CANDIDATE TRANSITION VARIABLES

Candidate transition variables for socialimpact


Social Impact:


Article Sentence
View A broader definition of health including wellbeing and an emphasis on preventative medicine and multi-agency approaches to care within the UK s National Health Service, has facilitated the work of museums and galleries in this area
View The aim of the research project was to assess the impact on wellbeing of taking museum objects into hospitals and healthcare contexts
View heritage health and wellbeing: assessing the impact of a heritage focused intervention on health and wellbeing
View the heritage sector is facing an unprecedented challenge and opportunity in being asked to contribute to arguably the most important issue affecting the word today namely health and wellbeing
View galloway and bell identified that quality of life qol and wellbeing are being factored into public policy making and service delivery across much of the developed world
View the uks museums libraries and archive mla councils outcomes framework recognises the role heritage organisations have in contributing to adult health and general wellbeing as well as children and young peoples health
View numerous other policy directives and related research such as that undertaken by the uk think-tank the new economics foundation also acknowledge the important role culture and heritage play in wellbeing both of individuals and communities
View the museum sector has increasingly been aware of the possibility of valuing their work in terms of health and wellbeing
View culture unlimited for example created a manifesto for museums potential benefit in the mental health field museums of the mind showing that museums strengths in perspective memory beauty and being places of sanctuary could underwrite mental wellbeing
View silvermans the social work of musuems considers museums as places of inspiration and healing and proposes that museums can contribute to individual health in at least five ways: promote relaxation; immediate intervention to affect beneficial changes in physiology emotions or both; encourage introspection; public health advocacy; and enhancing healthcare environments
View although there is considerable anecdotal evidence that the heritage sector makes an important contribution to improving health and wellbeing and several examples of good practice robust empirical and qualitative evidence is scarcer
View arts-in-health also forms a background to the heritage in hospitals research and has a relatively high profile and support from the arts council england commission for architecture and the built environment cabe and the department of health
View staricoffs review of research in this area shows benefits to patients who received art interventions during their hospital stay
View the review focuses on research which demonstrates arts role in the reduction of specific conditions including pain and other health benefits rather than focusing on the more ambiguous wellbeing which although contributing to health remains a more individualised set of benefits
View arts-in-health has benefited from the increased emphasis by the uks department of health on preventative medicine multi-agency approaches and maintenance of wellbeing uk department of health ; mla ; a strategic background that this project capitalises on
View funded by the uks arts and humanities research council the heritage in hospitals project drew upon research in the arts-in-health field and the concept of wellbeing
View falk and dierkings work on learning in museums is also influential in articulating health and wellbeing outcomes
View their research has resulted in the articulation of the interactive learning model which proposes that the physical environment the social context the personal background of the museum visitor and subsequent experiences all affect the learning that happens during a museum visit
View when they have a museum encounter whether in everyday life or in a healthcare institution the impact the museum resource will have on their wellbeing should be affected by their physical environment the social situation and their personal levels of interest motivation and current wellbeing and health
View nef define wellbeing as most usefully thought of as the dynamic process that gives people a sense of how their lives are going through the interaction between their circumstances activities and psychological resources or mental capital nef
View they suggest that in order to achieve wellbeing people need: a sense of individual vitality to undertake activities which are meaningful engaging and which make them feel competent and autonomous a stock of inner resources to help them cope when things go wrong and be resilient to changes beyond their immediate control
View it is also crucial that people feel a sense of relatedness to other people so that in addition to the personal internally focused elements peoples social experiences the degree to which they have supportive relationships and a sense of connection with others form a vital aspect of well-being
View nefs indicator structure adapted from their national accounts framework museums are facing similar challenges in measuring wellbeing to those experienced a few decades ago when trying to measure museum learning in the sense that defining museum wellbeing and then capturing the individuals response is difficult and conflicts with the more formal methods used in traditional health measurements thomson et al
View methodology research contexts the heritage in hospitals project worked within a number of hospitals and healthcare contexts with the research aim to understand the therapeutic effects of a museum intervention on hospital and other healthcare users and to develop a protocol for effective engagement in healthcare contexts
View findings the research identified engagement processes and expressions of wellbeing as key outcomes from museum handling sessions
View there was a range of both phenomena evident in different sessions depending on a complex mix of patient background wellbeing before session personality interest medical condition and the strengths of the session itself
View engagement was found to be an important process for hospital patients because of the specific challenges they were facing including worry and anxiety and even fear boredom pain dwelling on illness uncertainty loss of pre-morbid identity lethargy and depression and lack of stimulation
View most participants expressed improved wellbeing after the intervention such as improved mood calmed anxiety or a feeling of enhanced confidence
View this was partly because the starting point of wellbeing was such an important factor in quick and deep engagement rather than just the experience of the session itself but also because participants had differing levels of ability in articulating their feelings and sense of wellbeing
View the heritage objects proved to be layered in their significance to patients and versatile in use since we observed different patients accessed them sensorily affectively and/or intellectually
View the objects provided several ways through which patients could access these wellbeing benefits
View the term which is used widely in learning and education indicates an active motivation a focus involvement and concentration the first steps to learning but also one could speculate wellbeing
View engagement was not achieved in every session and it ran along a continuum from low response and interest through distraction or the reduction of negative emotion; through stimulation or the increase in positive emotion activity and thoughts ultimately to a sense of wonder
View a high level of engagement created a strong three-way dialogue and rhythm between objects facilitator and participant
View evidence of engagement being drawn into the objects was exhibited through attention wonder curiosity and interaction with the object linking objects to their own lives and experience and cognitions: some participants notably those from a neurological rehabilitation unit and mental health in- patients did not always show signs of engagement for example by facial expressions speech attention but nonetheless appeared engaged
View this is demonstrated by julie a female cancer patient: wellbeing outcomes engagement in the objects provided stimulation and distraction both highly important for wellbeing in the hospital context
View wellbeing in various forms was articulated directly by many participants and carers during and after the sessions and participants mentioned: positive emotions and cheering up; giving new perspectives and thoughts about their lives; producing new learning interest and desire to learn; initiating personal memories and recollections giving a renewed sense of identity; passing time much quicker; creating a positive mood; bringing out a sense of vitality and energy to override depressive or lethargic feelings; relieving anxiety; it was something completely different and stimulated both social interaction and tactile senses which were in short supply in hospital this was particularly noted by staff at the rehabilitation and psychiatric hospitals with long term patients
View patients mentioned factors such as their illness or impairment their treatment the hospital environment and uncertainty of the future as decreasing their sense of wellbeing as one woman described: the hospital context was seen to be blank boring and uncomfortable with long periods of waiting and introspection and when simultaneously combined with illness can strip someone of their more personal attributes normal feelings and individuality watkins
View the object sessions provided a creative opportunity for bringing back some of the pre-morbid self through stimulation of the social intellectual experiential and emotional identity and distraction from the new medicalised standardised and uncertain self-defined by the illness
View wellbeing in many forms was articulated directly by many participants and carers during and after the sessions: table below provides a summary of our qualitative analysis which aimed at gaining an in depth understanding of the process of sessions and the impact of a session on an individuals sense of wellbeing
View impact of heritage on heaqlt and wellbeing : positive feelings excitement enjoyment wonder privilege luck surprise learning competence positive feelings engagement vitality skills and confidence engagement competence self esteem vitality meaning and energy alertness purpose lack of negative frrlings positive mood sense of identity meaning and purpose self esteem vitality inspiring calming absence negative feelings social experience tactile experience competence autonomy vitality self esteem supportive relationships competence autonomy positive feelings
View conclusions the heritage in hospitals research has described the types of engagement and wellbeing benefits possible from a museum intervention in a healthcare context
View the session recordings patient interviews and research field note observations showed that once patient participants were engaged museum objects provided unique and idiosyncratic routes to stimulation and distraction
View the data showed that patients used the heritage objects combined with tailored and easy social interaction sensory stimulus and learning opportunities to tap into concerns about identity emotions energy levels and motivation
View participants reactions to handling museum objects gave an insight into why heritage objects in particular rather than pictures or non-heritage objects produce engagement feelings positive and negative and wellbeing benefits
View interesting completely different and yet able to reach into participants previous experiences knowledge and skills museum sessions quickly drew people into the objects in some cases and in doing so drew people out of their illness and environment
View the multi-centre research also showed that a museum handling session is a versatile and accessible tool to improve wellbeing for long and short term patients and sufferers of mental and physical ill health alike
View further work needs to be undertaken to assess how far improved wellbeing as a result of object handling is sustained and sustaining for patients
View the heritage in hospitals project provides a model for museum work to enhance wellbeing in health care settings
View there is further work to be done to make health and wellbeing a mainstream part of museum programming but with more projects like heritage in hospitals running and more funders interested in health and wellbeing this type of outreach work may well be seen on many museums programming plans and is a powerful way of providing access to previously excluded audiences
View given the future funding landscape and the changing emphasis towards to individual health and wellbeing across social policy the heritage in hospitals project and others like it indicate that the heritage sector has a significant role to play in improving health and wellbeing
View as outlined in chatterjee et al heritage has the potential to play a transitional and transformational role in healthcare and wellbeing
View in line with previous research it was predicted that after participating in the active conditions dancing cycling listening to music but not the quiet condition participants feelings of well-being would increase as measured by an increase in positive affect and a decrease in negative affect
View effects on well-being psychological distress and fatigue positive affect negative affect and fatigue scores were calculated from sees which participants completed before and after engaging in their respective activities
View figure illustrates the percentage change in mood and fatigue as well as associated changes in heart rate
View in accordance with our predictions participants who engaged in min of dance showed signicant improvements in emotional well- being as measured by an increase in positive affect and a decrease in negative affect
View notably while both dancing and listening to music increased emotional well-being they had dissociable effects on different aspects of divergent thinking with greater change in positive affect being associated with greater enhancement in measures of verbal and non-verbal creativity respectively
View together these ndings highlight an area for further research into the potential use of two different types of approaches dancing as well as listening to music in helping to enhance positive affect decrease negative affect and reduce fatigue in both clinical and non-clinical settings
View An investigation examined the structured scientific evidence on healthcare facilities and its impact on patients health outcomes under a holistic conceptual evaluative framework
View Such a holistic framework needs to demonstrate the cumulative and interactive effects of various HBE characteristics on patients health outcomes and wellbeing
View the physical environment eg healthcare buildings plays an essential role in supporting care services individuals and their social interactions
View this focus is in line with the definition of the healing environ- ment raised by stichler which describes a physical setting that supports patients and families through the stresses imposed by illness hospitalization medical visits the process of healing p
View the search was performed using the keywords evidence-based design healing environment sensory/built environment physical/ clinical/hospital settings design factors wellbeing health outcome and health benefit
View they proposed an environmentbehaviour factors model to identify physical environment factors that influence behavioural and other health characteristics of residents with alzhei- mers disease in nursing homes
View for example the quality of sleep experience may be affected by the patients physical pain and psychological stress level conditions
View such reviews highlight the lack of an adequate method that integrates credible findings holistically to demonstrate the cumulative and interac- tive effects of various environmental aspects on occu- pants wellbeing
View this should further enable the future development of guidelines to support designers and healthcare planners about which hbe characteristics enable better health and wellbeing
View To investigate the effect of audiovisual distraction with video eyeglasses on the behavior of children undergoing dental restorative treatment and the satisfaction with this treatment as reported by children, parents, dental students, and experienced pediatric dentists
View when compared to non-musicians studies have found that adult musicians have increased grey matter volume bilaterally in the primary motor cortices somatosensory cortex premotor regions and superior parietal regions responsible for integrating sensory information gaser & schlaug right superior temporal gyrus location of the primary auditory cortex bermudez & zatorre and the left inferior frontal gyrus location of brocas area involved in language
View cognitive differences between musicians and non-musicians studies with children worldwide have shown that participating in structured musical activities outside of school increases academic achievement halwani et al
View after controlling for sex education and physical activity they found that playing a musical instrument was related to lower likelihood of dementia and cognitive impairment in late life
View cognitive changes and reserve in late life the cognitive aging literature suggests that throughout the aging process brain atrophy occurs in specific neuroanatomical regions rather than globally
View importantly the sls findings suggested that training a cognitive ability eg exercises to enhance memory maintained positive effects up to years later
View using education as a proxy theoretically makes sense in that educational attainment can contribute to both neural changes and cognitive changes and is one of the strongest factors associated with decreasing risk for dementia bowirrat friedland farrer baldwin & korczyn
View suggested that education may be related to performance on neuropsychological tests because of cr because of childhood iq other cognitive skills that influence educational attainment or non-linear rates of age related decline
View one study barnes mendes de leon wilson bienias & evans found that in both african american and caucasian older adults the effects of a larger social network on cognitive level and reducing cognitive decline were significant even after controlling for ses cognitive engagement physical activity depression and chronic medical conditions
View physical activity and the maintenance of cognitive ability in older adults has been studied extensively and findings suggest that independent of social and other cognitive factors physical activity protects against cognitive decline in late life abbott ; richards et al
View a model proposed by richards and deary ; see figure suggests that cr represents premorbid cognition with other factors such as brain size and neuronal density early environmental experiences and extent of brain lesions that collectively contribute to the clinical expression of brain injury
View the focus of the current study was on the cognitive function of older adults and the relationship between cognition and other influencing factors including early environment physical and social activity and pre- morbid cognitive ability
View community health activities model program for seniors champs
View the results of the current study suggest that cognitively normal older adult musicians have higher performance levels within some cognitive domains when compared to non-musicians even after controlling for education physical and social activity and health conditions
View the prefrontal cortex pfc plays an important role in the domain of executive function and may be more sensitive to aging than other cognitive domains or neuroanatomical areas raz & rodrigue
View in the study described above musicians showed increased volume in the pop suggesting that either their music training led to an increase in volume or individuals with better language skills stayed in music lessons longer
View exposure to such an activity as training in a musical instrument may boost an individuals cr at a time of life that might be critical to cognitive function
View specifically the current study provides further support to the unique influence of music training on cognitive differences in late life consistent with previously proposed models of cognitive aging and decline richards & deary see figure
View one potential explanation for lack of eects related to cigarette use is that conven- tional tobacco products have been available longer than alternative products and have been addressed in prevention programs suggesting that adolescents may have already achieved a ceiling eect in knowledge risk perceptions and beliefs about cigarettes prior to game- playing
View We hypothesize that live music and dance drama provide a powerful technology to overcome barriers such as illiteracy, lack of adequate media access, inadequate health resources, and entrenched sociocultural attitudes
View participants mentioned malaria fever cholera ulcer diabetes and severe headache as the severest and most prevalent diseases plaguing their communities
View generally they enjoyed the production viewing it as enhancing and strengthening traditional culture as well as encouraging good practices for improved health par- ticularly by sharing knowledge related to good hygiene and sanitation
View tracking data: after the interventions we enlisted articu- late observant volunteers from each village to share their telephone numbers with the core research team so they could be contacted approximately every weeks to report on observed behavioral changes in their homes
View Creative arts interventions, including art, dance movement, drama, and music modalities, are utilized internationally to target depression and depressive symptoms in older adults
View depression affects approximately % of the worlds older adults world health organization a with the highest rates in countries including australia % national ageing research institute and usa up to % with major depression and % with depressive symptoms mental health america
View depression also increases the perception of poor health and the utilization of health care services and costs
View older adults with depressive symptoms have poorer functioning compared to those with other chronic medical conditions and higher rates of suicide
View protective factors relevant for depression in later life include age-related increases in psychological resilience higher education and socio-economic status engagement in valued activities and religious or spiritual involvement fiske et al
View in music and music therapy mt a significant number of reviews indicate this modalitys potential to support: reduced risk, prevention and decreased depression
View enhanced self-awareness and empowerment self-esteem reduced stress
View outcomes: improvement in mental quality of life better adhesion to therapeutic community treatment and progress in patients self-rating of group therapy observed outcomes: acceptance of the cognitive physical limitations of others seeking to understand others through requesting facilitator assistance caring for others including others during sessions altruism a sense of belonging trust humor and spirituality
View increased self-esteem through mastery of materials
View shifting from passively waiting for guidance and assistance to increasingly independence in art process increased awareness of needs to resolve old conflicts restoration of confidence communication abilities and feelings of belonging to a group reduction of ruminating and recurring thoughts through guided clay manipulation and verbal processing
View visual communication of thoughts feelings enable self-expression through different themes art therapy to reduce stress and incorporate fine motor skills cognitive training
View n promotion of autonomy and validation of experiences of disease depression negative experiences
View expressions of anger and hostility through visual arts self-contemplation expression of emotion in socially acceptable ways use of imagination interventions developed to assess the mental state of the individuals who had difficulty expressing emotions as a tool of expression facilitated the individuals probing their own thoughts and feelings improved cognitive function enhanced mental health reduced depression
View stimulate and benefit cognition physical state emotion communication social relations and spiritual dimensions improved concentration emotion self-confidence and motivation
View facilitation of meaningful group engagement successful experiences in art processes aiding in relaxation increasing confidence and empowerment in ability to manage emotions
View increased socialization increased aesthetic skills increased-self-reflection decreased depression and anxiety increased life satisfaction
View depression was addressed as a primary symptom and as a co-morbid condition with parkinsons disease stroke and dementia
View no mechanism discussed specifically but relationships between other outcomes noted including: improved qol increased cognitive and physical function and enhanced wellbeing enhanced coping and increased sense of independence
View participants perception of benefit of physical activity motivation provided by the group context psychological benefits such as use of brain improved mental health
View cognitive health stimulation posited as important creative and didactic elements valued seen as suitable mostly for women
View rhythmic moves to improve functional emotional and behavioral skills integration of physiological psychological sociological aspects of wellbeing facilitate self-expression and communication reduced fear and isolation and better self- esteem memorization of movement sequences and attention supported by intentional changes of movements make high cognitive demand that can help reduce depression
View hypothesized effect: creative arts participation enhances positive social engagement which enhances mood enjoyment opportunities for behaviors such as remembering recognizing and expressing what they were feeling and understanding appreciating and being sensitive to others
View increased physical function social interaction altered mood increased learning
View dancing in combination with tai chi and singing may protect from metabolic syndrome and brain function decline and promote a positive qol including psychological health social engagement and ability to cope well with depression enjoyment dance seen as attractive to women
View in several studies changes in clients physical state through dance such as improved balance and strengthened muscles was seen to be related to reduced symptoms of depression even though this had not been the central focus of the intervention
View reported reduced falls-risk as a result of dance participation which was seen in turn to have positive impact on mood states such as depression
View based on the processes identified in the literature we propose that the mechanisms of a change for depressive symptoms through dance interventions are: physical: improved physical performance and function including balance muscle strength joint sense and proprioception cultural: enjoyable aesthetic experiences cognitive: cognitive decline slowed through exercise and stimulation of brain circuits used to learn dance steps activation of motor neurological brain regions through improvised or expressive movement that may contribute to changes in brain structure social: positive social engagement stimulation and enhancement of communicative and relational capacities through shared experiences in dance
View reinforcing participants strengths dramatic projection prompts social interaction and facilitates perspective through externalization of inner conflicts
View neurophysiologic and neurochemical effects of receptive music therapy no significant difference in depression
View music increases the independence feeling self-confidence leads to cope with feelings such as helplessness and depression induce alpha waves trigger the endorphin release
View bdi beck depression inventory cbs cornell-brown scale for quality of life ces-d the center for epidemiologic studies depression scale cod crossover design comp a composite depression scale constructed on the ham-d double weighted bdi and hads-dz-scores csdd cornell scale for depression in dementia gadi goldberg anxiety and depression inventory gds geriatric depression scale hads hospital anxiety and depression scale hads-d hospital anxiety and depression scale- depression sub-scale hdrs hamilton depression rating scale ham-d hamilton rating scale for depression madrs montgomery-asberg depression rating scale phq- patient health questionnaire poms profile of mood states pwds persons with dementia
View interventions involved therapists technique of empathic attunement and activities involving mirroring doubling and role-reversal dramatic embodiment of inner conflicts dramatic projective in the form of roleplay and enactment
