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Id 211
Author Maini, L.,
Title Measuring creativity. Proposal for an index to measure the creativity of cities.
Maini, L. (2018). Measuring creativity. Proposal for an index to measure the creativity of cities. Brussels: KU Leuven, Faculty of Economics and Business - Campus Brussels.

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Abstract The academic research on creativity and the creative economy has evolved considerably over the past twenty years. The critical role of cultural and creative industries (CCIs) in urban socio-economic development has received increasing recognition. Local actors, cultural practitioners and policy makers are in need of statistical tools which help assess the level of creativity of their cities. The main purpose of this work is to confirm the hypothesis that it is possible to provide a numerical estimate of such a complex and multidimensional concept. Therefore, this study first draws attention to the characteristics of the creative city. Then, it points out the importance of promoting CCIs policies in cities as key drivers of socio-economic development and sustainable growth. Finally, after a review of existing creativity indices, the study attempts to integrate the research on measuring the creativity of cities by proposing a new composite index. The empirical testing of the proposed index is carried out in the European capital cities. In the last section, conclusions of the study are drawn, providing interesting insights for future research.


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At the heart of the creative economy are the creative industries. .
The promotion of creative policies has been used by urban policy makers to boost and enhance not only its economic growth and development, but also the attractiveness of the city, the quality of life, and the social integration of foreigners. .
The emerging cultural policy revolution puts such topics (Culture and creative industries, Heritage, Artistic intervention, Cultural institutions and activities...) at the core of the policy agendas at regional and city levels. .
Cities are territory of dense networks of interacting people, markets and activities. .
(i) the promotion of cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue; .
It is heritage that brings together cultural aspects from the historical, anthropological, ethnic, aesthetic and societal viewpoints, influences creativity and is the origin of a number of heritage goods and services as well as cultural activities. .
The creative industries not only enable countries and regions to preserve their traditional heritage and to promote their own unique cultural identity to the world, but they also provide these countries with a source of economic growth, employment creation and increased participation in the global economy. .
Moreover, education and learning play a fundamental role in shaping a creative environment. .
In recent years, environmental sustainability has become a matter of interest in cultural policymaking. .
Creativity and culture have been placed at the centre of regional and local development plans, both as a tool for urban regeneration and as a key driver for city development. .
It usefully places the notion of expressive value at the core of its rationale, including a wider spectrum of aesthetic, social, spiritual, historical, symbolic, and authenticity values. .
Every urban area has cultural and creative resources, which make a place unique, in terms of attractiveness and of identity. .
Culture, and in particular the cultural and creative industries, have become a motor of transformation and development of cities. .
Recognising and promoting cultural and creative industries at local level is critical as it can have a substantial impact on the socio-economic scenario. .
Culture and creativity can play a role in addressing city issues of public interest. .
More specifically, particular attention has been dedicated to the cultural environment of a city - creative hubs, libraries, theatres, cinemas, museums - which is essential to the development of a creative place. .
cultural and creative events, cultural tourism, the presence of creative opportunities and spaces. .
They aim at proving the culture and the creative industries as key drivers for local economic growth. .
the ability to invent new ways of thinking about things, new art forms, new designs, new photos, new concepts and so forth. .
Creative activities are inclusive by nature, open processes that involve the civil society in order to stimulate inclusion and human creativity. .
Despite the lack of resources, the study eventually contributes to the cultural and creative industries policy debates, building on the pre-existing indices and providing new ideas for discussion. .
Those are specific cases in which creativity has acted as the key driver of human progress and technological innovation. .
Local festivals and other celebrations should be promoted in order to strengthen the local identity. .
According to Landry, the presence of art and artists in a place - more specifically, their ingenuity and capacity for invention - is a facilitator to develop creative thought and encourage innovation. .
Finally, he recommends that regional political decision-makers ensure a high quality of living and leisure amenities for the open and diverse creative class, which represent a formidable powerhouse for cities, forming a resource that brings in further creative activities and thus is of great importance to future regional development. .
Cities have invested significantly in the creative industries in order to foster economic growth and become hubs of innovative industries. .
It can foster income generation, job creation and export earnings while promoting social inclusion, cultural diversity and human development. .
Central to this argument is the idea that city must be attractive to creative class if they want to prosper and further develop. .
A cluster has the tendency to generate both higher incomes and rates of employment growth, but also has positive impact on economic development, urban growth, creativity and innovation. .
Consequently, greater concentration of jobs in research and development as well as creative employment will in turn lead the city to achieve a competitive advantage and to increase the rate of economic growth and job creation. .
