just as Timmons and MacDonald suggested that tactile activities such as working with clay to produce ceramic objects could benefit health and wellbeing it is likely that the tactile stimulation derived from touching and handling museum objects some of which were storage vessels and pottery shards was itself beneficial to wellbeing
View Many wellbeing outcomes derived from increased levels of conversation and from improved social skills developed through discussion about museum objects
View Handling and discussing museum objects appeared to reveal a range of wellbeing benefits for inpatient mental health service users and neurological rehabilitation clients implying that it should be considered as a regular activity in occupational therapy in particular for long-term settings
View Many potential participants had either never visited a museum or had found their museum experience unconstructive or boring
View Wellbeing The existing wellbeing of clients prior to the sessions was ascertained by wellbeing measures and through staff and facilitator observation
View Clients with speech impairments rarely consented to take part although eligible and those with severe depression and attentional disorders had difficulty comprehending the nature of the session and contributed low levels of dialogue touch and interest
View In guiding and encouraging participation answering questions and ensuring the safety of participants and objects experienced facilitation was essential
View Although it would have been useful to discover that museum object handling might be added to the repertoire of occupational therapists and other healthcare professionals many staff reported the facilitator being an outside presence contributed to the success of the sessions in that the person provided museum knowledge and provided a presence not associated with illness assessment or occupational therapy goals
View Heritage objects Heritage objects as opposed to everyday three-dimensional objects added a positive aspect to the handling sessions; participants felt a sense of privilege from being able to handle these special objects
View Some for example Egyptian artefacts conveyed a sense of mystery that encouraged participants to explore them while others reminded them of visits to museums holidays and heritage sites or television documentaries
View Conclusion Museum object handling sessions introduced in long-term residential hospital contexts offered an idiosyncratic but effective activity to add to occupational therapy
View The research found that the sensory nature of museum objects combined with a positive narrative enhanced feelings of confidence vitality participation identity enjoyment and wellbeing
View The activity aided occupational therapists by increasing their understanding of client needs and in improving client wellbeing and competence so bringing clients closer to occupational goals of recovery adaptation and independence
View Although occupational therapy is concerned with the health and wellbeing of clients through occupations of life wellbeing arising from interaction with heritage and cultural objects is a relatively under-explored area
View Throughout much of the world health-care treatment is delivered in clinics and hospitals while health promotion and illness prevention activities mostly occur in schools community organisations and the workplace
View Museums can be places that encourage people to learn about themselves their culture and society and the larger world around them
View PLACES OF CULTURAL ACTIVITY ENGAGEMENT AND INTERACTION There is increasing evidence from quantitative and qualitative studies in different countries that arts-based and other cultural programmes can reduce adverse psychological and physiological symptoms and are positive determinants for survival well-being and quality of life and self-reported health
View Several authors have described the social role of museums particularly their importance as agents to increase social inclusion and reduce socially excluding practices across communities by providing environments and processes to re-examine behaviour attitudes and beliefs
View Given the economic challenges facing the cultural health and social care sectors and an increased focus on community-based public health interventions as part of the current UK governments Big Society policy we argue that the time has never been more pertinent for a closer engagement between museums and health and social care providers
View Silverman suggests that museums contribute to the pursuit of health and well-being in five major ways: promoting relaxation; an immediate intervention of beneficial change in physiology emotions or both; encouraging introspection which can be beneficial for mental health; fostering health education; and acting as public health advocates and enhancing health-care environments
View Recently completed research with medical and psychiatric patients demonstrated the health-care potential of museum objects to assist with counselling on issues of illness death loss and mourning and to help restore dignity respect and a sense of identity
View Mack has described objects as containers or memory and several authors have noted that museum objects trigger memories in ways that other informationbearing materials do not
View During such encounters participants report that object interactions help them recall memories and encourage interactivity
View Some museums have taken the notion of memory and reminiscence interventions a step further and extended such activities to the training of health-care professionals who care for people with dementia and other cognitive disorders