View the studies reviewed suggest that shifts in depressive symptoms that result from drama interventions are catalyzed by mechanisms of change such as: physical: engagement in playful embodied activity contributing to sense of vitality and regulated relaxed breathing cognitive: orientation to past and present reinforcement of positive coping strategies coherent organization of self- expression increased memory recall facilitation of meaning making emotional intrapersonal: use of metaphors roles and playful embodied enactments providing a suitable distance to activate internal resources and externalize and communicate inner conflicts and strengths and facilitate emotional regulation social: individual and group activities prompting increased positive social interaction
View processing of emotions supported changes from feelings of anger and fear to increased positive emotions and emotional responses including stimulation of happy memories subjects interests preferred autobiographical music and musical interests and enjoyment through activation of the limbic and paralimbic systems
View processes relating to social relationships are described as interaction through playing of instruments promotion of empathic relationships increased communication and reduced social isolation
View the studies reviewed suggest that shifts in depressive symptoms resulting from engagement in music and music therapy are a result of mechanisms of change across several domains: physical: neurophysiological and neurochemical effects such as endorphin release stimulation of cognitive functioning ie reminiscence and activation of amygdala hippocampus and nucleus accumbens cultural creative aesthetic : processing of music stimuli in rhythm and pitch musical experience including movement physiological functioning and imitating of musical rhythm intrapersonal: improvement of well-being activation of remaining capabilities self-efficacy validation increase of autonomy and self-confidence developed through experiences of success social: improvement of interaction skills and relational abilities to trigger interpersonal relationship to stimulate social participation
View twenty-six of the music studies demonstrated significant findings in treatment of depression and depressive symptoms
View we began this review with the intention of exploring the effects of creative arts interventions on older adults experiencing depression as well as relationships documented between intervention activities therapeutic processes and mechanisms seen to lead to outcomes
View we recommend that future studies pay specific attention to identified symptoms of depression
View our findings indicated a significant need for well designed detailed studies of the impact of all creative arts therapies in the targeted treatment of depression in older adults
View increased collaboration between creative art therapy researchers could also be useful for improving research outcomes
View given our findings that interventions led by certified creative arts therapists resulted in more significant or positive outcomes than interventions led by other professionals we recommend that interventions for depression with older adults be provided by certified creative arts therapists
View mechanisms of change gleaned from the studies include physical improvements in balance muscle strength neurochemical effects such as endorphin release intra-personal positive views of self strengthened agency and mastery communication and processing of emotions coping strategies cultural creative expression aesthetic pleasure cognitive stimulation of memory and social increased social skills and connection elements that were all considered to be causal in reduced depression and symptoms
View This study sought to determine whether playing a serious interactive digital game the Re-Mission videogame for cancer patients activates mesolimbic neural circuits associated with incentive motivation, and if so, whether such effects stem from the participatory aspects of interactive gameplay, or from the complex sensory/perceptual engagement generated by its dynamic event-stream
View These findings suggest that IDG-induced activation of reward-related mesolimbic neural circuits stems primarily from participatory engagement in gameplay , rather than from the effects of vivid and dynamic sensory stimulation
View a randomized controlled trial of re-mission in adolescent and young adult cancer patients showed that the game significantly enhanced several targeted psychological and behavioral outcomes including knowledge about cancer self-efficacy to overcome the disease and adherence to self-administered oral chemotherapy regimens []
View between-group comparison of the active play group versus the passive exposure group for the play versus rest contrast revealed interactivity-related increases in activation within regions associated with motor function ie dorsolateral prefrontal cortex anterior cingulate supplementary motor area motor cortex as well as anterior insula putamen and thalamus ie included within the extended superior frontal gyrus cluster in table sc but decreased activation in medial prefrontal cortex subterritories of the medial temporal lobe and parietal cortex figure ; table sc
View in the passive exposure group initiation of the same complex audiovisual stimulus stream was associated with increased activity in the anterior cingulate anterior insula and parahippocampal regions and decreased activity in the right precuneus inferior temporal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus figure ; table sb
View statistical compar- ison of gameplay offset responses in the active play versus passive exposure groups indicated significant increased activity in the anterior insula anterior cingulate inferior frontal gyrus supple- mentary motor area primary motor cortex thalamus and culmen figure ; table sc
View the attitude-related left parahippocamal activation focus partially overlapped with a left parahippocampal cortex territory that showed greater play onset-associated activation in the active play group relative to the passive exposure group figure c
View treatment-related behavioral outcomes in young people being treated for cancer [ ] and the present data show that playing re-mission can markedly activate neural circuits implicated in reward ie caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens
View subjects in a passive exposure group experienced the same novel vivid dynamic and emotion- ally involving stimulus streams as did those actively playing re- mission but showed markedly less recruitment of mesolimbic structures implicated in reward processing
View what this study reveals about serious idgs is that participatory interaction plays a key role in engaging reward-related neural processes previously hypothesized to mediate serious games distinctive impact on out-of-game attitudes and behaviors ie their potentially distinctive active ingredient relative to other attitude/behavior-change interven- tions [ ]
View given the key role of the hippocampus in learning and memory it is conceivable that idg-induced activation in this region might potentially play a role in translating short-term play experiences into long-term effects on attitudes or behavior
View ultimately studies will need to simultaneously contrast the effects of serious and non-serious idgs on neural system engagement in-game direct measures of play-induced learning and motivation and out-of-game changes in attitude and behavior in order to fully define the neural mechanisms by which serious idgs exert their distinctive effects on behavior
View future studies comparing gameplay responses in healthy individuals and cancer patients will also be required to determine whether re- missions effects on out-of-game behavior stem primarily from the types of general responses observed here eg coupling of cancer- related symbolic content with idg-related activation of reward circuitry or from cancer patient-specific responses or perhaps from a mix of both
View however the observed association between parahippocampal response to gameplay onset and subsequently measured chemotherapy-related attitudes suggests that this games general coupling of interactivity-induced activation of reward- related motivational circuits with cancer-related symbolic content might potentially contribute to at least some cancer-related outcomes ie some effects occur among those with no direct personal experience of cancer
View future studies that dissociate the instrumental or mechanical components of participatory control eg sensory planning and motoric from its affective and motivational components eg self-view goal achievement could deepen our understanding of the neurobiological basis for plays distinctive power in driving the development of skills knowledge and complex behavior [ ]
View because reward anticipation activates mesolimbic projection regions [ ] we predicted that the active play group would show increases in: activation of sensorimotor circuits ie primary sensory and motor cortices perceptual circuits ie visual cortex and arousal-related structures ie thalamus for gameplay versus rest nonplay ; activation of reward-related circuits ie mesolimbic projection regions including the caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens in response to the onset of game play; and activation of circuits associated with interruption and aversion ie anterior cingulate anterior insula in response to the offset of game play
View based on the hypothesis that interactive engagement in play engages motivation-related brain circuits we additionally predicted that sensorimotor- arousal- reward- memory- and interruption/aversion-related activation dynamics would be sig- nificantly more pronounced for subjects in the active play group than in the passive exposure group
View people with huntingtons disease develop motor symptoms that impair daily activities increase fall risk and lower quality of life
View zinzi and colleagues demonstrated that an inpatient multidisciplinary rehabilitation approach lasting three weeks can improve function in mobility and activities of daily living
View safety was examined through monitoring of heart rate and blood pressure and adverse health changes falls excessive fatigue vital signs outside american college of sports medicine guidelines before and after each dance dance revolution game play session
View the continuous feedback provided to the partici- pants during game play eg auditory and visual feedback of the word excellent when they accu- rately stepped on a target at the correct time and summary feedback about how many correct steps and combinations of steps they achieved may have facilitated motor learning and led to improved game performance
View improved dance dance revolution performance may be clinically important since studies have shown that individuals with basal ganglia disorders have difficulty initiating and learning sequences of movements
View participation in a video game-based exercise program in which participants moved a center-of- pressure position signal to targets resulted in improved balance but not gait in frail community- dwelling older adults
View cognitive impairment negatively impacts motor performance and cognitive deficits in some participants may have prevented game play at a level sufficient to effect motor behavior changes
View alternatively the treatment may have resulted in participants becoming more aware of their deficits and fall risk
View The findings indicate a greater prevalence of craft-based practices compared with fine arts media, as well as, distinct differences in arts participation based on gender, ethnicity and income levels
View we begin with studies that demonstrate the benefits of crafting in health and wellbeing
View there is anecdotal support for the contribution of crafting to mental wellbeing
View the only crafting activity that increased in participation was fiber arts
View the crafting efforts engaged the community and transformed the ideas of creativity healing social empowerment and engagement
View art therapists might also consider engaging in more systematic research on the health outcomes of crafting including research on brain functioning psychological wellbeing and overall physiological and psychological functioning
View the findings are presented as a call to art therapists to consider increased integration of crafting practices in art therapy
View beyond the binary arguments that create distinctions between arts and crafts crafting could have a broader role in healing therapy self-care practices and enhanced wellbeing
View adverse psychological and behavioral changes such as eur j pediatr decrease in childrens self-esteem and emotional well- being increased anxiety sleep disturbances and social isolation have been observed not only during hospital stay but also in % of children -year post-discharge from pediatric intensive care unit [ ]
View it has also been scientifically proven that hearing jokes from medical clowns was associated with increased activity in the network of subcortical regions including the amygdala the ventral striatum and the midbrain which are involved in experiencing positive reward []
View good communication between healthcare staff and children as well as their parents is an essential support to be offered to ease stress in parents whose child is admitted in pediatric wards []
View ventures such as bdream doctors project^ in israel and bmedical clown project^ in the united states of america have been initiated that consists of individuals with a background in dramatic arts like acting street theater and physical clowning etc
View a pilot study amongst disabled children observed that a more positive and fewer nega- tive facial expressions and emotional disturbances dur- ing the clown intervention []
View hospital clowning is an interdisciplinary art with a wide variety of multiple skills such as humor drama music and dance due to which a beneficial therapeutic impact have been noted in patients []
View This study seeks to assess the impact of a pottery workshop as a creative arts programme and discover the extent to which people with dementia taking part in an artistic and creative activity engage with it, experience a feeling of well-being, and improve their mood state
View the absence of an effective pharmacological treatment that stops or delays the progression of the disease has shifted the focus of interest onto non-pharmacological therapies as a way of supplementing the pharmacological treatment that may improve the quality of life qol of people with dementia
View in this regard it is generally assumed that taking part in meaningful activities correlates with qol in people with dementia as it has been shown to improve qol slow down cognitive decline and promote self-esteem in people with dementia marshall & hutchinson provides physical mental and emotional stimulation and generates a feeling of achievement and belonging phinney chaudhury & oconnor
View it is therefore important to identify those non-pharmacological therapies that provide people with dementia with an opportunity to take part in meaningful activities that may have a positive impact on their qol promote social interaction stimulate mental skills and increase their awareness of the outside world and their involvement in it which in turn is considered to heighten the participants dignity and self-esteem
View an initial study rentz reported that during the art sessions people with dementia demonstrated high engagement and sustained attention as well as multiple verbal and behavioural manifestations of well-being and positive affect pleasure self-esteem
View during the art sessions the participants showed higher scores in several domains of wellbeing such as interest sustained attention pleasure and self-esteem than during traditional activities
View studies on the matter have reported that activities involving pottery may be as appropriate as any other form of art and lead to improvements in self-esteem and levels of anxiety and depression among elderly people doric-henry and patients with mental disorders de morais et al
View given our positive experience in the organisation of pottery workshop for people with dementia we have conducted a study designed to assess the effects of a pottery workshop as a creative arts activity and discover the extent to which the people with dementia involved engage with it experience a feeling of well-being and a positive affect as well as an improvement in their mood state
View crea is a centre that specialises in research analysis knowledge assessment and training in alzheimers disease ad and other dementias as well as provides care and attention for people with dementia and their families
View greater cincinnati chapter well-being observation tool kinney & rentz : this tool rates well-being during the sessions through seven domains interest sustained attention pleasure negative affect sadness self-esteem and normalcy
View as participants with gds experienced a greater improvement in their mood state than participants with gds or
View regarding the greater cincinnati chapter well-being observation tool it was found that during the pottery workshop sessions the participants recorded high scores in the domains of sustained attention pleasure self-esteem and normalcy and low scores in negative affect and sadness see table
View results of the one-factor anova the means for the different domains of well-being for each group of participants show that those participants with gds recorded higher scores in the negative domains negative affect and sadness and lower ones in the positive domains interest pleasure self-esteem and normalcy than their peers with gds or
View during the pottery workshop sessions the participants manifested a positive affect and well-being that was reflected in the high scores in the domains pleasure self-esteem and normalcy as well as in the low scores for the domains negative affect and sadness
View our findings indicate that a pottery workshop may be an effective way of improving the well-being mood and self-esteem of people with dementia irrespective of their limitations and degree of impairment
View mental health professionals worldwide have noticed the pressing need of treating mental illness in the community that is more cost-effective than conventional hospitalization
View correspondingly a brand new mode of mental health services the integrated community center for mental wellness iccmw has been innovated in recent years that provides community-based short-term supportive services for mental health outpatients hong kong hospital authority
View it has been pointed out depression patients have higher adherence rate to psychotherapy and show more incentive to sharing with psychotherapists than passively receiving pharmacological treatment lee tsang & kwok
View long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy or combined psychotherapy with fluoxetine for depressed patients are evidenced to be more efficacious in improving neurocognitive functioning than fluoxetine alone bastos et al
View an extended state of depressed mood and emotional detachment pose negative impacts on the limbic system influence regulatory functions of the ans and could cumulate eventually in various disorders such as depression schore
View the processes of clay-work integrates the experience and expression of multi-sensory modalities tactile visual proprioception elbrecht auditory and kinesthetic activities in interacting with clay that range from gentle touch on clay to intense input of physical energy eg pounding rolling molding clay slump
View the processes of creating personally meaningful clay products require intense participation of perceptual skills affective expression creating symbolically meaningful clay works cognitive functions eg memory decision making organization skills and creative ability
View the study is a randomized controlled trial comparing clay art therapy cat with nondirective visual art control group va that investigates the effects of clay art making guided by an art therapist on depressed mood of mdd patients
View the findings support that cat was more effective than nondirective visual art control group in the benefits of reducing the level of depression and improving daily functioning general mental health and holistic bodymindspirit well-being
View the positive results demonstrated that short-term therapeutic clay work treatment guided by art therapy can supplement pharmacological treatment not only in symptoms reduction but also in positively strengthening daily functioning choi & park and enhancing personal strength intra-personal and inter-personal connections sholt & gavron
View it might be technically difficult and short of resources to locate another creative arts therapist such as a music therapist and compared the effects of cat intervention with music therapy
View % of the va group participants being diagnosed with depression for a duration of - years it gave a hint that these newly diagnosed depression patients might only receive short term supportive services in the community setting
View it was speculated that longer treatment duration might benefit more profound reduction of depressive signs and even possible improvement in cognitive function of articulating affect in tas- measurement
View to measure physiological change a commonly measured biomarker for tracking the ans is heart rate variability hrv with lower hrv indicative of reduced parasympathetic cardiac control that has been associated with disorders such as sleep problems and difficulty in regulating emotions evans et al
View the measurement in the changes in eeg signaling patterns can potentially provide evidence to support the efficacy of cat in alleviating emotional disturbance or improving cognitive functioning such as concentration ability bhattacharya & petsche
View This study aimed to determine whether engaging in artistic activities affected the psychological well-being of patients with spinal cord injuries
View 19 hospital patients with SCI regularly engaged in arts-based activities such as painting, woodworking and working with clay
View artistic offerings are frequently integrated into the care pathways of patients hospitalised for treatment in order to improve the patients physical and psychological health
View this study was designed and conducted in an italian hospital that has maintained a space entirely dedicated to the facilitation of artistic practices for patients affected by scis since
View in it was opened to the patients families and community members as well
View this open single cohort study tested the hypothesis that involvement in artistic practices raises the psychological well- being of patients with scis
View the global care approach includes therapeutic and rehabil- itation paths as well as psychological and social support for patients
View sci patients are supported by unit psychologists usually twice a week because scis involve psychological aspects in addition to the physical aspects as patients develop a new self-image a different relationship with the body and a redenition of social roles
View a team of physiotherapists within the spinal unit works with patients every day according to their physical and mental condi- tions
View four of the patients declined to perform the art activities while patients females and males accepted and signed the informed consent
View by contrast the social model emphasizes people s autonomy individuality community integration and participation normalization and home versus institution declercq ; mens & wagenaar
View they aim to oer an environment that compensates for residents impairments supports them in conducting homey activities and moving indepen- dently and safely aords social freedom of movement and integrates residents in the neighborhood
View in that sense they appreciated an increased freedom of action and choice compared to other facilities
View we aimed to gain insight into residents and caregivers experiences living and working in a residential care facility and the role of architectural features therein
View obesity is associated with many additional challenges including psychosocial challenges such as difficulty making friends social isolation and decreased life satisfaction fonseca matos guerra & pedro as well as poor health outcomes including early signs of cardiovascular disease type diabetes mellitus nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and sleep apnea kumar & kelly
View physical activity provides a cascade of health benefits especially needed for adolescents with obesity including chronic disease prevention and improved cardiometabolic health quality of sleep improved executive functioning and reduced risk of depression and anxiety among others physical activity guidelines advisory committee
View another study demonstrated that youth ages to years playing a tennis exergame engaged more in the exergaming as measured by higher energy expenditure based on accelerometry when playing against an in-person partner compared to youth who played the tennis exergame alone staiano & calvert
View further the intervention participants reported fewer hours of watching tv/videos after the intervention improved self-efficacy towards physical activity and scored highly for intrinsic motivation towards exergaming staiano et al
View exclusion criteria included being pregnant; hospitalization for mental illness within the past years; impairments that prevented normal ambulation; history or indication of cardiac abnormality cardiovascular disease musculoskeletal injuries or epilepsy; and inability to make the commitment to attend weekly gaming sessions for weeks
View participants provided written assent and parents provided written consent
View further between and gaming coaches provided supervision and ongoing motivation to participants during game play
View other trials observed that adolescents and young adults report higher enjoyment of exergaming vs
View researchers have identified several ways to decrease barriers to physical activity among adolescents with obesity including the use of separate exercise sessions for adolescents with obesity finding ways to make the exercise experience more fun promoting the improvement of self-efficacy towards exercise and emphasizing the wide range of health benefits of exercise beyond weight loss daley copeland wright & wales
View our patient population presented several obesity co-morbid- ities notably type diabetes mellitus arterial hypertension coronary artery disease hyperlipidemia depression and bipolar disorder while some of the patients had suffered sexual abuse
View in the second stage patients became aware of their muscle and psychological tensions and worked on relaxation and breathing exercises
View our data showed that obese patients enrolled in the -week dtw program exhibited a signicant improvement in health- related quality of life p <
View patients found pleasure in performing the exercises and expressed positive feelings that in turn enhanced them
View patients became gradually aware of their body parts
View upon these ndings the doctor-patient communication will be facilitated as it gives information on the patients abilities to observe his functioning and it gives the opportunity to the therapist-doctor communication to develop a global approach of their patient
View they are able to throw light on the patients capacities to be more in tune with their body sensory perceptions on their ability to express ones needs and feelings about their health and their ability to use their own natural body and mind resources
View physical activity provides both physical and psychological benefits to adolescents
View moreover clinically meaningful changes for the exergaming con- dition indicate a possible prophylactic and treatment effect on psychological adjustment as no participants in the exergaming condition worsened and many improved in both internalizing and externalizing symp- tomatology
View participants also reflected that die familiarised them with life skills and helped them connect with the real world through role play
View support from teachers encourages participants to express their personal experiences develop feelings of trust and accept each others differences
View focusing on creating a safer environment for school leavers local governments and community organisa- tions have stepped up harm prevention efforts by reg- istering school leavers engaging them in diversionary activities and providing water and help stations [ ]
View Conclusions Community group singing appears to have a significant effect on mental health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression, and it may be a useful intervention to maintain and enhance the mental health of older people
