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Id 174
Author Kasahara-Kiritani, M.; Hadlaczky, G.; Westerlund, M.; Carli, V.; Wasserman, C.; Apter, A.; Balazs, J.; Bobes, J.; Brunner, R.; McMahon, E.M.; Cosman, D.; Farkas, L.; Haring, C.; Kaess, M.; Kahn, J.P.; Keeley, H.; Nemes, B.; Bitenc, U.M.; Postuvan, V.; Saiz, P.; Sisask, M.; Värnik, A.; Sarchiapone, M.; Hoven, C.W.; Wasserman, D.
Title Reading books and watching films as a protective factor against suicidal ideation

Kasahara-Kiritani M, Hadlaczky G, Westerlund M, Carli V, Wasserman C, Apter A et al. Reading books and watching films as a protective factor against suicidal ideation. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12(12):15937–42.

Keywords Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE); adolescent; belonging; mental health; protective factors; suicide; book; audiovisual
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Abstract Reading books and watching films were investigated as protective factors for serious suicidal ideation (SSI) in young people with low perceived social belonging. Cross-sectional and longitudinal (12-month) analyses were performed using data from a representative European sample of 3256 students from the “Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe” study. Low social belonging was associated to SSI. However, reading books and watching films moderated this association, especially for those with lowest levels of belonging. This was true both at baseline and at 12 months of follow-up analyses. These media may act as sources of social support or mental health literacy and thus reduce the suicide risk constituted by low sense of belonging.

Metodology "A representative sample of 3256 adolescents (mean age 15.00  0.51, 60 cases missing; M/F: 1553/1689, 14 cases missing) from 179 randomly selected schools in 11 different European countries were assessed in this study. The sample constitutes the control group of a larger multi-center randomized control trial in the “Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe” (SEYLE) study. A structured self-report questionnaire was administered to adolescents in the participating schools.Data were stratified according to belonging. Characteristics between students with none-mild (SSI ) and moderate-severe suicidal ideation (SSI +) were compared using 2 tests (for categorical variables) and independent-sample t-tests (for continuous variables). Multiple regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between SSI (at baseline and at 12 months) and the amount of books read or films watched. Age (entered as a continuous variable), gender, residence, living condition (living with both parents), and the number of books read or films watched during theprevious 6 months were entered separately into the model to adjust for individual characteristics. Because students with SSI at baseline were excluded in the longitudinal analysis (cohort sampling), the estimated odds ratios from the longitudinal analyses were equivalent to incidence rate ratios (IRRs)."

Findings The results confirm previous findings identifying perceptions of belonging as predictor of suicidality. Moreover, the results also support the hypothesis that reading books or watching films act as protective factors in terms of SSI in students who have a low sense of belonging. This was the case both at the baseline and at a 12-month follow-up. It seems plausible that reading books or watching films, may to an extent, compensate for lacking social contact. It is possible that these activities act as a protective factor against suicidal ideation by providing social support: Adolescents may benefit from healthy peer-relationship, gaining role-models, emotional or motivational support, a sense of belonging, etc., through affiliation and identification. Other plausible explanations may be that books and films work as an escape, or retreat from daily stressors [14], and serve as a tool to develop better stress coping skills,
Open Access YES
DOI 10.3390/ijerph121215032
Search Database Snowballing
Technique questionnaire; Paykel suicide ladder; multiple regression analysis
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