View Sense of connection and belonging Human capital: using and improving skills Optimism and hope Moral values beliefs Identity capital self-esteem Emotional capital resilience Opportunity for success Recognition of achievement Support Quiet rest sanctuary Social capital relationships Meaningful pursuits Safe rich museum environment Access to arts and culture It is argued that when people interact with museums and their collections the objects material physical and intrinsic properties trigger a variety of emotional and sensory responses cognitive associations memories and projections
View The role and interplay of sensory modalities may help explain why kinaesthetic museum interventions afford wellbeing benefits
View proposed that museum interventions draw upon Paivios dual coding model which suggests that verbal and visual material are connected in a short-term working memory store and Baddeleys modality effect which proposes cognitive advantages to working memory when auditory and visual modalities are integrated
View s research also highlighted the interplay of touch in the multi-sensory museum experience and they infer that since three senses are at play during museum interventions a triple-coding model could help explain the cognitive advantages that lead to health and wellbeing outcomes
View Despite an enhanced understanding of the possible cognitive and psychosocial evidence regarding the benefits of artsand health-focused interventions in museums/galleries research is still in an early stage and tends to lack control or comparison groups that would better allow assessment of impact and health economic analysis
View Rather than attempting to address all known health and well-being concerns a more productive and strategic approach would involve museums developing partnerships with local healthcare authorities health-care funders and other local museums and galleries to coordinate resources knowledge and expertise
View While valuing their independence and unique focus as distinct cultural organisations local and shared coordination of museum-based public health services -culture and health planning - can enhance the variety of programmes offered and also increase their sustaina-bility; two exemplars of this type of framework are seen through health-care and museum networks in Boston Massachusetts and the northwest of England
View A further advantage of collaboration and coordination between the heritage and health-care sectors could lead to the development of new research partnerships with universities further adding to the growing evidence of the impact of cultural activities on health a goal that Clift has forcefully argued for in order to support and encourage more evidence-based practice
View Yet these differences in purpose scope and structure can also be drawn upon to help address some of the problems related to health promotion illness prevention wellbeing and quality of life for people across a range of age groups with different risk factors and from different socioeconomic and ethnic groups only some of which we have cited above
View Additional research should also use social comparison and control groups in order to more rigorously assess the impact of the overall museum/art gallery experience but also in relation to measuring specific health and social outcomes
View Educational research indicates the importance of developing educational activities starting from the realities and previous knowledge of the public involved
View Art therapy is a healing art intended to integrate physical, emotional, and spiritual care by facilitating creative ways for patients to respond to their cancer experience
View A new art therapy program was designed to provide cancer patients with opportunities to learn about the McMichael Canadian Art Collection and to explore personal feelings about their cancer experience through combined gallery and studio components
View Evaluation of the art therapy/museum education program demonstrated many benefits for cancer patients including support, psychological strength, and new insights about their cancer experience
View Creative skills used in art therapy help patients explore feelings find meaning and improve coping with their cancer experience
View The evaluation of a new art therapy program that was designed to provide cancer patients with opportunities to leant about the McMichael Canadian Art Collection and to explore personal feelings about their cancer experience through combined gallery and studio components is reported in this paper
View Therapeutic arts and humanistic environments for art therapy educational programs have been shown to promote aspects of healing related to a patients sensibilities and reveal insights about health and illness
View Benefits from participating in an art therapy program have been realized by patients with cancer
View Additional benefits of art therapy programs offered in hospital included cooperation among staff patients families and artists by diminishing barriers and improving morale on the bone marrow transplant unit
View Findings Evaluation findings about the structure of the program described participants* perceptions about attendance duration and supplies
View Process findings related to the organization strengths and weaknesses of the art therapy program
View Program structure Participants anticipated each week to be a special time to explore feelings and develop friendships with those who understood the cancer experience
View Learning about the history of different artists through gallery visits videos and movies allowed participants to increase their awareness of art and its impact on the human spirit