View previous evidence-based reviews of interventions aimed at maintaining or enhancing mental health and health-related quality of life in older people found little evidence for a variety of group-based interventions including exercise tai chi and reminiscence groups but a systematic review by bridle et al highlighted the benefits of tailored exercise in reducing depression in older people
View within the area of music previous research with older people focused upon the effect of music listening or music therapy rather than music as a part of everyday experience
View further reviews have pointed to the value of singing as a therapeutic intervention for older people with long-term physical health conditions including small pilot randomised controlled trials of singing lessons for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in clinical settings
View a to assess the effectiveness of active engagement in community singing on measures of mental and physical health-related quality of life depression and anxiety for older people
View people indicated their enjoyment of the experience and highlighted the benefits on mental health well-being and social relationships
View the study adds weight to the notion that meaningful social and pleasurable activities can confer mental health benefits to participants identified in other studies of music therapy
View the health benefits associated with higher rates of cultural consumption could be a result of stress reduction and improved immune function
View for example music-assisted relaxation techniques and music alone have been found to significantly reduce stress-induced arousal pelletier and listening to designer music in a self-induced positive emotional state enhanced immune function more than either condition alone mccraty atkinson rein & watkins
View psychosocial interventions might prolong survival from cancer by activating neuroimmune pathways conti ; spiegel sephton terr & stites and listening to music has improved immune function and anti-tumor responses nunez et al
View music-assisted relaxation techniques and music alone significantly reduces stress pelletier and listening to designer music in a self-induced positive emotional state enhances immune function more than either condition alone mccraty et al
View finally while there is growing body of evidence that links social and psychological factors to cancer incidence mortality and survival in humans few studies have demonstrated a direct link
View in future studies it will be important to assess the effect of attending cultural events on cancer incidence as distinct from its effect on cancer survival to assess the role that cultural stimulation from activities not examined in this study has on cancer mortality to explore the urbanrural effect modifier in more detail and to control for a wider range of potential confounders
View Aims:The role of arts and music in supporting subjective wellbeing is increasingly recognised
View Music has been associated with reduced anxiety in young adults, enhanced mood and purpose in adults and mental wellbeing, quality of life, self-awareness and coping in people with diagnosed health conditions
View Music and singing have been shown to be effective in enhancing morale and reducing risk of depression in older people
View Conclusions: There is reliable evidence for positive effects of music and singing on wellbeing in adults
View The Economic and Social Research Council -funded What Works Centre for Wellbeing has commissioned evidence reviews in key areas one of which is Culture Sport and Wellbeing
View This review sought to examine a wide range of music interventions that might be linked with SWB rather than health and to differentiate which intervention types may be more closely linked with wellbeing
View This RCT of non-musicians that compared a brief session of playing percussion to joyful music with simulated playing to computer-generated tones reported significant improvements in elements of the POMS with depression anxiety and fatigue decreasing in the music group but not in the control group
View A small study of male and female students compared a -week music therapy programme with no music therapy reporting improvements in anxiety and depression in the music group compared with controls
View In both music was associated with significant reductions in stress anxiety and depression compared with the control condition
View A non-random study of young offenders compared a -week programme of music making including songwriting playing and performing with art or educational activities reporting increased self-esteem in the music and education groups and improvements in emotional state for music and arts
View There were two studies of choirs one of which was a small non-random study with adult prisoners that compared nine weeks of group singing leading to a performance with usual activity reporting no differences between groups in overall wellbeing scores although participants in a choir involving volunteers from the community showed improvements in sociability joviality emotional stability and happiness compared with controls
View Another open-access community-based choir study with healthy volunteers reported an increase in positive feelings after seven weeks of group singing but not after a comparator chatting activity while negative feelings decreased significantly after singing but not after chatting
View Three community-based studies of music listening in healthy older adults indicate an association between music listening and wellbeing
View Two studies compared listening to music using headphones for min a week for four weeks reporting significant improvements in quality of life compared with controls and a -point reduction in mean Geriatric Depression Scale scores that was significant compared with controls
View One study of participants over five sites compared a -week singing programme with usual activities reporting significant differences between the groups on the York SF mental health-related quality-of-life scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale after three months with significant differences in mental health-related quality of life in favour of group singing after six months
View This showed significant differences after months in morale depression and loneliness for intervention groups compared with controls
View In contrast a non-random community study evaluating community singing music appreciation classes and music therapy for older adults over one academic year reported no significant wellbeing outcomes using an ad hoc questionnaire
View Only one study of older adults examined playing musical instruments reporting improvements in wellbeing both in older adults taking music lessons and those not taking lessons after weeks
View A study of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease compared weekly singing with attending a film club for eight weeks reporting mental wellbeing improvements for both groups
View Another study reported small improvements in anxiety and significant improvements in depression for a -week music therapy group for stroke patients compared with usual activity
View Two small studies in palliative care settings examined brief music therapy sessions reporting improvements in wellbeing for a music therapy protocol compared with relaxation sessions and in spirituality compared with no music therapy
View A case-controlled study compared months of tai chi playing a musical instrument or singing in adults aged - years with risk factors for chronic disease reporting improvements in resilience and depression for all intervention groups compared with controls with the lowest depression rates for tai chi and dancing groups
View A five-centre study of participants with dementia and their carers showed increased quality-of-life scores for a music listening group compared with usual activity although the differences between the groups had levelled off by nine months
View Taken together the studies broadly support the use of music and singing to enhance wellbeing and reduce or prevent depression in adults across the life span
View For older adults there is convincing evidence that regular participation in community music and singing activities can enhance and maintain wellbeing and prevent isolation depression and mental ill health
View Addressing issues of context social diversity and wellbeing inequalities represents an important focus point for policy practice and research agendas on music singing and wellbeing
View they found evidence of positive effects of performing arts practice including positive changes in reported behavior and improvements in social skills and interaction among young people at risk
View found that participation led to significant improve- ments in empowerment as well as in mental health indicators and social inclusion
View laukka also finds significant associations between certain practices of music listening and psychological well- being in a sample of elderly swedes
View contrary to what has happened for extensive socio-environmental interpretations of culture the number of studies that have investigated the impact of participation in or consumption of cultural experiences on the qol/well-being of individuals is still too small
View The purpose of this study is to understand the impact of health status and cultural participation upon psychological well-being, with special attention to the interaction between patterns of cultural access and other factors known to affect psychological well-being
View they found evidence of positive effects of performing arts practice including positive changes in reported behavior and improvements in social skills and interaction among young people at risk
View found that participation led to significant improvements in empowerment as well as in mental health indicators and social inclusion
View the original pgwbi consists of self-administered items rated on a -points scale which assess psychological and general well-being of respondents in six health related quality of life hrqol domains: anxiety depressed mood positive well-being self-control general health and vitality
View a similar study was carried out by kalaydjian and merikangas on patients suffering from chronic headache to investigate the contribution of co morbidity to health utilization and negative health perception in a large-scale population-based study combining -year data from the to national health examination and nutrition survey n = adults ie nationally representative datasets of the us population
View men reported better functioning and existential well-being whereas women reported more physical symptoms anxiety and depression
View most scores of func- tioning and well-being scales decreased and most physical symptoms anxiety and depression increased with increasing age
View alongside with the therapeutic benefits to patients the book also considers envi- ronmental improvements to support staff and the use of the arts to produce more creative kinds of health information
View qualitative evidence of the outcomes of the program suggest that it had a positive impact on participants physical and social well-being as well as upon their creative activity
View the author argues that accounts of personal experience of the programs participants provide the most powerful evidence of its impact
View this chapter concludes that social impact assessment has been more oriented to understanding individual extrinsic impacts of cultural activity cognitive development physical health and wellbeing than its capacity for collective change in building social capital and community cohesion ; and encounters the same bias when examining the channels through which culture produces impacts where the mechanisms have been more in regard to the individual than the collective level
View in contrast a more inclusive measure is the canadian index of wellbeing that comprises eight main domains one of which is leisure and culture and tracks eight indicators related to culture heritage arts and recreational activities smale
View weber demonstrates that in accordance with their individual beliefs people conceived specific attitudes and processes of development that sustained social results through mechanisms of trust empathy and respect exploring the idea that specific cultures have specific impacts
View the author stated the economic importance of the arts is increasingly appreciated but to consider only the financial impact of cultural activities is to produce a distorted picture of their actual value to society
View economic impact studies deliver impressive numbers
View the social impacts of cultural activities can be divided in the following five main groups presented in descending order of the number of documents found and analysed: arts on education studies that assess the effects of engagement in the arts on cognitive and skills abilities; arts on health research that focuses on the association between participation in cultural activities and perceived health; the community-based arts projects studies that evaluate the impacts of specific programmes that connect artists with local residents and produce artistic activities able to attend to the interests and needs of the locals; cultural activities and programmes research that intends to demonstrate the links between cultural events like a festival an artistic workshop or major cultural programmes like the european capitals of culture and social outcomes; and arts on wellbeing studies that try to assess the effects of the cultural activities in promoting life satisfaction general wellbeing and quality of life
View combining both categories it is possible to perceive from the graphic below that most arts on health documents have been produced with academic research parameters that arts and education is nearly balanced between articles and report documents and that community-based arts projects cultural activities and programmes and arts on wellbeing studies are areas with a large gap in academic research
View in the study arts in their view: a study of youth participation in the arts which analysed young people engaging in the arts the authors concluded that young peoples leisure interest is influenced by the environments where they live which consequently produces differences in the effects derived from the participation harland kinder and hartley
View the rural young people have higher participation rates in sport and arts participation painting and drawing while in the urban areas young people have higher rates of involvement in more social kinds of activities as an arts audience reading going to the cinema listening to music and watching television and videos and miscellaneous activities harland kinder and hartley
View also the research on arts interventions in criminal justice settings targeted towards male and female offenders and ex-offenders different ages and backgrounds and delivered by external individuals groups organisations or by the prison education department miles and clarke the arts on wellbeing assessment studies which evaluated the effects of cultural engagement on the promotion of life satisfaction and quality of life reported the effects on broader general audiences
View an example of this research studied the impacts of museum participation on the wellbeing of adults fujiwara
View found in their case-control intervention that the group exposed to a visual art experiment for three months reported a decreased systolic blood pressure for a period of four months after the intervention advocating for a short effect life wikstrom theorell and sandstrom
View which examines the relationship between artistic practice and subjective wellbeing it is held that not only is there a relationship between artistic practice and wellbeing but this relationship is strengthened with increased frequency of participation
View the interaction with culture and arts activities can occur and consequently be assessed in the form of passive engaging attending a cultural event music concert theatre performance ballet going to a museum - or in the form of active engaging singing in a choir playing a musical instrument drawing reading or dancing
View from this group of studies covering active involvement in arts a series of assessment segments was identified according to the specific activities under analysis: active in drama research focusing on the impacts of actively engaging in drama activities for example a study which observed the effects that regular involvement in dramatic play lessons had on childrens literacy development goodman ; active in visual arts studies that gauge the impacts of creating visual works paintings crafts as in the case of the peace project at the hospital for sick children in toronto which developed artistic work with hospitalised children to understand their emotional social and spiritual wellbeing and to celebrate cultural diversity in hospital environments soman and english ; music playing research that measures the effects of music practice on educational outcomes specifically on education as it was according to the review the only outcome area of interest found for example the southgate and roscigno article which examines the association between musical involvement in school and out of school lessons and academic achievement in childhood and adolescence southgate and roscigno ; dance studies analysing the effects of dance practice such as the keinanen et al
View report which assessed the impacts of community-based arts and social inclusion projects that offered an artistic experience of combined arts drama music visual arts grafts dance and literature to local communities in scotland goodlad hamilton and taylor
View study which examines the effects of attending cultural activities in general on concrete measures of health such as psychological wellbeing general health anxiety and depression kilroy et al
View in the graphic for this segment a distinctive link is observed between passive forms of arts engagement and measuring health and effects on wellbeing
View which examines the association of receptive individual experiences without self- doing and creative cultural activities active engagement in the creative process on perceived health anxiety depression and satisfaction with life cuypers et al
View the main impact areas covered by the studies examining the literature on social impact assessment demonstrates that a wide range of effects and outcome areas can be attributed to arts and cultural activities most of them being values that go beyond the aesthetic meaning of the experience and are capable of inducing personal and territorial development
View table - impact areas explored academic achievement learning new skills communication skills reading skills literacy creative skills mathematical skills visual-spatial skills entrepreneurial skills technical arts skills aesthetic judgement development
View health improve health decrease anxiety decrease symptom of depression reduce medication improve mental health physiological performance increase odds of survival
View community social value social contact and interaction social inclusion promote sense of identity social capital inspired action on social issue civic engagement
View territorial urban renewal facilities local image media impact institutional effects public safety
View economic tourism local business development employment opportunities income
View regarding the individual impacts of cultural activities affecting people throughout engagement the main identified topics of impact were according to the review cognitive development attitudinal changes perceptions and motivation health improvements and wellbeing
View a few authors considered the promotion of health and wellbeing as individual effects with public resonance by conceding that although experiences that produce physical and mental health improvements are at the individual level these can be manifested cumulatively and have resonance in society in the medium and long-term mccarthy et al
View different studies have reported connections between the nexus between arts and cognitive development particularly playing musical instruments and the development of cognitive skills such as mathematics
View burger and winner also analysed the capacity of engagement in arts to impact reading abilities but through visual arts experiences burger and winner
View the different studies that have pointed out the successful results of incorporating art activities into the health care environment have covered aspects of improving mental and physical health reducing stress anxiety symptoms of depression the need for care service and medication and increasing the odds of survival
View on the effects of visual art stimulation in elderly women living alone found that women who had received art intervention registered a decrease in their systolic blood pressure significant improvements in several self-reported indicators of health status such as dizziness fatigue and pain as well as positive mood parameters; happiness peacefulness satisfaction and calmness wikstrom theorell and sandstrom
View another analysis of an adult sample was hills research on the connection between canadians cultural activities and their personal health and wellbeing concluding that art gallery visitors and theatre goers respectively have % and % greater likelihood of reporting very good or excellent health than nonvisitors hill
View the perception and motivation segment covers peoples perception of arts feeling more positive about them and recognising their influence on personal motivation energy mood and on self-image and self-assessment considerations
View the authors showed that offenders participating in arts activities in prisons felt motivated to seek out new arts based education opportunities miles and clarke
View the community social value is an area of collective impact raised by cultural activities that concern the promotion of social contact interaction and social inclusion enhancement of the sense of community identity development of the ability to cooperate on a social issue to civic engage and to build social capital
View study on participatory arts projects developed in england with people with mental health needs demonstrated that arts initiatives are opportunities for social contact that allow dealing with stigmas of isolation and for building bonds that contribute to social inclusion secker et al
View in turn a few reports found that social interaction and contact stimulated through engagement in the arts helps to develop trust with others and to establish networks
View this author reported the following social capital outcomes based on participants and observers feedback: the programmes improved skills in communicating ideas and information increased appreciation of community arts improved skills in planning and organising activities improved understanding of different cultures or lifestyles improved consultation between government and community d
View another is the wellbeing valuation approach which gives monetary values to the effects of arts and culture engagement on wellbeing case-the culture and sport evidence programme fujiwara
View reported that artistic means of expression could revitalise elderly people claiming that the experience of contemplating works of art can stimulate spectators to think to describe colour and forms to activate the imagination to review life experiences and explore memories and to increase knowledge wikstrom theorell and sandstrom
View as already mentioned these authors compared the effects of two short- term experiments - elderly exposed to an environment with visual arts and elderly engaging in sessions of in-house boule - and concluded the depression levels increased in the art intervention group and decreased in the play boule group bygren et al
View stressed this issue when defining a model of transformational change to describe the process of transformation in the outcomes of arts engagement on health and wellbeing as an open-learning system of interconnecting feedback loops kilroy et al
View study when assessing the impact of attending cultural events reading and making music as determiners for survival briefly explored potential routes of influence in the human body as a response to art by arguing that cultural experiences through verbal expression writing or painting actions with no effect on real life provide emotional arousal changes in the humoral nervous system which can enhance physical health and the immunity function bygren konlaan and johansson
View through intervening with symbols and other structures descriptive of feelings another capability of works of art is to objectify human feelings and help people to understand their inner life and consequently reduce inner tensions johansson konlaan and bygren
View also identified a possible pathway for the positive influences of participation in cultural activities in perceived health which may be found in the stress reduction that decreases the oxidative dna damage and the formation of -hydroxydeoxyguanosine elevated levels of which are linked to the development of disease cuypers et al
View an additional study the review art and wellness: the importance of art for aboriginal peoples health and healing found another potential enabler of health effects transported by arts experiences; the development of activities based on individuals and communities knowledge traditions and values muirhead and de leeuw
View the authors argued that the most effective solutions to improving the new health reality are opportunities for creative expression which are strongly linked with community vitality and wellbeing muirhead and de leeuw
View art therapy was defined as the union of creative processes and psychotherapy and that providing opportunities for expression as alternatives to verbal dialogue removes communication barriers and facilitates the sharing and expression of emotions enhancing self-esteem and self-confidence muirhead and de leeuw
View this mechanism of transferring primary skills developed by arts and cultural activities into external cognitive abilities is found in other studies
View discussed the effects of dance instruction on other cognitive areas besides the dance learning itself presenting a direct relationship between dance skills and intelligences acquired: the credible spatial and musical intelligence stimulated by the dance the linguistic intelligence stimulated when learning dance vocabulary and discussing dance sequences the interpersonal intelligence encouraged by dancing in groups and the opportunities for self-expression presented in the movements which allow intrapersonal intelligence to develop keinnen hetland and winner
View but where the arts have a particular role to play is through the frameworks of learning they induce more open and flexible involving collaboration and empathy with opportunities to express feelings stimulate imagination and risk taking burton horowitz and abeles
View the role of the staff - the arts professionals developing the activities was defined as essential to ensuring the quality of the experience to enhance the motivation of participants and consequently to certify the development of the potential outcomes
View a near transfer occurs when training in one skill leads to improvements in a highly associated skill for example playing a musical instrument trains the auditory skills so musical training is expected to be associated with skills that depend on auditory processing like rhythmic skills corrigall and trainor :
View the silence mechanism in turn refers to the neuro-dynamic learning processes that take place without any awareness on the part of the learner all the subconscious brain functions and cognitive re-structuring that link learning in the arts with non-arts related skills catterall :
View identified the most important factors that provide context for social change and so for the production of collective impacts as: the effectiveness of the local staff to reach people the capacity to work with existing groups the quality of the arts experiences the development of partnerships formal and informal and the expertise to produce immediate impacts on the participants goodlad hamilton and taylor
View a few of the reviewed studies enumerated factors that enhance the arts experience effectiveness on inducing the propagation of the effects: activities which are linked with local community value systems the flexible and open spirit of the engagement the ability to boost collaboration and empathy providing opportunities for expressing feelings and for stimulating imagination and lastly the intensity of the experience
View raises attention;explore memories; stimulate thinking throughperceived forms;decreased systolic bloodpressure reduce tension and decrease depression decrease disease development
View for example staricoffs review describes the response to listening to music as a complex fragmented neural process that the total experience of music appears as the result of decomposing the auditory stimulus and distributing each component to different cortical areas specially adapted to receive the information staricoff :
