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Id 80
Author Dunphy, K.; Baker, F. A.; Dumaresq, E.; Carroll-Haskins, K.; Eickholt, J.; Ercole, M.; Kaimal, G.; Meyer, K.; Sajnani, N.; Shamir, O.Y.; Wosch, T.
Title Creative Arts Interventions to Address Depression in Older Adults: A Systematic Review of Outcomes, Processes, and Mechanisms
Dunphy, K., Baker, F. A., Dumaresq, E., Carroll-Haskins, K., Eickholt, J., Ercole, M., ... & Wosch, T. (2019). Creative arts interventions to address depression in older adults: a systematic review of outcomes, processes, and mechanisms. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 2655.

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Abstract Depression experienced by older adults is proving an increasing global health burden, with rates generally 7% and as high as 27% in the USA. This is likely to significantly increase in coming years as the number and proportion of older adults in the population rises all around the world. Therefore, it is imperative that the effectiveness of approaches to the prevention and treatment of depression are understood. Creative arts interventions, including art, dance movement, drama, and music modalities, are utilized internationally to target depression and depressive symptoms in older adults. This includes interventions led by trained arts therapists as well as other health and arts professionals. However, to date there has not been a systematic review that reports effects and examines the processes (why) and mechanisms (how) of creative arts interventions are used to address depression in this older age group. This systematic review of studies on creative arts interventions for older adults experiencing depression examined: outcomes of four creative arts modalities (art, dance movement, drama, and music); with particular attention paid to processes documented as contributing to change in each modality; and mechanisms considered to result from these processes. Our analysis of 75 articles (17 art, 13 dance, 4 drama, and 41 music) indicates mostly significant quantitative or positive qualitative findings, particularly for interventions led by creative arts therapists. Mechanisms of change gleaned from the studies that were common across modalities include physical (e.g., increased muscle strength; neurochemical effects, such as endorphin release), intra personal (e.g., enhanced self-concept, strengthened agency and mastery; processing and communication of emotions), cultural (e.g., creative expression, aesthetic pleasure), cognitive (e.g., stimulation of memory), and social (e.g., increased social skills and connection), that were all considered to contribute to reduced depression and symptoms. Recommendations for future research includes stronger focus on testing of processes and mechanisms.



Creative Arts Interventions to Address Depression in Older Adults: A Systematic Review of Outcomes, Processes, and Mechanisms. expressions of anger and hostility through visual arts self-contemplation expression of emotion in socially acceptable ways use of imagination interventions developed to assess the mental state of the individuals who had difficulty expressing emotions as a tool of expression facilitated the individuals probing their own thoughts and feelings improved cognitive function enhanced mental health reduced depression. seventeen art studies from an initial sample of met all inclusion criteria as detailed in table. however the effectiveness of learning of steps for amelioration of depression and its symptoms evidenced in these studies may point to it being a worthwhile consideration for dm therapists especially for this older adult age group. this was particularly evident in the dance studies where there was much focus on physical movement without specific articulation of the well-evidenced relationship between physical exercise and reduced depression or depressive symptoms.

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