View The facilitator assisted each participant in interpretation of their drawings and encouraged expression of their feelings and thoughts
View A knowledgeable compassionate flexible and thoughtful facilitator created an atmosphere of respect and openness
View The art therapy program facilitated their identification and exploration of deeper feelings and strengthened their ability to balance their cancer experience with other aspects of their lives: / think art
View Participants gained a deeper awareness of their difficult emotions and knowledge of how to copc more effectively with emotional and physical aspects of the cancer experience
View Participants fell more able to get in touch with their feelings and express them in a positive manner
View This personal growth allowed participants to communicate better with people close to them
View Participants understood and valued art therapy as a vehicle for expressing feelings and learning new coping skills
View One participant fell that the experience during the sessions provided a buffer between lhe worry of cancer and the joy of living
View Others relied on the group participation to promote a positive healthy altitude about their disease:
View First comments from participants demonstrated that the program was a success and that the program design allowed patients to accomplish the program objectives
View The gallery component provided a learning environment in which participants increased their knowledge about and appreciation of different types of art
View Participants learned Io focus less on their artistic abilities and
View Secondly the art therapy program helped participants examine their feelings about their cancer experience and develop new ways to think and feel about their respective issues
View Ilie nursescan inform patients about opportunities to participate in an art therapy program in their area
View They could also encourage patients to explore art therapy as a means of coping with difficult emotions throughout the cancer experience
View The demands of different stages of cancer care may affect a patients readiness and the amount of emotional energy that is available to commit to and benefit from an art therapy program
View Continuation of the art therapy program could provide ongoing support for patients throughout their cancer experience
View Examination of a larger sample could strengthen the findings of this program evaluation and quantify the psychosocial benefits of participating in an art therapy program for patients with cancer
View This evidence that field trips can contribute positively to student achievement is meaningful for policymakers and administrators, as it suggests schools can provide enrichment experiences that families desire without sacrificing student test scores
View The biological and psychological symptoms associated with dementia include cognitive difficulties an overall decline in daily living skills changes in behavior and mood
View Thus in order to challenge the sole narrative of dementia from one of hopelessness and despair to one imbued with different metaphors and possibilities attending to the social and psychological wellbeing of people affected by this condition is essential
View Research has also shown that being a family caregiver of someone with dementia can be associated with higher levels of depression and isolation
View Participation in creative arts has been shown to enhance social and psychological wellbeing of people with a diagnosis of dementia and their caregivers ; increase enthusiasm confidence enjoyment and social contact and decrease depression
View Findings implied that the intervention prompted the discovery of residual abilities enjoyment sparked new interest in art and increased social contact
View Using quantitative content analysis Eekelaar Camic & Springham explored the impact of viewing art and making in an art gallery context on verbal fluency and episodic memory over three sessions but also reported on themes arising from postintervention interviews which highlighted social benefits of being with the group personal effects of becoming their old selves and the value of sharing an experience between the person with a dementia and the caregiver
View A better-developed understanding of this process could influence future research and help to further refine subsequent involvement of art galleries and museums in health and well-being improvement programs thus supporting different national dementia strategies
View The intervention stimulated social interaction and positive affect which in turn enabled a sense of respite in caregivers daily lives
View Both those with dementia and caregivers experienced positive affect changes but also described positive effects of social interaction
View Facilitators and other museum staff along with caregivers noted changes in their perceptions toward people with dementia which possibly could be considered indicative of the potential for community and societal changes in attitudes toward dementia
View The resulting theory acknowledges the significance of the valued setting suggesting that while social interaction was a key factor the art gallery experience and context referred to by Smith as the museum effect played an important and perhaps decisive role
View The stimulation of viewing and making visual art in conjunction with a supportive group environment created opportunities for individuals with dementia to be perceived differently by their caregivers and gallery staff