View also recent research that shows a connection between cultural activities and wellbeing argued it is very difficult to provide evidence of a cause and effect relationship between the variables in a statistical model in the absence of an experiment to directly measure the impacts of culture on personal well-being hill :
View indeed studies observing community arts projects cultural activities and arts impacts on wellbeing and community transformation presented a gap in academic research
View according to the first segment of impact arts and culture provide socially valuable leisure activities elevate people s thinking and contribute positively to their psychological and social well-being and enhance their sensitivity the european task force on culture and development
View as for the indirect social impacts their contribution is described as the ability to enrich the social environment with public amenities promote civilisation and social organization stimulate creativity and innovation produce collective memories through community cultural products and improve the quality of life in the surrounding areas of the cultural institutions by reducing crime for example the european task force on culture and development
View in guetzkows work how the arts impact communities the author presents a grid framework to understand the causal mechanisms through which the arts produces individual material cognitive interpersonal and community level economic cultural and social impacts by exploring different levels and types of artistic inputs - direct involvement audience participation the presence of artists and arts organizations & institutions guetzkow
View providing an experience of collective efficacy and civic engagement which spurs participants to further collective action to be a source of pride for residents participants and non- participants alike in their community increasing their sense of connection to that community
View increasing the scope of individuals social networks
View first building a sense of community where through the enhancement of social interaction which leads to social cohesion social capital can be formed encompassing the effects on those more directly involved in the experience
View brown presents a framework divided into five clusters of benefits imprint of an arts experience personal development human interaction communal meaning economic and macro social benefits which is centred on the individual arts experience from where other benefits are promoted radiating outwards
View the impacts of culture derive from individual experiences that are mentally and emotionally engaging experiences that can be shared and deepened through reflection conversations and reading and only sustainable involvement is capable of producing the instrumental effects claimed by culture mccarthy et al
View the background factors and early arts experiences have a vital influence on the whether to participate as these elements which change throughout life shape the individuals perceptions of arts experiences and their predisposition to future engagement mccarthy et al jones
View the model defines the social community-level impacts as the range of extrinsic instrumental social effects propagated into the community of a specific territory through the individual experience and subsequent cumulative engagement and also the interpersonal links and interactions established between participants and non-participants
View the figure below presents a potential chain of community-level social impact propagation to illustrate a hierarchy of social capacities and values induced by arts and culture which range from the primary intrinsic effects with public resonance towards the promotion of collective extrinsic effects until reaching the bottom-up process of community action and revitalisation
View s theory of community revitalisation this model integrates the construct of community orientation for collective social capacity and intervention the intrinsic effects with public resonance such as expanded capacity for empathy the creation of social bonds the expression of communal meanings - as these are considered by mccarthy et al
View williams explained that collaborative artistic practice provides opportunities for the communication of ideas and values and for social interaction through the arts d
View repeated opportunities for encounters and social interaction can produce social solidarity and social cohesion through the recognition of common interests and the creation of common connections
View indeed arts develop a sense of community by repeatedly giving opportunities for expressing public values arts events and activities can give people a feeling of belonging gained through joining a group or becoming involved with local arts organizations and can reinforce an individuals connection to the community by giving public expression to the values and traditions of that community and sustaining its cultural heritage mccarthy et al
View the social connections established through cultural activities can be of two forms: the bonds which link individuals on homogeneous grounds and contribute to developing the sense of group identity and social cohesion; and the bridges that link different ages or background groups and form social ties by helping to embrace diversity and decrease boundaries putnam mccarthy et al
View as the final stage of social transformation an advanced and complex form of collective intervention that demands long-term cross-sector cooperation and intensive processes of social learning fostering people to be actively involved in the civic life of the community civic institutions volunteer associations mccarthy et al
View arts experiences by transporting symbols provide citizens with references to interpret and position in the world and community life which can forge political action
View the stimulation of social interactions helps to tackle isolation and contributes to building bonds
View in turn when bringing people together it helps to increase public awareness and to improve group planning and organising activities the core bases of community empowerment for collective action
View the author reported significant results of the programme; after hours of arts instruction mixing dance music and theatre performances along with visual arts given by artists to around thousand prisoners in institutions notably a reduction in the number and costs of prison incidents and other long-term effects in rehabilitation and lower reoffending phillips
View in the european task force on culture and development report in from the margins: a contribution to the debate on culture and development in europe in evaluating the impacts of arts and culture crime reduction was identified as an indirect social impact resulting from the capacity of culture to enrich the social environment with public amenities to induce educative and civilising effects with new references that change an individuals value systems to stimulate creativity and innovation to produce collective memories through community cultural products and improve the quality of life of the cultural institutions surrounding areas the european task force on culture and development
View regarding crime the review suggests that the arts can have an impact on preventing crime and reconviction by developing participants literacy skills and by challenging prejudice
View beyond celebrating the local cultural heritage creation and experiences the initiative has gained a clear revitalisation purpose ie of enabling the socioeconomic development of cities through culture: the european capitals of culture have become laboratories of strategic investment in culture benefiting our economies and our societies as a whole european commission and directorate-general for education and culture :
View it worked with the slogan culture does good putting a lot of effort into research on effects of cultural engagement on wellbeing and quality of life
View moreover actively taking part of a cultural experience provides participants with opportunities to develop organizational and leadership skills which are important for building community capacity for future action outside of the artistic experience and in favour of the common good
View it advocates for the role of culture as a potential tool for inducing a civilising process and a healthy civil society demonstrating that intensive programmes like the ecoc based on the territories cultural values can reduce crime rates by generating common grounds and more community oriented value systems through opportunities for expressing collective community values and sustaining its cultural heritage and through an informal education processes
View lastly by identifying a particular mechanism of impact between the ecoc cultural activities and crime prevention participants are induced to reflect on their cultural heritage and values and to produce more community oriented common norms which reinforces social transformation the study moves beyond the expected indirect impact through changes in the socio-economic dynamics
View indeed as discussed in the chain of community-level social impacts culture and the arts are capable of connecting people in way that can build the social capital necessary to forge a sense of community and induce civic involvement
View informal education is a type of learning process that is complementary and distinct from formal and non-formal education and which has a particular role in conveying social-education messages like knowing the rights of individuals as citizens empowering individuals with community- oriented skills that can encourage them to act for common interests and other processes of collective learning
View since its foundation sesc has operated based on a consistent cultural and educational strategy with the vital objectives of improving the quality of life and welfare of its primary audience and also the surrounding communities promoting the active exercise of citizenship and stimulating respect for democratic coexistence sesc
View in the s the role of educational activities on the wellbeing of the commercial workers and their families and on the development of a social moral and civic sense of community was recognised
View in fact with the development of the public network of medical assistance in the s sesc started to position its medical services to the new diseases of the time stress inactivity by introducing physical practices tuned to health yoga tai-chi- chuan and in areas where the state was less capable of assisting with dental clinics in the centres and in the mobile units and healthy eating campaigns restaurants canteens coffee bar sesc so paulo
View the democratisation of access to culture inside a comprehensive overview of culture that was not restricted to artistic manifestations stimulated a new form of more active and participatory consumption through real experience oliveira
View second according an interview with the head of the physical activities and sport department of sesc vila mariana the physical activities aerobics gymnastics or aquarobics beyond working on wellbeing issues by educating for health and mental care in a society where inactivity is increasing convey social education messages by inducing social and conviviality values like not arriving late or leaving early to a class and helping straighten up the rooms after each activity
View for example according to an interview with the head of the physical activities and sports department of sesc vila mariana one of the main roles of the department is related to stimulate self- confidence and body awareness as the activities required exposure of the body which is essential to building individual identity
View in fact according to the head of the physical activities and sports department participants in sports activities are encouraged to encounter and to function in groups through physical practice make lifelong friends and develop a group feeling
View moreover the cultural animators reported the activities they develop even the simple fact of providing people with the opportunity to take care of a book for two weeks induces self-confidence and contributes to sharing organizational values which as seen in chapter are fundamental to forming a collective capacity for action
View therefore individuals that are brought together through intensive interaction and cooperation activities might foster social capital and increase their ability for community involvement in the future
View its experiential activities provide opportunities for social interaction and the creation of common grounds developing trust of others establishing social bonds and building bridges in a pluralistic society social capital ; subsequently by bringing people together and enhancing community-oriented values these activities strengthen public and critic awareness of their life settings and enhance specific community organizational skills which can encourage capacity for collective action and civic engagement community involvement
View according to the table table in general free-time cultural activities such as attending the theatre music shows visiting exhibitions reading books visiting craft fairs attending popular festivals or poetry sessions tend to have a positively significant association with having an aptitude for volunteer service
View said about the effect of arts participation on building social capital; it is felt to have an advantage over certain other types of community participation in that participation whether as member of an audience or as artist is likely to have intrinsically more appeal than some traditional forms of personal and community development goodlad hamilton and taylor :
View concretely culture by inducing a transversal on-going process of social learning which results on specific social capacities namely social capital building and leadership and organisational skill can stimulated a system of networks demanded to forge bottom-up process of collective action and to sustain cross-boundary dynamics
View lastly is important to understand this function of culture of mediating community action and social transformation by imparting community-oriented values through particular processes of experiential learning stimulating creativity and opportunities for expression and social interaction providing alternative grounds for cultural-based development policies beyond the traditional economic and financial rationales
View engaging youth and incorporating their unique expertise into the research process is essential to informing and developing culturally relevant and sensitive health intervention and prevention efforts
View participants address issues concerning their lives communities and their futures through paintings drawings and writings
View to extend the partnership to include young people and engage their unique expertise experience and cultivate capacity participants are encouraged and guided to first co-facilitate and then independently facilitate the different painting writing drawing and critique phases of the process
View the youth participants as co- facilitators identified a range of issues related to community factors community safety and violence
View matarasso found participation in locally run community heritage festivals resulted in youth expressing positive feelings about their community culture and language
View the study also found that % of participants interviewed stated they wanted to help in other local projects
View additionally and consistent with this method community-based creative arts programs offer an opportunity for increased interaction and dialogue around unique and subtle community health and safety issues
View visual voices is an arts-based participatory research method to facilitate young community member engagement uncover and celebrate their expertise inform future community-engaged research and guide intervention and prevention efforts
View in essence social capital refers to resources that can be mobilized from social relations and structure in which actors are located while cultural capital pertains to various forms of habits dispositions and knowledge gained via exposure to cultural practices
View for example dimaggio and mukhtar and prieur and savage showed that the role of high-culture performing arts in cultivating cultural capital has weakened
View simi- larly matarasso found that cultural participation has a positive impact on social cohesion by bringing people together
View dense networks based on the ideas of network closure coleman have shown to enable more frequent social interaction
View the current study included sports such as basketball and football and demonstrated the significant role of sports event attendance in explaining individuals subjective well-being and perceived social support
View in line with the cultural omnivorousness thesis warde tomlinson & mcmeekin kate l and thrane l showed that interest in sports was associated with participation in other social and cultural activities
View the findings showed that sports participation has by far the largest association with individuals subjective well- being and perceived social support among various modes of cultural participation across off-line and online contexts
View Theories of cognitive reserve, disuse syndrome and stress have suggested that activities that are mentally engaging, enjoyable and socially interactive could be protective against the development of dementia
View Using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, this study shows that for adults aged 50 and older visiting museums every few months or more was associated with a lower incidence rate of dementia over a 10-year follow-up period compared with less-frequent visiting
View consequently activities that are mentally engaging enjoyable stress-reducing and socially interactive could be protective against the development of dementia and in light of this there has been a call for the identification of more affordable multi- modal public health interventions to decrease the risk of demen- tia for individuals
View a multimodal activity that combines a number of protective factors including intellectual stimulation light physical activity positive affect relaxation and social engagement through interaction with staff fellow visitors or friends is visiting museums art galleries and exhibitions hereafter referred to as museums
View the inclusion of further confounders such as health-related variables and other forms of community engagement had very little effect on results suggesting that the association between visiting museums and dementia onset is independent of factors such as sensory impair- ment depression and vascular conditions and separate from multiple further types of community social engagement
View the com- bined neural and sensory stimulation and cognitive engagement provided by museums make attendance a potential cultural intervention for increasing or maintaining cognitive reserve
View further visiting museums can be seen as a specific type of social engagement: visiting can reduce per- ceived isolation by encouraging people to leave their homes it is an activity that is frequently a focal point for meeting family/friends and even if people attend alone there is casual social contact with museum staff and/or other visitors
View We provide an experimental evaluation of the impact of aesthetic experiences in terms of stress reduction and wellbeing increase
View In addition, a sample of their saliva has been taken, and its cortisol level measured, before and after the experience, and likewise for momentary wellbeing measured on a Visual Analogous Scale
View Subjects reported an average increase of 40% in wellbeing and a decrease of the 60% in the cortisol level
View to the current state of knowledge the channels through which arts and culture participation affects human biology are almost unknown with partial exceptions such as the characterization of the neural pathways through which music affects the brain and allows rehabilitation sarkamo et al
View in this experimental study we make a further step in the direction of the identification of actual physiological mechanisms through which arts and culture participation and in particular their aesthetic dimension goldman affect human health and well-being and relieve stressfocusing in particular on visual art experiences in a strongly characterized cultural heritage environment
View effects and it has been found that music listening causes a reduction in stress levels with a relevant mediating role of the social context linnemann et al
View these results provide a medium-specific elaboration of by now classical evidence konlaan bygren and johansson of the positive effects of physical exercise and cultural participation on the levels of blood lipids blood pressure and prolactin and of the possible pathways of the positive influences of participating in cultural activities via stress reduction that decreases the oxidative dna damage and the formation of -hydrox-ydeoxygua- nosine whose high levels tend to be associated to increased susceptibility to diseases
View ninety per cent of participants registered a remarkable improvement of their wellbeing after the experience
View ninety-five per cent of participants registered a reduction of salivary cortisol after the experience
View the average trend shows a parallel decrease in cortisol values and an increase in wellbeing levels
View tables and list the linear correlation values between factors that are positively related to wellbeing response and cortisol response respectively
View in particular subjective wellbeing response is significantly correlated to high cultural participation whereas cortisol response to low cultural participation
View in other words those who start from high cortisol values and low vas ie the most stressed out wellbeing deprived subjects manifest higher response in cortisol reduction and wellbeing gain
View it seems therefore that intense cultural participation trains the body to a favorable neurobiological response to cultural stimuli
View moreover cortisol responders are strongly associated also to no distress and even wellbeing response and to a lesser extent to lack of religiosity
View on the other hand female gender is more associated to cortisol response whereas male gender to wellbeing response
View auto-cm analysis therefore provides us with a relatively clear profiling of the main characteristics behind both cortisol and wellbeing response and in turn with an equally clear profiling of the characteristics that drive effective versus failed response in both domains
View the aim of the present study was investigating the effect of a highly connoted visual aesthetical experience in terms of certain types of biological stress reduction and psychological wellbeing enhancement responses
View we have found that the chosen experience has significant impacts on both wellbeing and cortisol levels and that such impacts are modulated by specific sets of variables in ways that are consistent with other although still partial and fragmentary results from related literature
View in particular we find that levels of cultural participation modulate cortisol response and also although less directly wellbeing response
View another interesting finding is the preferential association between cortisol response and women versus wellbeing response and men
View likewise although this result is more intuitive for the relationship between wellbeing response and the presence of a moderate pathological state with absence of pathologies and more generally a high baseline wellbeing level as a strong factor of wellbeing non-responsea result that makes a powerful case for a cultural welfare twist in future cultural policies aimed at improving citizens cultural participation by suitably designing specific programs in cultural institutions that target specific physical and mental health issues mckeown et al
View the low correlation between cortisol and wellbeing response moreover makes it clear that the reduction of cortisol is not due as a first instance to a concurrent improvement in wellbeing
View elucidate the role of the selective activation of the prefrontal area in humans during the perception of objects that have been rated as beautiful by subjects
View however recent research has found analogous mechanisms associated to visual stimuli and in particular to the joint activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the striatum as markers of wellbeing enhancement and lower cortisol heller et al
View on the basis of our findings it could be that less educated samples could experience a less significant cortisol reduction or wellbeing improvement from aesthetic experiences
View recently we showed in community studies that active social participation associates with self- rated good health in finland hyyppa and ma ki a; hyyppa and ma ki
View thirdly controlling for the health-related vari- ables that significantly predicted survival and/or confounded the relationship between leisure participation scores and survival we calculated participation were significant even after adjust- ments for the statistically significant covariates ie age gender tobacco smoking alcohol use obesity self-rated health and diagnosed chronic disease
View adjusted for statistically significant covariates age gender obesity tobacco smoking alcohol use self-rated health and diagnosed chronic disease in the cox survival model the subjects with abundant the highest quartile leisure participation survived signific- antly better than the subjects in the intermediate quartiles
View adjusted for all statistically significant covari- ates age gender obesity tobacco smoking alcohol use self-rated health and diagnosed chronic disease in the cox survival model over years the subjects who belonged to the highest quartile of leisure participation score survived leisure participation and survival significantly better than the subjects who belonged to the intermediate quartiles
View bryson and mackerrons uk-based large-scale primary research found theatre dance concert exhibition museum library and sports running and exercise to be ranked second third and fourth respectively behind intimacy and love making as activities which have a positive effect on reported happiness
View research has found that more frequent participation in certain activities eg arts activities and sport may generate more positive effects on well-being kavetsos or in some cases be necessary to generate well-being benefits
View ; wood and smith which may act as a source of inspiration and motivation as well as influencing identity green ; museum visits which are associated with benefits to psychological well-being social interaction relaxation and stress reduction chatterjee and noble ; packer ; libraries which have been suggested to offer potential men- tal health benefits eg use of books in therapy fanner and urquhart ; and sport recreational exercise and fitness which generates well-being benefits through mental and physical stimulation and social capital and affiliation benefits associated with the enhancement of social networks cabinet office ; downward and ras- ciute ; hamer et al
View the ancova and change score models provide important findings which extend the logit analyses by offering specific insight into the impacts of changes in fre- quency of participation in arts cultural and sporting leisure activities on well-being between survey waves
View satisfaction with health is also higher among those reporting increases in engagement in arts events and moderate and mild sports with the findings related to sport consistent with the health benefits of more active lifestyles cabinet office ; hamer et al
View the findings suggest that increases in self-reported well-being can be realized from engagement in certain leisure activities
View they also highlight the benefits of active participation including health benefits associated with sports and social interaction benefits of both sport and more active involvement in the arts
View heritage tourism is one of the most significant and fastest- growing segments of the tourism industry as tourists become increasingly more interested in consuming heritage jimura
View despite the importance of understanding residents swb in heritage tourism empirical tourism research is lacking on an integrative model that can illustrate the key factors influencing residents swb and examine the differential effects of residents swb on their support for tourism
View in the circumstances of tourism perdue long and kang indicate the influences of community safety social changes community involvement crowding changes local political influence and job opportunity changes on residents cognitive well-being in gaming tourism
View social environment is the local social space surrounding one s life repetti
View residents social environment positively influences their subjective well-being by positively inuencing a cognitive well- being and b affective well-being
View residents perceived positive tourism impact positively in- fluences their subjective well-being by positively inuencing a cognitive well-being and b affective well-being
