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Id 512
Author Horgan D., Dimitrijević B.
Title Frameworks for citizens participation in planning: From conversational to smart tools
Horgan D., Dimitrijević B.; Frameworks for citizens participation in planning: From conversational to smart tools ;Sustainable Cities and Society vol:48.0 issue: page:

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Abstract The paper concentrates on tools and technologies used for participatory processes in sustainable urban planning. Scotlands Place Standard, BREEAM-Communities assessment tool and the Smart City technologies for co-production in urban planning and design are analysed through literature review. Aktivniy Grazhdanin, a citizen engagement portal, established to devolve decision-making on aspects of Moscows urban planning to citizens, provides a case study on the potential use of online tools to solicit citizens’ views on the city management and transformation. Tools were selected as they provide participatory frameworks for developing consensus among decision makers and stakeholders on planning strategy, but use different methods - Scotlands Place Standard initiates a dialogue with interested groups; BREEAM-Communities includes a consultation with stakeholders at a later stage; and Aktivniy Grazhdanin attempts to solicit stakeholders’ views by using online tools. Comprehensive criticism in the research of Kitchin (2014) and Angelidou and Psaltoglou (2017) identified themes around ownership, governance and participation that informed the line of questioning in the case study. The research highlights the strengths and weaknesses of the analysed tools. It recommends how frameworks can be best shaped by such tools to achieve local ownership and provide structure for a more inclusive urban planning. © 2019


Candidate transition variables
Contemporary approaches to sustainable urban planning and design recognise the importance of developing place-based frameworks for development that take holistic social, economic and environmental factors into consideration. .
This has allowed the city to take a holistic view for planning for both public services and infrastructure. .
As a way to build common bonds and understanding between citizens and groups, health and well-being are a powerful proxy. .
Based around an open and agile interpretation of this framework, what may emerge is a set of innovative architectures - urban design solutions, digital environments and social service infrastructure that work in concert to promote greater community resilience. .
This hypothesis resonates with the view that community and built environment infrastructure should not be designed in isolation but conceived of together in order to develop genuine social value and achieve real social impact. .
It can be said the Place Standard is a comprehensive tool for engaging communities in decisionmaking about local priorities for social improvement. .
Overall the tool has been well-received as an aid in aligning ambitions within a community ecosystem, particularly within the context of community engagement, owing to its universality and ease of use. .
When used to facilitate open dialogue, tools such as the Place Standard can help communities better contribute to the development of strategic mechanisms like that of the 'Smart City', and in turn can provide the basis of a framework for multi-stakeholder place-based collaboration. .
Given its popularity among commercial leaders - namely large technology companies - and local governments focused on growth, the Smart City concept and suite of technologies can be viewed as a means for improving decision-making on management of cities services, currently heavily focused on economic improvement. .
These are frameworks - consisting of focused policies and local structures - that can be open and agile enough to generate ownership amongst a diverse group of stakeholders, evoking alternative pathways to urban development. .
These observations point to the need to engage communities early in the design process - with community focused tools like the Place Standard, and to use these to facilitate a common vision or strategic mechanism for development across an ecosystem of competing stakeholder positions (developer, local government and community). .
In Scotland, communities who are seeking to embark on a journey of regeneration or physical improvement are encouraged to use the Place Standard, often with the support of Planning Aid Scotland through workshops and charrettes (Planning Aid Scotland, 2019). .
The tool prompts discussion among stakeholders, helping to identify assets and resources within a community as well as challenges and areas for improvement. .
The tool helps community ecosystem comprised of multiple actors to collaborate, plan for and measure social impact. .
Prevailing strategic mechanisms driving contemporary development interventions include those that focus on shared outcomes for change delivered by focusing on aspects that appeal to the whole eco-system within a place such as health and well-being, energy independence or technology-led change. .
The smart city collaboration mechanisms: approaches and concerns The Smart City concept promotes cross-sector collaboration and partnership among stakeholders within a place to develop collective strategies for social innovation. .