View Art gallery facilitators expressed changed attitudes towards participants with dementia which appeared to be related to the opportunity to share an engaging experience with these individuals and to witness them making capable contributions in an intellectually challenging setting
View Continuously low levels of emotional or cognitive stimulation can lead to boredom disengagement and depression in people with early to middle stage dementia
View Social engagement and the resulting decrease in social isolation has been recognized as an important component of wellbeing in older adults including those with dementia and their caregivers
View Offering programs to people with dementia in a valued place such as an art gallery facilitated intellectual stimulation and social interaction which in turn helped to promote positive affect relational benefits and changed perceptions of dementia
View Rochester's Healthy Home educated nearly 3,5,0 visitors about reducing home environmental hazards, served as a focal point for community action, and integrated over 30 local groups into the Healthy Home Partnership, which continues to meet regularly
View Through a partnership between the Duke Institute for Genome Sciences & Policy and the Museum of Life and Science in Durham, NC, we developed and piloted a program aimed to bridge the concepts of formal and informal science learning with the experiential context of family and participatory learning
View Urban Forms a cultural foundation is responsible for developing the mural project
View Adaptive reuse is an urban sustainability development evolving process, used to manage assets and resources efficiently, resulting in economic development, increased local attraction, and revitalized community engagement
View A significant percentage of museum visitors reported that they combined their visit with a visit to another cultural recreatio l area nearby
View Seen as a prime example of an evolving cultural heritage conservation process applying the principles of economic environmental and social sustainability and used in order to manage mainly cultural heritage assets and resources eciently the interaction with social media use and smart city initiatives are examined
View Lauded as a compromise that combined social, cultural and economic aspects of urban regeneration, the mix of high-modernist paternalism and neoliberal place-making resulted in the integration of the space into the existing city bureaucracy as a museum-like institution, with elderly residents and artists becoming exhibits in a living diorama
View The multifunctionality of a museum has an impact on the adjacent urban space and it attributes to the museum a special urban role
View As well as attracting a significant number of tourists and contributing to a tourism boom this museum is also popular with local residents
View As beauty has a synesthetic character negations of beauty are not only in the transformations which invasively modify scenes and urban views but also in trac ows that invade the cities in the presence of excessive sound and color in poor quality of living linked to bad sunlight exposure in unrestrained lifestyle in the excess of food and consumption
View Aiming to relate built environment to health an early study conceived by the City Wellbeing Program in Australia proposes a framework of indicators related to the quality and attributes of built environment which are very useful in describing internal relationships of built environment system
View The systemic structure of social community makes social impacts of heritage more important than the sum of individual impacts
View As it improves personal development in turn heritage induces the improvement of interpersonal relationships
View In literature social impacts of heritage on community relate to three areas of impact: greater interaction between people that hence the strengthening of social capital; a deeper sense of collective identity linked to sense of place; enhanced levels of awareness and understanding between particular groups with a positive eect on community cohesion
View From personal wellbeing to community empowerment The observation of the multitude of bottom-up initiatives through the driving force of art is producing signicant results both as recovery of places and regeneration of relationships
View Artistic experience is generally a personal emotional experience which results in a direct relationship between the artistic input and who receives it; from personal emotional experience art enhances wellbeing also linked at making sense and satisfacting identity needs
View From the regeneration of relations between community and built environment it is possible to activate new virtuous development processes linked to symbiosis between people/place and synergies between people
View So art contributes to local development as it acts on people inuencing their behaviours and openness and stimulating their learning capacity and attitude to innovation
View While they feed material culture enhancing planning and designing capacity of local community and putting in relation old place and new technologies they contribute to regenerating social capital nurturing both bonding and social capital and building bracing capital
View With the transition from personal emotions to community belonging art contributes to producing new value creation circuits linked to sharing capacity and cooperative which in turn introduces new forms of wealth creation
View Integrating people needs and spacial quality art contributes to rethink the world and contributes to regenerate social institution and urban community starting from the recovery of public space with places for socializing