View residents perceived negative tourism impact negatively influences their subjective well-being by negatively inuencing a cognitive well-being and b affective well-being
View ridderstaat croes and nijkamp indicate a bilateral relationship between tourism development and residents swb: tourism development influences residents swb and the impact of residents swb on tourism development appears to affect their support for tourism
View residents perceived economic status was found to positively impact residents cognitive well-being and affective well-being
View sense of community demonstrated a significant posi- tive effect on residents cognitive wellbeing
View residents perceived social environment affected their cognitive wellbeing and affective well-being
View positive tourism impact marginally affected residents affective well-being
View residents sense of community promotes their cognitive swb
View a higher sense of community comprising of sense of belonging autonomy and proudness of living in the community contributes to residents positive cognitive well-being
View social environment significantly affects both cognitive and af- fective components of residents swb
View residents experience more positive affect when they perceive tourism as having positive impacts on the local community
View tourism has helped to increase the standard of living improve local infra- structure and promote local culture and crafts
View with lijiang s tourism development reaching the maturing stage residents perceived positive tourism impact might display a less salient effect on their swb than residents in a growing tourism destination
View higher cognitive well-being and more positive affects reinforce residents support for tourism
View the findings illustrate how each factor influences residents swb demonstrate the relative importance of each factor in explaining residents swb and show the critical role of residents swb in predicting their support for tourism
View in many developing countries and re- gions endowed with natural and cultural heritage sites tourism is touted as a smokeless industry that stimulates economic growth without environmental pollution
View Increased anxiety and stress are frequently found in children with autism spectrum disorder and are associated with social challenges
View The theatre-based, peer-mediated intervention not only contributes to improvement in social competence in youth with autism spectrum disorder but also contributes to reductions in trait-anxiety associated with more social interaction with peers
View furthermore prolonged exposure to stress during child- hood and adolescence can lead to permanent morphologi- cal changes in brain development with the potential to negatively affect social behaviors and increase risk for the development of future psychopathology giedd
View clinical researchers have implemented a variety of interventions most using elements of cognitive behavio- ral therapy cbt such as graded exposure regulation strategies or cognitive restructuringto diminish symp- toms of anxiety in youth with asd danial and wood ; reaven et al
View this promising research shows that theatre-based intervention can lead to enhanced social competence through increases in social-cognitive functioning improved social interac- tion and possibly changes to neural underpinnings that support these domains corbett et al
View specifically a negative correlation was shown between social interaction with peers and reported anxiety
View it is also possible that the intervention contributes to changes in the performance of social skills yet does not result in reductions in the underlying physiological response to social exchange
View thus despite enhanced arousal the par- ticipants demonstrate more awareness of social stimuli and more motivation to engage with others
View so while treatment did not lead to a decrease in stress reactivity the participants ability to cope with stimuli perceived as threatening ie social interaction was likely improved
View positive correla- tions between cortisol and group play suggest that increased physiological arousal as measured by salivary cortisol is necessary to facilitate social engagement with peers corbett et al
View summary this study extends previous findings showing that thea- tre-based therapy for youth with asd leads to enhanced social competence and promotes decreased anxiety during social interaction
View in conclusion peer-mediated thea- tre-based intervention for youth with asd shows promise as a treatment to increase multiple domains of social com- petence while also reducing anxiety
View the government finds it of partucular importance that such equity oriented health targets are developed for those agencies responsible for housing and local environment education health care and social services
View tobacco consumption is known to be higher in many disadvantaged groups and although the pattern of alcohol consumption is much more complex it is true to say that the effects of alcohol abuse are felt more severely in disadvantaged groups due to lack of social support and increased likelihood of job loss and unemployement
View in addition to occupational accidents and diseases a combination of heavy uncomfortable and monotorious work couple with stress and very limited control over the situation increases the risk of many diseases
View of agriculture showed that wic participation reduced premature births among high risk mothers by to percent
View the prosperous neighbourhoods have the opposite conditions with a social environment more condusive to wellbeing
View policy level weak social support networks have been linked to conditions such as depression hypertension heart disease multiple accidents complications in pregnancy and suicide
View in contrast supportive relationships have a strikingly high protective effect for the mental health of people under stress
View what is clear is that disadvantaged and vulnerable groups tend to have the least say and lowest participation rates in key decisions affecting their health and wellbeing
View - better access for people to health information for example in the form of local community diagnosis presenting basic facts about the distibution and changes as regards both health hazards and diseases within the local population
View the aim was to encourage the creation of a mutually supportive community of parents with young children
View factors known to have an adverse effect on health and to which the most vulnerable groups suffer greater exposure include: * poverty particularly in relation to children and elderly people * inadequate living conditions both physical and social * sub-standard working conditions both physical and social * unemployment * restricted access to a nutritious diet * undue pressure to consume hazardous substances such as tobacco inadequate access to essential social and health care services * lack of social and community support * dangerously polluted environment equally important but less common is to include into this approach access to working and living conditions directly promoting good health an interesting and stimulating work-environment good neighborhood facilities for meeting friends and engage in various activities etc
View - initiating immunization schemes to improve uptake and cove rage in populations where childhood diseases and immunization uptake rates show gaps between different social and ethnic groups
View - encouraging the identification of areas of low up-take of preventive care and initiating schemes and outreach services to promote uptake in those areas for example mobile cervical cytology units domicilary family planning provision antenatal consultant clinics held in local community centres rather than in distant hospitals
View urbanisation might affect individual wellbeing in numerous ways both positively and negatively easterlin et al
View one of the avenues recently investigated for improving qol for older adults as well as persons with adrd is to encourage their participation in creative arts activities
View a recent review of participatory art programs for older cognitively normal adults suggests over- whelmingly positive cognitive affective and quality-of-life outcomes for various participa- tory art forms including dance expressive writing music singing and instrumental theatre arts and visual arts noice noice & kramer
View vae activities when applied in an enriching learning format are known to stimulate and integrate multiple domains of learning that include cognitive affective physical sensorimotor skills person- al interpersonal and social domains eisner ; jensen ; richards ; steiner
View in addition to stimulation and engagement with a wide scope of domains certain types of cognitive processes are enhanced and stimulated while creating works of art: attention focus and concentration divergent thinking visual-spatial awareness image for- mation memory imagination inspiration and intuition arnheim ; eisner ; gardner ; richards ; steiner
View it is also possible that persons with adrd in the experimental group gained a sense of empowerment through their accomplishments in the visual arts study that extended into their daily lives
View Public libraries also serve as places of refuge for vulnerable populations, including people experiencing mental illness, homelessness, immigration challenges, and trauma
View in addition to responding to requests from patrons libraries also serve as sites of educational health programming
View as well as art therapists an increasing number of stakeholders are involved in projects such as arts agencies artists community arts workers and designers
View this research has influenced policy and official advice identifies key aesthetic and functional considerations such as engendering a non- institutional atmosphere distracting patients from stress and anxiety helping people to navigate their way around and fostering a sense of ownership and pride in public buildings
View for example the study by ulrich et al examined physiological measures including blood pressure and pulse rate as well as psychosocial self-report measures to compare the effects of nature conditions with other conditions on patients undergoing a stressful procedure blood donation in a us hospital
View a non-significant reduction in falls was associated with vinyl flooring compared to carpets in a study of elderly patients in a community hospital
View us hospital survey found that patients expressed a greater need for privacy than staff believed they had with the majority of medical and mental health patients preferring a private room
View mental health patients appeared to have more definitive and polarised reactions to their environment than other groups
View another study focused on behavioural responses to the environment investigating the impact of architectural design on way-finding in patients with dementia in a large hospital
View these reported safety issues including a nonsignificant reduction in falls associated with vinyl flooring compared to carpets in a study of elderly patients in a community hospital and found significant improvements in staff perceptions of working conditions following changes in acoustic conditions in a study of nurses in a coronary care unit
View the authors conclude that improved conditions and speech intelligibility enhanced staff wellbeing reducing risks of conflicts and errors
View finally schofield examined cancer patients responses to a specialist environment snoezelen that was associated with enhanced sense of calm
View this study assessed the impact of grants awarded to uk national health service hospital trusts for environmental improvements to patient areas
View patients in the newer buildings expressed significantly more satisfaction with the appearance layout and overall design of their wards
View patients expressed a greater need for privacy than staff believed they had with the majority of medical and mental health patients preferring a private room
View the study identified some differences between different types of patients with mental health patients appearing to have more definitive reactions to their environment than other groups
View key findings from the review include evidence that exposure to the arts may reduce anxiety and depression in specific groups of patients
View positive effects of environmental conditions have also been identified including reduced stress reduced risk improved way-finding and enhanced perceptions of healthcare environments
View attitude surveys indicate high levels of approval for arts particularly among patients
View To assess psychological wellbeing in a novel social prescription intervention for older adults called Museums on Prescription and to explore the extent of change over time in six self-rated emotions
View Conclusion: Museums can be instrumental in offering museum-based programmes for older adults to improve psychological wellbeing over time
View Participants in the study experienced a sense of privilege, valued the opportunity to liaise with curators, visit parts of the museum closed to the public and handle objects normally behind glass
View Participants appreciated opportunities afforded by creative and co-productive activities to acquire learning and skills, and get to know new people in a different context
View public health england phe stated that communities both place-based and where people share a common identity or affinity have a vital contribution to make in health and wellbeing and that the assets within communities such as the skills and knowledge social networks and community organisations are building blocks for good health p
View social prescribing aligns with local and national agendas to improve health and wellbeing and reduce health inequalities because it is patient-centred; not just what the nhs can do; it is a conduit for involving patients in their community and opening the channels between service sectors p
View nhs england has identified social prescribing as a key means by which patients can benefit from wider provision; voluntary sector organisations in particular play a vital role in assisting the work of general practice in providing access to community-based practical support and help for specific groups such as carers
View in the united kingdom wellbeing has been actively integrated into museum programming to target vulnerable audiences including mental health service users people with dementia stroke survivors and people with physical disability
View research has shown that museum spaces and the collections they house provide opportunities for positive social interactions calming experiences learning and acquisition of new skills leading to increased self-esteem sense of identity inspiration and opportunities for meaning making in addition to reduced social isolation and decreased anxiety
View in a study of hospital patients and care home residents a mixed-methods framework was used to assess the impact of min museum object handling sessions on participants using pre-post session measures of psychological and subjective wellbeing alongside qualitative analysis of session recordings
View quantitative measures showed significant increases in participant wellness and happiness scores
View qualitative analysis revealed that patients used the heritage objects combined with tailored and easy social interaction sensory stimulus and learning opportunities to tap into concerns about identity emotions energy levels and motivation pp
View furthermore the role and value of museums in contributing to wellbeing or wellness agendas was seen to merit broader exploration to reflect on the fit with a wider healthcare landscape of social prescribing and other key health priorities p
View a qualitative study of older adult group discussion of contemporary art found that participants existing cultural and social capital was affected by their initial engagement subsequent relationships and development throughout the three gallery visits of the intervention
View qualitative evaluation of an art gallery intervention with people with dementia found that the setting was seen as valued special and somewhere different it provided intellectual stimulation in terms of engagement with art as a universal interest; offered opportunities for social inclusion carer respite and support; and positively affected public perceptions of people with dementia
View the intervention helped foster social inclusion and social engagement enhance the relationship between carers and people with dementia and stimulate cognitive processes of attention and concentration
View social inclusion is an important outcome in museum interventions as decrease in social isolation is a key contributor to wellbeing in older adults and social engagement remains a critical effects of a museum-based social prescription intervention on quantitative measures of psychological wellbeing in older adults determinant of physical health into late adulthood
View evidence shows that participatory arts in older age groups can challenge ideas of decline re-connect people to communities and target health needs that threaten wellbeing
View a -year trial of a participatory arts activity that assigned older adults and over to either the intervention group choral singing or comparison group usual activity found higher positive effects for the intervention group in self-ratings of physical health eg fewer doctor visits less medication use fewer falls activity level morale and loneliness in contrast with the comparison group that demonstrated a significant decline
View traditional models of successful ageing propose the interdependence of multi- dimensional components such as the low probability of disease and disability maintenance of high cognitive and physical function and sustained engagement with social and productive activities
View a recent study of adaptive ageing in oldest-old adults octogenarians and centenarians noted that this model failed to take into account the influence of subjective wellbeing
View the study suggested that positive affect was directly determined by social resources such as the intensity of social interactions and indirectly affected by cognitive functioning and education
View the reported study was a museum- based intervention that aimed to offer -week programmes of engaging creative and socially interactive sessions of around h each comprising curator talks behind-the-scenes tours object handling and discussion and arts activities inspired by the exhibits
View the mwm-oa assesses psychological wellbeing as an indicator of the mental state of the individual and although there are other aspects of wellbeing such as physical and social wellbeing the measure focuses on levels of self-reported changes in six emotions found to be aspects of wellbeing more likely to change as a result of a relatively short intervention such as participating in a museum or gallery activity
View findings showed that two emotions enlightened and absorbed were responsible for the effect of the interaction and increased more pre-post-session than the other four emotions
View for physiological measures comparison of repeated tests across time has led to an awareness of the level of change constituting a clinically meaningful difference but with health-related quality- of-life measures such as wellbeing the meaning of change is less intuitively apparent not only because it has no familiar units but also because health professionals seldom use quality of life measures in clinical practice p
View described social capital outcomes as bonding between participants bridging between participants and group leaders and linking between participants art educators or researchers
View when interviewed many participants highlighted the opportunity to handle museum objects and engage with collections and curators; they commented on learning new information and being absorbed by it and acquiring new skills which could account for increases in the absorbed and enlightened items of the measure
View it has been argued that when individuals interact with museums and their collections it is the intrinsic physical and material properties of the objects they encounter that trigger memories projections sensory emotional and cognitive associations
View museum objects may function as symbols for aspects of peoples lives such as identity relationships nature society and religion; these symbolic and meaning-making properties could account for their therapeutic potential; and the physical cognitive and emotional interactions elicited by these multiencountered for one or two sessions
View previous authors have shown that high levels of social resources have a direct effect on positive affect and physical health whereas cognitive functioning and education have an indirect effect on positive affect
View the social resources engendered by the museum-based programme directly increased the positive affect demonstrated by significant improvements in the wellbeing emotions and it is likely that physical health for some participants will also improve; one participant reported that since taking part in the museum programme they felt more positive about my life and health and more determined to keep up my practice of photography and painting that required a level of physical fitness as the participant had formed a meet-up group to go sketching in and around a contemporary art gallery
View in terms of developmental adaptation participants seemed keen to share their ideas memories and past experiences pre-post session changes in emotions over programme which they tended to express in a positive light with reference to learning curves and knowing better next time
View the happy museum project for example sought to demonstrate the qualities that cultural institutions can foster in terms of institutional and communal wellbeing and resilience in the face of global challenges
View it is interesting therefore to consider the potential economic impact of culturally oriented social prescribing programmes such as museums on prescription specifically in terms of health and wellbeing but also for community regeneration and forging a more equable society
View museums can be instrumental in offering older adult activities that improve psychological wellbeing and may lead to long-term outcomes such as sustained social capital and enhanced physical health
View although geographically extensive and carried out over years each museum-based programme was relatively short term at weeks and a rolling programme of older adult activities needs to be implemented to examine sustained effects on health and wellbeing over several years
View participants in the museums on prescription study rated highly the experiences of feeling absorbed and enlightened by the sessions and commented on the opportunities afforded by the museum-based activities to acquire new learning and develop new skills
View the high levels of significance and effect sizes in the study infer that findings can be generalised more widely to other populations of vulnerable and lonely older adults at risk of social isolation and imply that provision of socially prescribed museum-based sessions could be scaled up nationally to address social and cultural inequities
View the reported study contributes to a wider body of evidence on how cultural engagement can bring about positive outcomes for older adults at risk of social exclusion by improving positive emotion; it is likely that this occurs through creative processes involving new learning and acquisition of skills and the formation of social capital through co-productivity exchange of ideas and enhanced sense of community and belonging
View a second trial carried out in rural bangladesh evaluated a preschool classroom-based intervention for - year olds with index children also showing signicantly improved expressive vocabulary com- pared to controls opel ameer & aboud
View in a subsequent larger rct compared to a control group that received no intervention the - to -month- old children whose carers received the dialogic book- sharing training showed signicant and substantial improvement in expressive and receptive language as well as in focal attention vally et al
View found that improvements in caregiver sensitivity during book- sharing signicantly mediated the impact of the intervention on receptive language while improve- ments in caregiver-child reciprocity during book- sharing mediated the impact of the intervention on both child expressive language and receptive lan- guage and child focal attention
View psychosocial functioning encompasses various aspects of psychiatric psychological and social competence and well-being and it refers to the ability of self-caring or working a positive evaluation of self and life and a positive well- being received from meaningful relationships or activities
View in both cities there is an evident direct correlation between a co-morbidity condition and a health-related perception of quality of life
View as reported by borghesi and vercelli the unem- ployed are victims of anxiety anger and depression and suffer from a loss of self-esteem and social status that may disrupt family and social life p
View therefore when policy action is taken to create such opportunities their social benets become more evident and this in turn paves the way to more policy action and so on thus creating a virtuous circle of culture-driven wellbeing
View The intervention involved weekly outreach sessions using heritage activities such as object handling and museum visits as inspiration for creative responses through a variety of media
View The research used an asset-based approach focused on participant strength and potential, nurtured and enhanced through museum activities
View the study examined the effects of museum outreach sessions on confidence sociability and well-being measures for mental health n and addiction recovery n service-users taking an asset-based approach and research design
View conclusions: creative museum activities showed increases in participant levels of confidence sociability and well- being
View provide a positive social experience reducing social isolation;
View elicit an emotional response that encourages positive feelings such as optimism hope and enjoyment;
View findings draw upon a longer tradition of arts in health research which includes evidence showing how active participation in activities such as music-making creative writing and visual arts can have a measurable impact on physical and mental well-being for reviews see royal society for public health ; staricoff ; stuckey & nobel
View practice-based studies of heritage-in-health interventions have shown how object handling sessions with hospital patients led to improvements in quality of life measures chatterjee vreeland & noble and psychological well-being and happiness thomson et al
View gallery studies have demonstrated the therapeutic role of viewing art in supporting family carers of people with chronic mental ill health roberts et al
View the intervention involved weekly outreach sessions using heritage activities such as object handling and museum visits as inspiration for creative responses through a variety of media
View the ways in which individuals relate to social networks and communities have important effects on peoples health and well-being and social isolation and loneliness can have a negative impact on physical and mh holt-lunstad smith & layton
View recovery-oriented practice in mh and addiction services share many common elements such as a person-centred and long- term approach and like the asset-based model they focus on strengthening individual factors eg confidence well-being and motivation and community support networks granfield & cloud
View in the context of arts and health holt and kaiser showed how viewing and discussing art can motivate patients with addiction issues to change
View in a qualitative study reynolds showed how engaging in creative needlecraft built a sense of achievement self-esteem and confidence which helped participants with depression to manage low moods although conclusions need to be interpreted with caution as diagnosis was ascertained via self- report
View ar participants identified their confidence as deriving from having tried something new and that museum outreach sessions provided an environment where participants could try a new activity without fear of embarrassment
View participants identified new things about specific museum objects and local history
View interestingly activities brought back childhood memories for three participants bringing creativity and a sense of play back into their adult lives: remembering creating mats when i was young and using them as blankets
View the findings suggested that museum activities that are developed within an asset-based model like the current study can contribute to increasing individual social capital for mh and ar service-users
View although it has been suggested that within therapeutic intervention it is the social interaction that is key simmons museum object handling research showed that the presence of objects and the act of touching were central in enhancing intervention benefits paddon et al