A high share of creative industries and new businesses is a good indicator of creativity. .
In addition to that, creative cities are able to attract and retain creative workforce. .
Accordingly, they are making smart investment in culture to deliver greater social, economic and cultural impacts. .
The role of creativity and creative industries in cities should be a relevant matter of analysis for their ability and capacity: to promote cultural heritage; to act as centres for urban and regional growth; to foster urban liveability, social cohesion and cultural integration; to contribute to economic vitality of cities, in terms of output, value added, incomes, employment and further indirect and induced effects (positive externalities) (see e.g. tourism and cultural heritage, cultural attractions); to attract investment in other industries (UNCTAD, 2010, p. 12). .
This analysis showed the many different ways in which promoting investment and public support to the CCS can be important not only to foster sustainable economic growth, but also to place creativity as a potential contributor to social inclusion, intercultural dialogue, quality of life, urban regeneration. .
First, cities have acquired an even greater role in socio-economic development due to the high concentration of people and economic activity they favour. .
The model is based on the proposition that it is the cultural value of cultural goods that gives these industries their most distinguishing characteristic. .
Heritage has a role in promoting tourism and attracting tourism to cities. .
In order to increase the competitiveness of their cities and induce people to move there, local policy makers should start raising public awareness about the importance of creative industries and the impact that creative clusters can have on the quality of life of citizens. .
Identifying sector breadth and depth can be helpful when evaluating the different models and has important implications for the formulation of cultural policy. .
Then, it points out the importance of promoting CCIs policies in cities as key drivers of socio-economic development and sustainable growth. .
In order to test the citys ability to satisfy the cultural expectations of its population, the index also includes an indicator of the overall cultural satisfaction with the cultural facilities in the city. .
Creative cities have the public and private infrastructures and institutions that create a vibrant local environment and trigger the production, development, and implementation of new ideas. .
Finally, geographical clustering generates positive externalities in the areas where they are located, ranging from improved image and reputation and increased numbers of tourists to greater social pride and revitalised local economies (2017, p. 32). .
This model was proposed to confirm the hypothesis that a relatively higher concentration of creative enterprises and creative workers in a geographic area yields a competitive edge by elevating the areas quality of life and improving its ability to attract economic activity (2006, p. 7). .
This resulted in a higher concentration of jobs in R&D as well as a rise of creative employment, which leads the city to achieve a creative competitive advantage. .
An important aspect of the cultural industries, according to UNESCO, is that they are central in promoting and maintaining cultural diversity and in ensuring democratic access to culture (2010, pp. 11-12). .
Creative experience providers typically include theatre, opera and dance production companies, and live music organisers and promoters. .
Arts - this group includes creative industries based purely on art and culture. .
While providing a new perspective in the discourse about creativity, KEA highly emphasized the crucial role of cultural and creative industries in promoting and being a source of creativity. .
For this reason, what emerged from this study - a crucial turning point in cultural policy development - was that in order to benefit and grow from the development of creative and cultural industries, these sectors needed specific and targeted support at European, national, regional and local level. .
Therefore, setting the basis for a virtuous institutional environment becomes another fundamental factor to retain creative people, and creativity, in a city. .
The European added value of the programme Creative Europe is to be found in promoting, strengthening and protecting European cultural diversity and cultural heritage and creativity. .
Artwork is inspired by heritage, identity values and symbolic meaning. .
They include: use of heritage and memory to build self-awareness, self-worth, and social cohesion to foster and establish social values to combat xenophobia, racism, gender discrimination and extreme nationalism; empowerment of people through artist and design-led education, living labs, and cocreation methodologies; capacity building to enable quality local cultural expression, audience development, and participation; intercultural dialogues and positive, proactive approaches to managing cultural integration; the fight against social inequality in urban and rural contexts, by stimulating cultural entrepreneurship and better management of local cultural resources to maximise participation and ownership from citizens (KEA et al., 2017, p. 8-9) 4 Methodology Creativity is an elusive concept. .
Creative policymaking can promote participation and involvement, often of marginalised groups, and contributes to strengthening social ties among communities (KEA, 2006). .
One of the main attributes of the creative economy is that it can generate substantial economic growth and, at the same time, stimulate creativity and civic environmental engagement, thus stimulating people to take action to achieve the sustainable development goals7 (UNCTAD 2010). .
Encouraging creativity in this wider way - he concludes - is key to a creative city agenda. .
As mentioned in previous sections, a diverse environment fosters the generation and the flow of ideas, and it finally attracts (and helps to retain) talent. .