View MAAM can be considered a good practice for scientic interest because aiming to rebuild a micro community through the recovery of public space it tests an innovative tool that although externally-led as it is a cultural and architectural project since its birth continuously incorporates community in each phases of development
View Through MAAM museum people of Metropoliz are becoming a heritage community as a social organization that establishes a system of relations and interrelations and adopt a language of its own through which it communicates with the external environment
View The third set of indicators reveals the impact of the process on local people through measuring their active participation to culture and their involvement in the management of Metropoliz
View Social participation of people is quite low as participation rate in election indicators highlight
View It is instrumental in adding economic values and nurturing local attraction capacity but it can produce social spillovers linked to the interaction between residents and tourists nurturing the sense of identity
View It produces social crossovers as it causes the regeneration of relations and inter-relations between people and built environment
View This global network allows for better exhibitions better educational programs allows more people to learn through art attracts more and better artists and collections shares different values and contributes to enhancing better relationships between different countries regions cultures and people
View Socio-Strategic Embeddedness As an important player in regional tourism cultural policy and local development the GMB is becoming increasingly more involved either actively or passively in regional and local strategic planning processes
View Guggenheim New York other elements of the global Guggenheim network and other museums and institutions have affected the GMB and Bilbao and strengthened the GMBs local embeddedness boosting the attractiveness and the competitive advantage of the city-region of Bilbao
View While a number of cities with a strong musical heritage have developed tourism and urban regeneration around their musical past, primary research and photographic evidence gathered in Hamburg reveals that Hamburg is a city of conflicting identities
View In the past few years technical museums specializing in the preservation of the industrial heritage increased their cultural role by a function as instrument in the redevelopment of regions that underwent functional restructuring
View Museum and cultural organizations have been recognized as a value for the vitality and character of cities particularly within the idea of urban regeneration that includes the challenge to achieve long-term strategic reshaping of cities and neighbourhoods set against a history of short-term area-based initiatives
View The cultural regeneration of industrial towns also contributes to the creation of the towns touristic image
View Hodder argues that multivocality is beyond allowing the participants more voices more groups and more individuals as it involves changing practices and contexts so that disadvantaged groups have the opportunity to be heard and responded to []
View The reason that culture is so precious is it assists in the role of aiding mutual understanding tolerance and increasing resilience amongst community groups but also presents the opportunity for inclusion personal and economic growth and sustainability in cultural tourism terms []
View The aim of this program has been articulated by one of the program executives as Our goal was to put strategic outlines for cultural based community development that empower people to reshape their own cultural and inherited identity people to become more actively responsible towards Sustainability of their cultural heritage enhance their abilities to be able to protect their reach heritage and insure its sustainability as an important economic resource
View The Dynamics towards Inclusion In order to understand the dynamics towards social inclusion and its connection to community archaeology it is vital to spot the nature causes and consequences of social exclusion while tracking the relevance of community archaeology in building an inclusive society by investigating the potential of cultural heritage projects in building the social and cultural participation of diverse societies beyond the economic dimension and discuss its power in enhancing opportunities access to resources while empowering everyones voice and respect for rights
View Social inclusion can then be defined as a series of positive actions to achieve equality of access to goods and services to assist individual participation in their community and society to encourage the contribution of all persons to social and cultural life and to be aware of and to challenge all forms of discrimination []
View Accordingly social inclusion processes involve more than improving access to economic resources and this is clear too when defining social inclusion as a process to improve the terms of participation in society particularly for people who are disadvantaged through enhancing opportunities access to resources voice and respect for rights []
View The opportunity for social participation and its effects on the social fabric of the community is important as it involves relational ties between individuals and society and individuals and the state
View Partnerships and networks are developed during the different stages of the project in order to enable and encourage people to become active agents in their communities resisting terrorists groups developing resilience and building shared understanding