View overall this preliminary study contributes to understanding how museum activities can make a positive contribution to recovery for mh and ar service-users by evidencing the effects of museum sessions on confidence sociability and well-being
View the mixed-method data showed that participant levels of confidence sociability and well- being improved over the course of the museum sessions though it is not clear to what extent the nature of the museum-focused activities or participation in a collaborative creative process produced gains above that of being part of a group
View as a non-clinical intervention the programme showed that museum outreach sessions developed within an asset-based model have the potential to contribute to positive outcomes linked to the recovery service-users in mh and addiction services
View suggested that a gallery open to the public at the same time enabled an intellectually stimulating learning experience social interaction increases in confidence and support for carers which led to enjoyment changes in the perceptions of dementia from carers and facilitators and continued connections with the gallery
View This alternative to the task-focussed aspect of caring appeared to be an important contextual factor triggering quality time together and carer-patient social interactions subsequently improving social connectedness and enjoyment
View suggested that the carers involvement in the group was important for the participants as it facilitated communication and meaningful relationships enabling them to see the creative side of the person with dementia and reduce their levels of stress
View Student volunteers interacting with care home residents developed a deeper understanding of dementia and improved confidence which led to positive attitude changes about older adults
View Facilitators and artists developed a deep insight into dementia and increases in confidence leading to different perspective of the condition despite initial apprehensions and gained new insights into the abilities and challenges of people living with dementia
View Cognitive stimulation Cognitive stimulation is a form of mental exercise and a psychosocial treatment for people with dementia where a number of enjoyable activities provide general stimulation for thinking concentration and memory usually in a social setting such as a small group
View First people living with a significant challenge to their lives -dementia - reported positive outcomes
View Given the growing interest in the arts for dementia care recognising that many people will be developing their skills and practice our findings can be summarised into a conceptual framework for intervention and further research
View Other theoretical approaches to understanding how visual arts programmes impact on wellbeing could be suggested in the future particularly as the arts and health literature develops
View Aims: This rapid review explores the role of arts activities in promoting the mental wellbeing and resilience of children and young people aged between 11 and 18 years
View it was found that participating in arts activities can have a positive effect on self-confidence, self-esteem, relationship building and a sense of belonging, qualities which have been associated with resilience and mental wellbeing
View Conclusions: Although the research evidence is limited, there is some support for providing structured group arts activities to help build resilience and contribute to positive mental wellbeing of children and young people
View INTRODUCTION A review exploring the effects of participating in creative activities on the health and wellbeing of children and young people found that increased self-esteem sense of achievement empowerment social skills and promotion of social engagement are some of the commonly reported benefits of taking part in such activities
View These characteristics have been linked to resilience and resilience is recognised as a component of mental wellbeing enabling people to cope with adversity to achieve their full potential and to contribute to society
View Research into the extent of mental ill-health among children and young people in the United Kingdom revealed that in children and young people between the ages of and have a diagnosable mental health condition
View For children and young people this was translated into Child Adolescent Mental Health Services designed to be accessible for all to promote and enhance children and young peoples wellbeing and mental health
View Already government policy supports the introduction of social prescribing schemes and arts activities are provided under social prescribing schemes around the country with evidence emerging that such schemes can produce positive outcomes for health and wellbeing
View Participating in creative arts has been linked to positive outcomes for children and young people such as the development of social skills and positive changes in behaviour
View However while the previous review explored the potential of creative activities to enhance the health and wellbeing of children and young people looking at broad aspects of both physical and mental health the focus of this review is the role that participating in community-based arts plays in enhancing the mental wellbeing of children and young people
View To examine whether community arts interventions could provide cost-effective services that promote protective factors linked to resilience and mental wellbeing such as developing a sense of belonging and purpose social inclusion relationship building and improve social skills and self-esteem
View Although none of the other studies linked the findings of their research directly to building resilience participating in arts programmes was linked to positive youth development social and emotional development reduction in emotional problems and the promotion of social development and wellbeing
View INTRINSIC FACTORS Sense of belonging and identity formation Arts may play a role in identity development as the activities give people an opportunity to explore and learn about themselves
View The participants in the Youth Arts Programme linked identity with a sense of belonging through the exposure to different people and experiences and the opportunity to meet like-minded people
View Age range - years United Kingdom Performing arts competition Rock Eisteddfod Challenge Key findings Limitations/comment GASP score Participants reported a link between arts participation and increased confidence identity formation and sense of belonging Retrospective study -number of years since participation in art activity not specified High levels of engagement with the programme Evidence of increased confidence and strengthened skills in chosen art form
View Reported increase in artistic skills Increased awareness of stereotypes and underlying attitudes Higher level of social awareness There is little detail regarding the interviews
View found that engagement in arts activities most significantly predicted a sense of meaning/purpose in life
View For participants in the UK-based Rock Challenge performing and being involved in organising the performance had developed team working and created new friendships
View However what is clear is that there remains a significant gap in the research evidence directly linking arts participation and the promotion of mental wellbeing and resilience
View While the existing evidence does provide an indication of the potential value of participating in arts activities to enhance wellbeing and resilience further research which meets the requirements of healthcare commissioners will be necessary if the use of arts interventions is to become adjunct to traditional health service provision
View understanding how parents read with their baby the type of books they use the importance and enjoyment they place on reading as well as the frequency of reading activities parents engage in with their baby may shed light on factors that help facilitate esr for parents as well as barriers they may encounter
View the findings indicated that % of parents start reading to their baby from birth with % of parents attending the library and/or bookstore frequently and % having over childrens books within their family home
View specifically future research should examine whether language and social com- munication skills can be enhanced from esr with babies and the intensity of instruction/intervention needed for significant improvements in language and social communication to be observed
View in line with the language development findings the broader social communication results also suggest that esr intervention workshops may support broader social communication development and that when parents are provided with more demon- strations support and feedback higher broader social communication scores can be achieved
View h demon- strations ongoing support practice opportunity and personalised feedback significantly higher language and broader social communication scores are observed compared to a li intervention min with fewer demonstrations no ongoing support no personalised feedback nor practice opportunity
View this study indicates that when parents are provided with esr intervention work- shops on how to choose age appropriate books for babies and information on how to create a positive home reading environment that encourages parent- child interactions for babies with preverbal and emerging language skills that higher language and broader social communication scores are observed
View the findings from this study suggest that hi esr intervention workshops are associated with higher language and broader social communication scores compared to a li esr intervention workshop
View all of the participants from both the hi group and li group reported that they enjoyed attending the esr intervention workshops and participants from both groups demonstrated a significant improvement in their language and broader social communication scores as well as home reading practices
View Studies on the quality of life in asthma patients have indicated that symptoms depend not only on the severity and duration of the disease, but also on the social and psychological condition of the patient and their family
View Furthermore, depression can affect the patients compliance to treatment
View Literature also shows a development of multidisciplinary programs for asthma treatment that are complemented by relaxation methods such as progressive muscle, mental, muscular and functional relaxation, guided imagery, hypnotherapy, autogenic training, biofeedback techniques and music therapy
View According to the American Music Therapy Association, music therapy is the use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a credentialed professional who has completed an approved music therapy program
View studies on the quality of life in asthma patients have indicated that symptoms depend not only on the severity and duration of the disease but also on the social and psychological condition of the patient and their family
View fur- thermore depression can affect the patients compliance to treatment
View literature also shows a development of multidisciplinary programs for asthma treatment that are complemented by relaxation methods such as progressive muscle mental muscular and functional relaxation guided imagery hyp- notherapy autogenic training biofeedback techniques and music therapy
View the interventions varied from passive music therapy listening to relaxation music pro- gressive muscle relaxation with background music to active music therapy breathing exercises singing and/or playing wind instruments
View the authors of a second rct of high risk of bias aimed to test the efcacy of a multidisciplinary program pulmonary rehabilitation and passive music therapy on anxiety and dyspnea intensity in patients hospitalized with asthma
View using grade approach the quality of evidence for effects of music listening on both asthma symptoms and lung function in asthma was moderate
View the highest quality trials used music listening as therapeutic intervention that was addressed to adult patients with asthma
View evidence shows that the amount of reading impacts on social skills as well as community participation []
View Results showed significant improvements in empowerment , mental health and social inclusion
View Participants with higher CORE scores, no new stress in their lives and positive impressions of the impact of arts on their life benefited most over all three measures
View This study suggests that arts participation positively benefits people with mental health difficulties
View Arts participation increased levels of empowerment and had potential to impact on mental health and social inclusion
View there is a conviction in practice and policy that parti- cipation in community art projects will help people with mental health problems gain wider social networks understand and deal with their mental health issues better and gain confidence and self-esteem
View arts participation is a common community provision for people with various social and healthcare needs
View this sort of community participation is seen as particularly important for recovery from mental health problems in the social sense of being able to lead a fulfilling life of ones choice regardless of the presence or absence of symptoms repper & perkins spandler et al
View ten % people described their difficulty using the term bipolar or manic depression and four people % used schizophrenia
View to investigate whether greater participation produced greater effect we divided people into higher and lower exposure groups
View overall core scores significantly decreased over the months indicating improvement and subscale scores for problems/symptoms; risk and well-being also improved significantly although life functioning just missed significance
View when participants filled in the second survey months after their completion of the first- entry survey core scores for the clinically significant group more severe problems had decreased by % improved while scores for less severe participants increased by % p =
View table shows the results of our categorization of counts of positive attributions of improvement in outcomes to arts participation positive impact of arts
View the majority of participants attributed perceived improvement to their arts participation
View one of the most interesting findings identified through anova was the finding of significant positive empowerment and mental health impact for people with more severe mental health difficulties than for people with less severe difficulties
View the evidence for impact of arts participation on the social inclusion of participants as measured in this study is equivocal as it seems that although people attributed some benefit it seemed they perceived least impact from arts participation
View reviews of arts-in-health interventions staricoff indicate positive therapeutic and medical outcomes including reduced stress anxiety depression and blood pressure
View a gallery intervention for people with mild-to-moderate dementia eeckelaar camic & springham exploring art-viewing-art-making on prepost cognitive measures showed enhanced episodic memory but inconclusive findings for verbal flu- ency
View it was hypothesized that pre post comparisons would demonstrate enhanced well-being increase in positive emotion wellness and happiness; decrease in negative emotion across settings
View both female facilitators postdoctoral psychologist and postgraduate museum profes- sional received health and safety training infection control from london hospital and object handling from university museum and obtained disclosure and barring service dbs clearance
View psychiatric participants showed the largest reduction in negative panas moderate gains in vas wellness and greater gains in vas happiness
View reported museum sessions gave depressive or anxious participants an additional focus to wondering about their discharge date a finding that could account for increase in happiness but not lack of improvement in positive well-being so alternatively duration of stay was explored
View studies but analysis of audio recordings implied similar cognitive gains of enhanced confidence social interaction and learning
View Search words included the following: arts engagement + health/hospital/recovery, arts + hospital/evidence/wellbeing, evidence-based health practice, participatory arts for wellbeing, health + poetry/literature/dance/singing/music/community arts, arts health cost-effectiveness and creative art or creative activity + health/hospital/recovery/mental health
View Engagement in specially designed arts activities or arts therapies can reduce physical symptoms and improve mental health issues
View Conclusion: Based on the growing evidence of the arts as a tool for enhancing mental health wellbeing, and in line with the global challenges in health, we suggest that participatory arts activities and clinical arts interventions are made more widely available in health and social settings
View It is well-documented that such activities can be used as non-medical interventions to promote public health and wellbeing
View a recent inquiry report from the uk all-party parliamentary group on arts health and wellbeing illustrates the significant impact on personal and public health that participation in activities in a spectrum from clinical arts interventions to non-clinical participatory arts programmes can have
View furthermore there is a growing international evidence base showing the impact that the arts have on health and wellbeing of communities and individuals
View furthermore a report from the danish health agency shows that a rising number of people have poor mental health wellbeing
View there is increasingly focus on mental health illness among young people in scandinavia and the european union has taken the initiative to improve the mental health wellbeing of its member countries
View the most significant search words used were as follows: arts engagement + health/hospital/recovery arts + hospital/evidence/wellbeing evidence-based health practice participatory arts for wellbeing health + poetry/literature/dance/singing/ music/community arts arts health cost- effectiveness and creative art or creative activity + health/hospital/recovery/mental health
View results/findings the mental health benefits of participating in arts activities are manifold and to illustrate this we have used examples from the following review categories: arts therapy and participatory arts interventions for various illnesses and diagnoses non-clinical programmes: aop and arts and cultural programmes to enhance mental health of health professionals: arts therapy and participatory arts interventions for various illnesses and diagnoses studies show that arts interventions covering a spectrum from clinical arts interventions over specially designed arts activities with a therapeutic approach to non-clinical participation in arts activities and experiences have both positive and reliable psychological effects for patients within a range of diagnosed illnesses
View some of the effects were reported as follows: improved ability to cope less negative feeling increased quality of life increased wellbeing reduction in anxiety better understanding of own body reduced agitation positive distractions increased social interaction reduced stress increased selfconfidence and sense of self-worth lower levels of depression increased sense of hope and increased ability to connect with valuable parts of oneself
View a qualitative study explored whether participation in art and creative activities could increase the subjective wellbeing of women with cancer diagnoses
View art therapy was also used in a quasi-experimental design study to understand whether this therapy form had a measurable effect on pain and other common symptoms in cancer patients
View the results show that meaningful creative activity can help activate and boost psychosocial resources such as turning focus towards positive life experiences enhancing self-esteem promoting identity building and creating new opportunities
View an overview of randomized controlled trails studies that used creative arts therapies cats on cancer patients using pre- and post-intervention measurements showed that cats can lead to reduced anxiety depression and pain symptoms and improved quality of life in cancer patients; however the effect was reduced in follow-ups
View other studies involving patients with chronic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease copd pain includes a mixed methods study exploring whether participation in a -week-long song project had an effect on respiratory function and self-reported quality of life
View the qualitative part of the study showed that participants were positive about meeting with other copd patients and had an improvement in wellbeing
View the study showed that using art therapy could be an important strategy for controlling chronic disease as well as contributing to a feeling of reduced pain and increased wellbeing in women with chronic pain
View in summary there is good evidence that participation in meaningful creative activities can lead to improved mental health
View non-clinical programmes: aop there is good and variable documentation and evidence showing that non-clinical engagement in arts culture and creative activities can increase mental health wellbeing of individuals who are experiencing mental health problems
View the effects are reported as subjective feelings of increased self- confidence and wellbeing being part of a community building new social relationships participating in meaningful activities creating a connection between body and mind promoting relaxation fostering a sense of hope and developing new coping mechanisms and experiencing increased sense of self- worth motivation and aspiration and decreased levels of depression
View the review of the uk practice indicated that these programmes can contribute to building social capital community involvement improving health and wellbeing
View participants reported that the programme created a creative and therapeutic environment and that they experienced social psychological and therapeutic activity benefits
View improvement in the wellbeing of participants with short-term and long- term mental health problems was also found
View a quantitative study of participants with anxiety depression stress low self- esteem and self-confidence poor wellbeing or chronic illness or pain aimed to understand the process and results of gender relationships progression through intervention and change in wellbeing
View there is an increased focus on the health and wellbeing of employees especially in workplaces involving caring for other people or providing medical treatment
View a number of studies about the use and effects of arts and cultural activities to promote wellbeing in healthcare environment have been conducted in recent years
View despite some methodological limitations in the studies studied it was found that the majority of staff members in the studies felt that engagement in art and cultural activities had a positive impact on health and wellbeing of patients
View in addition informants felt that arts and cultural activities could improve communication between staff and patients by building and strengthening relationships
View the review concluded that the predominantly positive perceptions made the staff able to support the implementation of art and cultural activities in the healthcare system and that the majority of reported staff outcomes were positive with arts activities in healthcare setting perceived to have an impact on patients as well as staffs health and wellbeing
View in order to investigate the correlations between wellbeing indicators for nurses and their participation in cultural events theatre concerts exhibitions museums sightseeing and musicals subjective satisfaction was measured for commitment workplace support for new ideas job satisfaction and the experience of stress
View the results from the sow study showed increased commitment organizational commitment and self- reported positive changes in relation to the mental health and safety of the participants in comparison with non- participants
View collective participation in cultural events has a positive impact on commitment at work and can promote aspects of work-related wellbeing
View symptoms related to burnout and alexithymia the core characteristics of alexithymia are marked dysfunction in emotional awareness social attachment and interpersonal relating as well as self- assessment of health showed an improvement in the intervention group than in controls
View participants experienced improved health and a reduced level of fatigue
View based on the growing evidence of engagement in the arts as a tool for enhancing mental health wellbeing and in line with the global health challenges we suggest that arts activities are made more widely available in health and social settings in scandinavia inspired by the results of international studies
View arts activities have been documented as holistic non-medical low-cost interventions with the potential of promoting public mental health and wellbeing
View With evidence that singing can improve respiratory symptoms, the widespread dissemination of this information through traditional and social media, and the possibility that a patient with respiratory disease might seek out private lessons, the role, if any, a private voice teacher might play in the use of singing as a treatment for respiratory disease was explored
View with evidence that singing can improve respiratory symptoms the widespread dissemination of this in- formation through traditional and social media and the possibility that a patient with respiratory disease might seek out private lessons the role if any a private voice teacher might play in the use of singing as a treatment for respiratory disease was explored
View patients in both groups reported a signifi- cant intergroup enhancement in quality of life p =
View in the second experiment a twice weekly open workshop for singers with any respiratory disease was held in hospital for in- patients day cases and outpatients
View most participants suggested a perceived physi- cal benefit in breathing physical and psychological health and social well-being
View canga et al investigated the effect of multimodal psycho- music therapy used in conjunction with pulmonary rehabilitation as compared with pulmonary rehabilitation alone
View asthma as asthma affects % more aboriginal people than non- aboriginal australians and treatment compliance among aboriginal people is a high priority concern in australia eley and gorman attempted to gain the trust and confidence of ab- original australians by offering a novel treatment plan
View fur- thermore the treatment offered an opportunity for participants to learn about their disease and management options
View two participants said they felt tired after the sessions the only reported adverse effect
View more recently stegemller et al examined the impact of two dosage treatments on the quality of life voice quality and re- spiratory outcome measure of patients with idiopathic parkinson disease
View multiple sclerosis wiens et al aimed to evaluate music therapys ability to strength- en the breathing muscles by training participants to breathe diaphragmatically and coordinate breath with speech
View the journals editor commented that qualitative data obtained from the participants show an improvement in quality of life because the exposure to and creation of musical sound gave them a sense of control
View mendes et al found the kinematics of the respiratory system is highly responsive to voice training
View respiratory patients may benefit from learning to breathe deeply and control their expiration
View in many cases patients who are successful- ly taught diaphragmatic and pursed lip breathing increase muscle strength better coordinate the use of their air and believe the training improved their condition
View second king et al demonstrated in a canine model that pressure oscillations of hz at the chest wall cause the release of acetylcholine stimulating cilia beating and helping to increase mucus flow
View many studies included open-ended interviews revealing participants perception of singing as an effective therapy that was fun improved mood taught breathing and breath control was a good exercise for the lungs and had improved physical functioning
View several participants commented on the social benefits of joining a singing group and interacting with other patients or the teacher
View by attend- ing regular lessons interacting with people sharing history and experience and receiving attention from the instructor participants would naturally benefit in multiple quality of life domains contributing to a possible placebo effect
View additionally voice teachers may help their students to build confidence foster a sense of accomplishment stimu- late and encourage imagination and also offer musical career mentorship
View benefits range from physical increased respiratory muscle strength reduction of dyspnea and per- ceived respiratory symptoms to psychological improved mood vitality social functioning reduced mental pain and increased overall quality of life
View f self-help has proven successful in the treatment of depression mild alcohol abuse and anxiety disorders
View it is most effective when the client is fully participating and helps improve the doctor/patient role
View the following highlights specific examples where specialist staff and volunteers have provided added value to bop schemes: the use of graduate mental health workers in both devon and doncaster have provided greater interventions with patients and enhanced evaluation and therefore extending overall scope and relevance of the scheme
View inter- nal evaluation by medical and social care practitioners as well as library staff on how they judged the success of the schemes or the evaluation of patients responses was seen as a key aspect of the overall identification of success or otherwise of i/bop schemes
View other areas of difficulty included: intensive training requirements of library staff and awareness raising with health professionals stockport doncaster north staffordshire; difficulties of integration of on-line forms with medical software cambridgeshire; unavailability of some recommended titles by health; difficulty of carrying out evaluations with patients because of confidentiality and anonymity issues north staffordshire
View general practitioners supply patients with mild to medium mental health illness with a book prescription as well as/instead of medication
View biblio- therapy is a cost-effective treatment that encourages patient participation and encourages partnership working for the statutory bodies
View there has been growing interest from both local and cen- tral government within britain at least into the impact of cul- tural activities upon health and wellbeing over the last few years windsor ; oneill ; cameron and a planned inquiry into britains national wellbeing will presumably include museums and galleries within the cultural activities investigated
View while viewing art has been shown to influence physical sen- sations berleant such as decreasing the perceived inten- sity of painful stimuli de tommaso sardaro & livrea and higher scores of life satisfaction and health status reported by hospital patients after a handling session with museum objects chatterjee vreeland & noble within this research unless stated otherwise when wellbeing is discussed it is in rela- tion to mental wellbeing
View improvements of positive affect which boost mental wellbeing in general can also improve cognitive process- es such as problem solving and social interaction ashby et al
View while research conducted within non-museum environments has illustrated that art and museum artefacts can influence per- ceived wellbeing both physical and mental de tommaso et al
View the stai has been used extensively within other areas of research such as to examine the impact of stress and anxiety upon learning and performance and provides a measure of the partici- pants current state of anxiety sai as well as their trait level of anxiety tai which shows what they consider normal for them- selves spielberger
View participant reported in both sessions that his initial anxiety state before viewing the art was higher than what he would consider normal tai but in both sessions he reported a decrease in his current level of anxi- ety to below his trait level
View although there was not a significant change in the level of anxiety experienced after viewing the artworks with the excep- tion of participant all participants in each session experienced a reduction in anxiety
View it was also suggested that wellbeing was a long term feeling rather than an immediate emotive type reaction
View participants from all three groups agreed that it was and several also stated that it was likely to incorporate other factors such as personality expectations prior experiences and knowledge how visitors felt that day as well as methods of display interpretation and the state of upkeep of the museum building
View this positive experience for museums and art gallery visitors suggests that as well as being seen as educational or enjoyable places to visit that the well-known idea that they are spaces of calm within a busy world can be true and as such museums and art galleries can be seen as places beneficial to personal wellbeing
View The findings also indicate even less frequent engagement in activities exhibiting cultural characteristics, e
View these include learning benefits generated through engagement in the arts increased community cohesion and potential health benefits ie application of the arts in the treatment of depression and mental/physical benefits of sport and recreational fitness
View findings revealed that the positive effect of engagement in cultural activities increases with the frequency of engagement
View they found well-being to be enhanced as musical performances are therapeutic in the broadest sense providing immersion in the performance through the act of performing for the performer and emotional effects for the audience
View report positive effects from active music-making among the elderly which provides a sense of purpose autonomy and social interaction
View individuals participating in these activities receive an increased sense of well-being derived from physical fitness kavetsos and improved mental stimulation and satisfaction in part associated with enhanced social networks gratton
View found that being active is particularly beneficial for older individuals
View the ordered probit models provide evidence in support of the suggested positive leisure experience generated from arts culture and sport
View positive leisure experience is derived from participation in arts culture and sport evident in greater satisfaction with life and leisure and general happiness;
View the first that more fre- quent cultural event participation had a positive causal influence on self-reported health h and the second that more frequent cultural event participation decreased preva- lence of ill-health h
View Published evidence for the role of participatory art in supporting health and wellbeing is growing
View We found that Arts on Prescription had a positive impact on participants
View Qualitative findings indicated that the program provided challenging artistic activities which created a sense of purpose and direction, enabled personal growth and achievement, and empowered participants, in a setting which fostered the development of meaningful relationships with others
View additional health information about participants considered relevant by referrers included the following conditions: lung disease eg copd asthma bronchiec- tasis cardiac disease diabetes venous insufficiency osteoporosis stroke parkinsons disease joint replacements back pain and mo- bi ity issues
View specia requirements impacting program participation identified by participants themselves focussed on mobility concerns poor balance fear of falling limitations in walking distance needing assistance to stand and being unable to stand for long periods of time poor vision and hearing loss
View maintaining brain health was also identified with participants want- ing to stay positive and slow memory loss q-o and to keep my brain active qz
View participants indicated that art created a shared interest which facilitated connection between people and the development of friendships and one group unprompted reported meeting outside the program for coffee
View fg focus group interviews suggested that the artists p ayed an impor- tant role in creating and supporting participant autonomy through working in partnership with participants and supporting the artistic process with constructive encouragement and formal recognition
View while the role of arts and health through creative participatory or recep- tive interventions has recently been acknowledged by the australian government through its nationa arts and hea th framework indi- cating a supportive policy climate australian government it was our experience that health practitioner knowledge of participa- tory art as a non-medical intervention alongside existing treatments for patients is limited
View increases in the level of self-reported creativity and self-reported frequency of creative activities suggest that aop was both nurturing participants sense of creativity and authorising its practice
View we suggest future researchers consider the inclusion of measures to capture changes in chronic respiratory symptoms and functional ability
View And we know that the organism responds with changes in the humoral nervous systemfor example, verbal expression of traumatic experiences through writing or talking improves physical health, enhances immune function, and is associated with fewer medical visits
View Negative effects of cultural activities could be that people lose their sense of reality and identify with asocial models of behaviour and are themselves encouraged towards asocial behaviour
View Research has demonstrated that involvement with mainstream performing arts, such as music and dance, can boost wellbeing
View this program aimed to teach patients magic tricks to enhance their wellbeing motivation and self-esteem
View spencers healing of magic initiative involved magicians teaching simple magic tricks to promote patients physical and psychological wellbeing
View this initiative involves training health practitioners to deliver one-on-one magic therapy for paediatric patients and their families and aims to help reduce the stress that children often experience in hospital
View the college aims to create a positive and caring environment that helps children to build a range of life skills along with eight specific star qualities honesty respect responsibility initiative excellence empathy humility and wonder
View in kevin spencer built on his healing of magic initiative by launching hocus focus an educational curriculum that involves magic-based lesson plans designed to promote students motivation and key learning skills including individuals with learning and emotional challenges spencer
View so learning magic may help to develop teamwork skills including learning to give and receive constructive feedback identifying individuals strengths and helping to build community
View forty patients completed the purdue pegboard a standard test of manual dexterity and bimanual coordination before and after participating in the magic-based intervention
View six patients completed a questionnaire about the benefits of learning magic with the results showing that they found the experience highly sociable refreshing pleasant and meaningful
View sui & suis study described above also examined whether a magic-based intervention improved patients psychological wellbeing
View patients indicated that their cognitive skills including memory concentration and ability to think rationally had improved and that the intervention boosted their confidence and acted as a catalyst for conversation
View the teachers reported that the intervention captured and held students attention encouraged active participation emphasized the importance of following directions and encouraged students to help one another
View the students appeared to show increases in concentration and memory skills self-determination and self- esteem motivation and participation leadership and socialization peer relationships and collaboration
View three main benefits emerged: its okay to be me parents believing that their children experienced a strong sense of inclusion and insight the magic effect valuing the novelty and challenge of performing magic tricks and i can do it increased self-belief and a willingness to attempt challenging tasks
View the literature suggests that learning to perform magic ticks can help promote both physical and psychological wellbeing
View Dance therapy is a less conventional modality of physical activity in cardiovascular rehabilitation, which is positively linked to cognitive, emotional and social integration of the participants
View methods: pubmed scopus lilacs ibecs medline and scielo via virtual health library bireme from the earliest data available to february for controlled trials that investigated the effects of dance therapy on exercise capacity systolic sbp and diastolic dbp blood pressure in hypertensive patients
View a negative effect size indicated that dance therapy was effective in reducing blood pressure
View dance therapy is an intervention positively associated with cognitive emotional and social integration of the individuals []
View in individuals with parkinson s disease dance therapy also improved exercise capacity and quality of life []
View it is possible that the cultural identication so- cial involvement and the music can play an important role on several outcomes such as patients motivation exercise intensity and blood pressure response
View moreover the assessment of exercise capacity and the -hours ambulatory blood pressure measurement would be interesting to clarify the circadian behavior of blood pressure and corre- late the magnitude of blood pressure lowering with improvements on exercise capacity of individuals in a dance therapy
View Music interventions may be particularly well suited to addressing risk factors in young people and reducing juvenile crime
View these young people present complex health and social needs arising from experiences of emotional trauma violence and abuse drug and alcohol misuse peer pressure and gang-related activities poor parenting family rejection and lack of struc- tured home environments lader et al
View all participants also attended a weekly comparison psycho-educational group therapy session hip-hop therapy group met weekly for weeks to discuss and compose rap lyrics and practice freestyle rapping conditions included musical performance only performance plus cognitive strategies cognitive strategies only vicarious experience and control condition of no intervention pre- and post-assessment of emotion locus of control self-esteem and dyslexia using descriptive statistics comparing pre- and post-measures including standard deviation within and between groups
View music pro- gramme participants showed significant improvements in school/work role performance depression and mood negative self-evaluation and anger
View other data reveal a decrease in behaviour-related incidents ie breaking prison rules for the music group alone as well as increased engagement with education during and after the project for the music and art groups with the largest increase in the music group
View rap therapy was vastly pre- ferred by participants regardless of background with significant differences favouring rap therapy observed in relation to prosocial skills development as well as levels of relaxation en- joyment and excitement about upcoming meet- ings
View they observed participants improved or- ganizational skills and the sense of purpose achievement and identity they derived from producing a music cd
View it also developed participants capacity to reflect on their behaviour
View activities such as rap battles pro- vided an acceptable outlet for aggression and enabled participants to demonstrate their skills gain respect and learn humility
View it also identifies key issues for the development of practice and further research
View Their annual advertising campaigns also play a significant role in their success
View The research findings can also contribute to the development of integrated marketing communication
View Influencer marketing a growing strategy employs influential people in social media channels to promote brands products or services
View Influencers are particularly eective with children and young people: ads with a celebrity presence resulted in a % greater impact on brand awareness compared to those without and Gen Z are significantly more receptive than others to content featuring celebrities and social media celebrities []
View Indeed industry data suggest that native advertising generates positive reactions compared to more overt forms of display advertising resulting in a % increase in advertising viewed on mobile devices and a greater subconscious reaction []
View Similar patterns can be found with respect to media exposure and orientation to physical appearance: An extensive body of correlational and experimental work suggests that exposure to media is associated with greater internalization of thin-body ideals in women and children and internalization of lean- and muscular-body ideals in men and boys too
View We argue that greater exposure to media particularly commercial media rich in advertising may encourage individuals to turn to materialistic and appearance-related pursuits as a strategy to reduce distress and thereby increasingly begin to internalize CCIs as core life values
View STUDY I The primary focus of our initial study was to investigate the role of CFC strategies as a potential mediator of the link between media exposure and indicators of emotional wellbeing
View The present findings offer important first corroboration of our hypothesis that media exposure is connected with lower well-being in youth samples via a tendency to regulate negative emotions through engaging with consumer culture
View The role of consumer-focused coping in media effects Previous research has suggested that exposure to media serves as a key social-contextual reinforcer of CCIs as materialistic and appearance-related attributes are prominently associated in advertising with joy happiness and positive life outcomes
View Practical and Ethical Considerations of Implying Brand Innovation on Social Media As we see in the above vignette advertising via social media allows patients to develop a personal connection to a practice before they enter the physicians office
View Many patients take advantage of this source of information; indeed one study found that percent of people seeking to inform themselves about plastic surgery abroad relied on the internet as their main source of information and also cited the quality of the surgeons website as the most powerful influence on their choice of plastic surgeon []
View Although an online relationship can help foster rapport by building a sense of familiarity or even trust before an in-person meeting as we see above it can also disrupt the normal cautious consumer behavior and decision making of prospective patients
View Besides unfairly anchoring patient expectations in the idealized image of a global celebrity the message that patients appearance is damaged and can only be repaired by experts using highly specialized techniques means that patients who internalize that message start to evaluate the work of those experts from a disempowered position
View In the context of social media such a notion can deepen our understanding of why it is problematic that prospective patients are subjected to plastic surgeons social media advertising premised on fixing damaged identities [] as expressed in their appearance
View The AMA Code of Medical Ethics stipulates that testimonials of patients as to a physicians skill or the quality of his or her professional services should reflect the results that patients with conditions comparable to the testimoniants condition generally receive []
View Such practices create the conditions under which patients are more likely to be exposed to harm without their knowledge of this increased risk and are antecedent to institutional betrayal
View In contrast to relying on their interactions with physicians for relevant cues prospective patients look to online reviews to infer the trustworthiness of physicians and these selectively presented reviews tend to skew positive for plastic surgeons and increase patient perceptions of their competence []
View Prospective patients who are like J distressed due to dissatisfaction with their bodies and seeking help from a place of vulnerability might develop a sense of trust in a physician or medical practice based on a false intimacy that can occur on social media []
View Patients might look to signals of competency such as describing oneself as a cosmetic surgeon providing sanguine testimonials from previous patients associating ones work with a celebrity promoting exclusive practices using scientific language or images to communicate the precision or effectiveness of a procedure curating a sizable online following or demonstrating a particular charm or charisma in online postings
View This trust combined with signals about the scientific rigor of innovative treatments and access to videos or other materials that show portions of a procedure or before-and-after pictures might lead prospective patients to undertake a procedure with inflated expectations setting up both patient and physician for the difficult task of managing disappointment
View Physicians productively engaging with patients on social media can be a powerful way of transparently demonstrating how a practice does medicine and what reasonable expectations might be associated with particular clinical treatments
View Understanding environmental influencers of childrens eating and activity patterns is important in developing effective obesity prevention and management interventions
View In Australia studies have investigated parents perceptions about childhood overweight and obesity and perceived barriers to healthy eating in preschoolers parental perception of influences on food choices of --year-olds and attitudes to physical activity in pre-schoolers
View These findings are consistent with findings with Australian parents of --year-olds and --year-olds as well as UK parents of --year-olds that support the conclusion that while parents acknowledge their role or responsibilities around providing children with healthy food support is needed to overcome barriers such as child/family resistance to a healthy diet use of treats and lack of time/busy lifestyle
View Personal health was measured for diseases of concern symptoms experienced serious medical problems and personal tness with starters experiencing above average amounts of dry mouth shortness of breath excess phlegm chest pains and serious breathing or respiratory problems
View It has provided considerable psychological insight into starters and smokers such as their motivations perceptions attitudes interests and responses to test advertising
View The indoorisation of society is a worrying trend for human health for three reasons; firstly there is evidence associating time spent outdoors with improved outcomes for health and wellbeing; and secondly time spent indoors is negatively associated with a number of health issues []
View In terms of physical health air pollution and/or contaminated air are the most significant risks in the short term for respiratory disease allergy and asthma symptoms []; longer term indoor lifestyles are associated with sedentary lifestyles which contribute indirectly towards other health issues such as obesity cancer diabetes which cause mortality and/or cardiovascular disease [-]
View Background People with chronic conditions have complex healthcare needs that lead to challenges for adequate healthcare provision
View A modular perspective, in particular providing visualization of the modular service architecture, is promising for improving the responsiveness of healthcare services to the complex healthcare needs of people with chronic conditions
View The modular service architecture provides a comprehensive representation of the components and modules of healthcare provision
View Results Our study shows that the perspectives on healthcare provision of professionals and patients differ substantially
View In contrast, the modular service architecture based on the patients perspective, which we define as a person-centered modular service architecture, provided a representation of the healthcare service that was primarily based on functional outcomes and the overall wellbeing of the patients
View We suggest that a person-centered modular service architecture that focuses on functional outcomes and overall wellbeing, enables increased responsiveness of healthcare services to people with complex healthcare needs and provision of truly person-centered care
View Multiplicity refers to the growing number of involved providers components and interactions in service provision [ ] and is demonstrated by the various professionals from different units or departments who deliver a high number of components for the treatment of patients with complex healthcare needs
View First we provide the complete modular service architecture of healthcare provision for people with complex healthcare needs
View The patients actually attached greater value to functional outcomes and overall wellbeing as opposed to medical outcomes
View Interestingly we observed a clear difference between the medical specialists and the other healthcare professionals
View Patients argued that extensive descriptions of possible healthcare provision might cause them to lose track in the jungle of all possible components
View In doing so it focusses on the functional outcomes and overall wellbeing as opposed to the medical outcomes
View Discussion We explored the applicability of MSA visualization in chronic healthcare provision for children with DS from the perspective of patients alongside that of healthcare professionals
View Our results show that the MSA proved to be very illuminating for professionals and patients since it led to insight into the work practices of each professional which increased transparency on services offered for both professionals and patients
View Moreover we show that MSA visualization provides possibilities for mixing and matching components and modules to address individual needs and as such increases the responsiveness of healthcare services to people with complex healthcare needs
View Our study shows that the patients perspective is essential to mix-and-match components in such a way that modular healthcare packages are created that are truly responsive to the needs and requirements of people with complex healthcare needs
View We show that the MSA built from the perspective of the patients differs substantially from the MSA built from the perspective of the healthcare professionals
View This person-centered MSA visualization provides a complete representation of the healthcare service based on functional outcomes and overall wellbeing and shows that insight into the patients perspective is important for the delivery of person-centered care [ ]
View It offers patients and professionals the possibility of mixing and matching person-centered modules and components to create individualized person-centered care packages without ignoring the professional role of the healthcare professionals
View MSA can serve as a tool to increase their understanding of peoples complex healthcare needs and identify duplications and gaps in their healthcare provision
View Our person-centered MSA approach can be applied by others by following three steps: ) detailed identification of all individual healthcare parts and elements in collaboration with patients and professionals ) labelling and reshaping these parts from the patients perspective thereby focusing on functional outcomes and overall wellbeing when combining and grouping components and modules and ) selection of appropriate modules and components for person-centered healthcare provision
View We believe that the MSA approach is also applicable for patients with more variable multi-morbidity but a similarity in their healthcare needs such as patients with cancer
View A lack of coordination could lead to increased health risks for people with complex healthcare needs for instance when patients receive conflicting treatments or unnecessary duplications from multiple healthcare professionals
View Interfaces allow for the interaction and communication between modules components and people involved in healthcare provision []
View Our reshaping of the results into a person-centered MSA visualization focusing on functional outcomes and overall wellbeing instead of medical outcomes of separate disease entities enables provision of truly person-centered care
View Although there is a growing understanding of how much architecture influences our wellbeing, architectural thought still clings to the antibiotic turn
View Following the tradition of exchange between architecture and medicine, we propose the notion of Probiotic Architecture as a way of framing the shifting understanding of health in architectural design, suggesting that the microorganisms that colonise humans and our built environment have the potential to influence our health and the resilience of our buildings