View Art and cultural engagement can play a positive role in raising peoples aspirations and making them aware of the opportunities that are available to them both within and outside their communities and this aligns well with developing soft power skills through the use of art and culture []
View Such engagement in cultural activities has been found to result in: the gaining of new skills improved informal and formal learning increased self-confidence self-esteem and feeling of self-worth the improvement or creation of social networks an enhanced quality of life the promotion of social cohesion personal and community empowerment and improvement of personal and local image identity and wellbeing
View The results revealed that locally the project empowered young people to have more confidence build resilience and have mutual understanding of others
View Practically we also found that art and culture policies that lead to community engagement storytelling and exchange of cultural heritage can have lasting effects that can aid in conflict prevention and help grow the development of cultural heritage especially as opportunities for women
View Creating local focal points is essential to establish trust and build further community-based activities
View Communities engaged with decisions and activities related to community archaeology initiate a dialogue amongst them at first and then with others in order to validate their stories which leads to greater awareness of peoples common visions values attitudes fears and hopes feeding in greater understanding in creating a shift in communities thinking and attitudes towards participation partnership and inclusion
View The recognition and misrecognition of community heritage
View But its social inclusion and audience development initiatives that foster a new generation of opera and ballet theatre-goers emerged as important findings as the Houses open door policy for daytime visitors along with live relays of current opera and ballet productions in other locations spark an interest in experiencing the building from the inside
View The findings reveal a rich array of positive benefits on the participants' social wellbeing with/in the community
View Geographies of health challenge researchers to attend to the positive effects of occupying creating and using all kinds of spaces including green space and more recently blue space
View The ndings reveal a rich array of positive benets on the participants' social wellbeing with/in the community
View For the purposes of our study we examined health primarily as a state of social wellbeing derived from a sense of involvement with other people and with our communities although we un- derstand that this is complexly interrelated with physical and mental wellbeing
View Researching heritage place and wellbeing As indicated the health geography literature has explored the benecial physical and mental health effects of participating in a range of community-based activities
View The most recent drive within the past years has been an increasing acceptance amongst policymakers and professionals that participating in archival work has real potential to improve community cohesion and individual wellbeing but the evidence is mostly anecdotal
View For example they can create mutually supportive atmospheres that can tackle social isolation and enhance people's quality of life and social wellbeing
View I think the social aspect of it is really important As well as creating opportunities to meet and build friendships with other people participating in heritage projects also appeared to have positive impacts on people's inter-personal skills
View There was a clear awareness of the benecial effects of giving young people an opportunity to become involved in the heritage research projects
View The ndings revealed a rich array of examples of gaining social wellbeing through interacting with others with shared interests
View Acknowledging these affects we feel adds credibility and balance to more positive wellbeing accounts
View Merciless selection related to rational optimization of spending public funds to protect the heritage the pressure of urbanization and dynamic changes in land use and extensive exploitation affect historical architectural objects
View Preservation itself attributed with the term intervention gained an extended meaning referring to physical preservation of the substance cultural preservation in both memory and imagination of inhabitants of a local area as well as visitors finally creating a strong bond between a local community and the pieces of heritage regardless of their ownership status
View The research contains the examination of the social background of the so-called weak monuments verification of mechanisms of enhancement and intervention related to selected sites in architecture urban design and town planning the review of current methodology and proposal of flexible strategies
View elements evoking associations with non-existing parts of monumental object site arrangement contrasting composition of old and new substance maintenance or strengthening of functional connections AMI activation with minimized intervention SBR - science based reconstruction MR metaphoric reminiscence IbC intervention by contrast duration self-financing of relic/monument preservation various means of intervention intensive protection of authentic structures intensive transformations and improvements in site arrangement extensions adaptations new volumes EOA economically oriented activation Ecosystems and Sustainable Development VII society and the environment the other one concentrated on the formulation of particular proposals to exemplify the principles of a selected strategy