View Microbiome describes communities of microbial organisms that develop in and around human bodies and assist them in digesting food and developing their immune system
View Doctors and surgeons extended their assessments of human health to that of their patients house identifying sick buildings and following diagnosis proposing strategies to treat and heal unhealthy buildings
View The benefit of fresh air in buildings was observed in hospitals where wards with open windows demonstrated improvements in patient health and quicker recovery from illness compared to wards with no or closed windows
View A new wave of confidence over the threat of infection facilitated a shift in focus in building design from health and exposure to nature to that of comfort in mechanically controlled environments
View The exhibition showed the association of philanthropists and activists to create a widespread understanding of what a healthy architecture looks like
View Inspired by the diet of rural communities in Russia and the Balkan States Metchnikoff proposed the use of probiotics: bacteria found in yoghurt and soured milk which he believed manipulated the intestinal microbiome and countered the negative effect of phagocytes on healthy tissue
View Recent research has suggested the existence of a gutbrain axis creating a direct link between disorders such as dysbiosis anxiety and depression and giving rise to treatment that involves the use of probiotics to restore gut microbial balance and treat mental health disorders
View Probiotic Architecture Probiotic Architecture involves an understanding of the interaction between built environment artefacts humans and their microbial communities resulting in design strategies that actively shape the environmental microbiome to promote well-being and human health
View The dynamism between building and microbiome suggests a rich area of opportunity and we suggest that the microorganisms that colonise humans and our built environment have the potential to influence our health and the resilience of our buildings
View As we have suggested widespread use of antibiotics in the mid-twentieth century resulted in a wave of confidence over treatment of infections and facilitated a shift in focus away from health and exposure to nature to a mechanically controlled well-tempered environment
View Background: The physical place and environment has a profound influence on experiences, health and wellbeing of birthing women
View Conclusion: Our findings support the use of principles of healing architecture and Snoezelen in birth environments and add to the evidence on how the physical design of hospital environments influence on both social and physical aspects of the well-being of patients
View Hospital design improvements have been shown to affect neurological and physical responses and to have the potential to alter patients state of mind []
View The physical birth environment is known to affect the production and release of neurochemicals such as oxytocin - a key mediator of social and emotional behavior [] as well as the physiology of normal birth []
View The world over a variety of alternative maternity care settings have been designed to support normal labor and birth as well as to stimulate more positive birth experiences
View Organization models as well as care and staffing models vary greatly but their differences notwithstanding such alternative birth environments all aim to decrease birthing mothers anxiety and promote mobility and personal control []
View Establishing a physical environment to support the women and their families activities could help them toward a caring effective and safe birth experience [ ] an attribute of more patient-centered healthcare practices []
View This qualitative study is a separate but adjunct study to the RCT and the objective was to gain deeper understandings of womens experiences of the alternative birth environment and its ability to support the concept of patient-centeredness in the care of birthing women
View As the alternative delivery room is a part of the obstetric care unit all women in this qualitative study gave birth in the alternative delivery room despite that some of the women experienced complications eg prolonged labor post-partum bleeding influenced heartrate of child and perineal injuries during birth
View Physical comfort Positive distractions For some of the women the visual and auditory stimuli captured attention which was helpful to their coping with labor and maintaining a sense of control
View A possible explanation for this might be that comfortable and familiar environment is known to promote feelings of safety confidence and a sense of self and to have a strengthening effect on womens physiological functioning and emotional well-being []
View Thirdly most women found that the environment helped them obtain physical comfort and encouraged active behavior which may offer psychological benefits in their coping with labor relaxation and feeling in control
View Our study thereby suggest that both the environment and midwives play an in important role in women achieving a physical comfort and a sense of control
View What this study adds The findings have added to the evidence on the positive influence of hospital environment design on patients psychological and physical well-being and thereby the psychosocial outcomes of care
View Our findings thus support the development of patient-centered birth environments in future hospital design to promote the physical and psychological wellbeing of the woman and her partner
View The resulting consequences are catastrophic, leading to a significant socio-economic burden, which includes significant reductions in quality of life and limitations in regular work and daily activities of patients
View Although patients with RDs report pain and disability they give the impression to be healthy
View Patients with RDs report reduced QoL in many areas including physical health psychological status level of independence social relationships and interaction with the environment and personal beliefs or perceptions compared to the normal population
View A lot of studies on the value of physical and motor activities and home exercises in patients with arthritis rarely take into account the role of architectural barriers especially in small houses which reduce their consistency in performing these exercises
View The EP studies the interaction between human beings and their environments analyzing both the environmental impact of human behaviors and the effects that natural and built environments have on emotions behaviors lifestyles and wellness
View The interaction between the individuals and their environment: the docility hypothesis The ecological model of interaction between the individual and the environment considers the process of adaptation of the individual to his environment as deriving from the interaction between the environmental competence and the environmental pressure
View In the presence of a vulnerable condition as in a chronic disease it can diminish competences and simultaneously increase the burden of environmental pressure
View User-centered design culture: a virtuous approach to rheumatic diseases and role of patients associations Both in design and architectural psychology some projects have emerged in recent years aimed to improve the quality of life of patients with RDs
View This work is based in particular on a co-design activity between patients designers doctors and therapists necessary to redesign those objects perceived by the patient as not very functional
View The physical environment affects people's behavior and wellbeing
View Thus, people may be unaware of the real triggers for changes in behavior, mood, and wellbeing
View Individuals grow up study develop work meet old and new friends start forming families raise their children and even die in places built by men
View These physiological changes such as the activation of specific brain areas and changes in hormone levels and skin conductance can help further understand the effects of the environment on people
View Short-term exposure short-term effects of architecture in the brain Organisms respond to short-term environmental changes by reversibly adjusting their physiology to maximize resource utilization while maintaining structural and genetic integrity by repairing and minimizing damage to cellular infrastructure thereby balancing innovation with robustness Short-term exposure short-term effects are mostly those that happen after an interaction with the space which lasts from a few seconds to one day
View These effects can vary from slight changes in the direction of an individuals walk ; increased or decreased working memory ; changes in muscle tension heart rate and blood pressure; to changes in emotions and mental states
View A short-term exposure short-term effect in this case can be the fact that just by viewing a natural sight for a few minutes can help lower stress levels blood pressure and muscle tension
View Light also regulates physiological and psychological rhythms directly impacting wakefulness and sleep hormone secretion cellular function and genetic expression
View As a result the deregulation can cause insomnia and other sleep disorders privation of mood control trends of depression loss of concentration enhanced stress levels and impaired immune system in the long term
View They affect the way people feel consciously or unconsciously thereby triggering changes in behavior and wellbeing
View People with damages in brain areas responsible for processing emotions have experienced changes in their personalities and behavior
View Both examples show a deep intention behind architecture and a strategic use of space to induce behavior and connection by evoking different emotions
View Moreover attentional and motivational components of emotion have been linked to heightened learning and memory
View Long-term exposure long-term effects of architecture in the brain Long-term exposure long-term effect are those that can last for a long time even when the exposure to the environment is over
View Animals living in the enriched environment presented changes in brain weight size and thickness and better results in learning
View It is a brain structure that plays a major role in long-term memory processes and spatial navigation
View However the World Health Organization outlines other detrimental effects of noise such as disruption of the circadian rhythms during sleep reduction of sense of control over the environment and impaired cognitive functions
View Social interaction has various effects on mental and physical health because both characteristics are contrarily linked with several diseases from colds to heart attacks depression strokes and cancer
View By contrast architectural environments that offer cognitive social and physical stimulation can help prevent many physical illnesses and mental diseases avoid stress and enhance learning and memory processes
View Several other factors can influence how a built environment affects individuals: the time and frequency of use the way individuals interact with the environment culture and personal experience and the social environment
View Neuroarchitecture studies can also help to improve the design of buildings and cities and improve health and wellbeing on the short and long term
View The ultimate goal of a resilient society is the wellbeing of its community
View Wellbeing is when individuals have the psychological, social, and physical resources they need to meet a particular psychological, social, and/or physical challenge
View When individuals have more challenges than resources, the see-saw dips, along with their wellbeing, and vice-versa
View Findings show that the manifestations of transformations in urban space occur in fluid trajectories that can be in patterns of horizontal, vertical, and cyclical schemes in achieving community and pedestrian wellbeing
View Grassroots effort with initiatives harnessed by the social and intellectual capital of multi-sectoral stakeholders and community planners may manifest in cyclical or non-material factors such as social supports freedom and fairness which play a bigger role than money in future wellbeing
View Cyclical transformations transcend soft and hard infrastructure and focus more on the resiliency of community and pedestrian wellbeing
View The vulnerabilities that people encounter in urban space can be mitigated with continued engagement of community movements the use of mass media and academic discourses with the youth sector to voice the vision of comprehensive cyclical transformations in pedestrian and community wellbeing
View Social scientists have emphasised the coercive elements of psychiatry and mental healthcare which result in vulnerable individuals including those with severe and enduring mental illnesses being held in custody rather than recipients of quality care-orientated community-based mental healthcare
View In England % of imprisoned women have been diagnosed with depression compared to % of incarcerated men and women account for almost a quarter of all prison self-harm incidents even though they make up just % of the overall prison population []
View On prison governors social media sites and in their public presentations before and after photographs of prison cells association rooms classrooms and exercise yards are produced as evidence of an enlightened approach
View In short our aim is to take the sociology of health and illness into new territory arguing that a women-centred trauma-informed approach to health and emotional wellbeing in prisons must start with the processes of prison commissioning planning and design
View Therefore while stang levels security factors education and employment opportunities are important determinants of a facilitys culture and climate and high-quality healthcare and psychology provision are crucial for prisoners chances of recovery from short- and long-term health problems equally significant to the shaping of a healthy or unhealthy carceral experience are a buildings age architecture location interior design and exterior landscaping
View Consequently many women in custody are held in facilities designed for men young oenders or for some altogether dierent purpose than imprisonment with the result that the architecture and environment may inhibit their recovery and rehabilitation and aggravate feelings of depression and/or anxiety
View A growing awareness of the need for TICP-led service delivery has developed amid concerns regarding the complexities associated with treating women with dual diagnoses of addiction and mental health disorders and who also frequently disclose co-occurring and co-morbid experiences of interpersonal traumaspecifically physical and sexual violence and abuseacross the lifecourse []
View As mentioned previously the eects of the built environment are not easy to extrapolate from other intersecting factors that might impinge on an individuals mental health and wellbeing but prison receptions are usually profoundly de-personalising in layout and design as well as in the manner in which they invasively process people
View A stand-alone family help hub near the main entrance of the prison oered a welcoming and supportive environment for visitors and provided them with access to social services charities and third-sector organisations who could assist prisoners and their familiesvery much like Maggies Centres do for cancer patients and their families
View It goes without saying that provision of care for women at risk of substance abuse self-harm and suicide is core to trauma-informed practice but one element of design that has a broad evidence base to support its health-giving properties is access to and interaction with nature
View Studies of hospital patients have linked even views of nature to faster recovery times reduced demand for medication and lower levels of frustration and impatience while studies of prisons have found that landscapes that incorporate trees and the wildlife they attract reduce feelings of sterility in the carceral environment and lead to general improvements in emotional wellbeing
View Rog and colleagues reviewed quantitative studies and other systematic reviews of housing and concluded a moderate level of evidence regarding reduced homelessness hospitalisation increased tenure compared to other housing models or treatment as usual or no housing
View A review of qualitative studies on service user experiences of supported accommodation stressed the interplay of various factors that formed the tenants' lived experiences and affected recovery and identity
View In a comprehensive review of articles on the effects of the architectural design of mental health facilities such as mental hospitals the authors concluded that the design of security lighting the therapeutic milieu gardens rooms for patients and interiors had benefits for the well-being of the patients and staff and the duration of stay
View Design strategies, actions, and policies, identified to improve public health and wellbeing, underline that the connection between morphological and functional features of urban context and public health is crucial for contemporary cities and modern societies
View Design strategies actions and policies identified to improve public health and wellbeing underline that the connection between morphological and functional features of urban context and public health is crucial for contemporary cities and modern societies
View Domestic accidents indoor air quality water supply management and collection of municipal solid waste and green and blue areas represent features of the built environment that could directly and indirectly impact on citizens health without neglecting the key role of the living environments in protecting living conditions against climate changes []
View For example the urban heat island effect and urban pollution are two major interconnected problems of the urban environment that have become more serious with rapid urbanization and both the removal and loss of urban green spaces [] and affect human health causing an increase in cases of cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidity and mortality
View Background Taking all of this into account this research work proposed by the working group Building and Environmental Hygiene of the Italian Society of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine represents an update of the most important risk factors and related Healthy Urban Planning actions strategies and policies for the improvement of public health and wellbeing in contemporary cities
View The findings of a recent Canadian study [] highlight that a concerted effort of Public Health managers together with electrical and fuel providers in response to floods dust storms and hurricanes can reduce some vulnerabilities that could impact access to food especially for urban populations
View Practical feasible repeatable strategies and actions that could be adopted are listed below: ^ to conduct environmental audits of public spaces that are commonly identified as unsafe followed by community generated programs to improve the appearance of neighborhoods []; ^ to design neighborhood strategies to enhance community cohesion; ^ to promote community justice initiatives to improve responsibility for behavior in offenders and enhance victim satisfaction with the justice system; ^ to discourage behavior that triggers fear utilizing alcohol-free zones and other strategies; ^ to take into consideration strategies that encourage women to report violence and harassment and to access support services; ^ to increase public awareness of any reduction in crime rates or in risk factors associated with fear of crime; ^ to increase the role of police as purveyors of reassurance toward the messages of fear of politics and the media; ^ to design lots streets and houses to encourage interaction between neighbors
View The built environment influences the wellbeing of older people in care homes
View Findings provide insight into the qualities of the built environment that have impact on the activity and potential wellbeing of older residents
View INTRODUCTION The built environment does affect wellbeing Previous studies have evidenced the effect of the built environment on the wellbeing and quality of life of care home residents
View Many correlations between particular built environment features and the effects on wellbeing have been uncovered
View Wellbeing improvement understood through promoting certain types of everyday activity Whilst the definition of wellbeing is problematic the New Economics Foundation and UK Government Office of Sciences Foresight Programme offer a way in which the contribution of everyday personal activities to wellbeing can be considered
View The five ways to wellbeing is framed as a call to action highlighting the potential in everyday life to pursue activities to promote personal wellbeing
View The five categories highlight types of personal activity that are understood to contribute to an individuals wellbeing
View Examples such as the Maggies Centres make it impossible not to recognise that architectural expression makes a valuable contribution to people's wellbeing
View Aim of the study Having identified the possibility of improving resident wellbeing through support and enablement for daily activities this study explores how the built environment affects the activities of care home residents
View Through gathering a breadth and detail of examples the objective of using this method was to create insight into the spatial factors that affect the activity and therefore wellbeing of care home residents
View The AEIOU heuristic formed of the five mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive elements of Activity Environment Interaction Object and User provided a structure to capture interactions taking place between residents and the care home building
View For example noise transmitting through a closed door led a resident to incorrectly think someone was trying to enter whereas an acoustic connection between the kitchen and hall through multiple open doors provided atmosphere and enabled social interactions between staff and residents
View The increased connection between staff whilst doing tasks and residents led to increased opportunities for social connection
View Congestion was also seen associated with positive effects when recognised as a type of increased spatial interconnectedness resulting in for example serendipitous social encounters
View In support of previous opinion this study highlights traversability as fundamental to residents wellbeing
View Previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between scales of observed wellbeing and higher levels of gradation of space
View People watching be it of the activities of other residents staff visitors or the street provided interest
View CONTRIBUTIONS AND LIMITATIONS This study contributes to an evolving architectural debate generating evidence-based knowledge for designing environments that have the potential to improve the wellbeing of inhabitants
View The importance of supporting everyday activities in providing routes to improve wellbeing formed the focus of this study
View CONCLUSIONS As the built environment influences the wellbeing of older people in care homes a holistic understanding of user needs in this context is essential
View Within the context of older peoples care home environments this study provides insight into the effect qualities of the built environment have on activities and wellbeing
View Points of interest including personal and environmental objects as well as views provided significant focuses for attention prompts to activity and topics for social interaction
View Italian restaurants and wine shops with their oering of quality food might be linked to better eating habits which in turn might positively impact people's well-being; conversely African and Caribbean restaurants which might sell less healthy food might be associated with a worse diet and thus to lower levels of wellbeing
View Drawing on interview data, we discuss volunteers experiences of the AJM in relation to its sociality and affective atmosphere and the role this institution plays in their lives
View In doing so, we analyse the characteristics which contribute to DIY heritage institutions as spaces for caring, community, and wellbeing
View The positive effects of volunteering on the wellbeing of older adults have been well documented in scholarly literature
View Pilkington Windsor and Crisp suggested that these benefits are derived from the increased social support that volunteering experiences offer while Greenfield and Marks posited that volunteering mitigates some of the negative effects of role-identity changes that come with ageing such as shifts in employment parental and partner identities implicated in retirement divorce and death
View As such on an individual level engagement with third places can have positive effects on wellbeing by providing support networks and raising the spirits of participants warding off stress loneliness and isolation
View Below we explore the benefits of engaging in the AJM in terms of how it enhances wellbeing and creates a sense of community for volunteers
View In this way serious leisure contributes to both individual and community wellbeing
View While the AJM attracts visitors and volunteers with an interest in jazz music it also enables more general forms of association by being as accommodating accessible and welcoming as possible
View The collections manager Mel commented that since many volunteers are in poor health going to the museum can act as a tonic what Oldenburg specifically calls a spiritual tonic to make them feel happier and more satisfied with their everyday lives
View The warm sociality and opportunities for forging friendships are part of what makes third places particularly important for the wellbeing of retired and elderly people
View observed that participation in third places may remedy the negative effects of such experiences while Greenfield and Marks identified that volunteering similarly operates as a protective factor for the wellbeing of older adults undergoing these role-identity changes
View The social world of the AJM is therapeutic in that it assists participants in coping with and transcending difficult life experiences and helping to prevent other negative effects
View The literature on volunteering and wellbeing among older adults has similarly noted the importance of factors like social support to enhancing life satisfaction and benefiting psychological and physical health
View That is older individuals experience a decrease in social capital with the loss of everyday interaction with work friends partners and children or with the loss of mobility and personal freedom associated with serious illnesses
View participating in meaningful activity has a positive influence on the mental health of older adults
View Volunteers in the AJM expressed that working in the museum is akin to a hobby or passion helping them to keep busy and giving them a sense of purpose after retirement
View Studies have shown that this kind of ongoing informal learning has positive effects on mental and emotional wellbeing for older adults
View Further Merriam and Kee found that lifelong learning has positive impacts on the wellbeing of the wider community as well
View Learning assists older adults in remaining active healthy and engaged in social life thereby reducing pressure on family and community resources
View By fostering the AJM as a caring environment it becomes for the volunteers a place for living: an affective social institution whereby practices inspired by an engagement with jazz heritage have unexpected and positive outcomes for those with and without a love for the music being collected
View Volunteering in a DIY heritage institution like the AJM also provides an opportunity for a meaningful retirement by way of the contributions that can be made to the preservation of jazz musics material past: these volunteers understand their work to be of value to the institution but they also recognise the value the institution provides to them in the sense of the supportive community it fosters
View A sense of community is present in that volunteers feel they belong and matter to the group and that they develop affective bonds a shared emotional connection based on their activities and social interactions
View Further the AJM is a caring environment benefiting the individuals who engage with it by meeting the needs necessary to support the mental emotional physical and social wellbeing of volunteers and the wider community by preserving localised popular music heritage and by supporting the social lives and health of ageing adults
View In terms of enhancing the wellbeing of retirees our findings highlighted positive feelings associated with the novelty productivity and learning that underpin work in the AJM
View For instance being inclusive of volunteers with disabilities or limited mobility who may need additional assistance from other workers or help with transport to and from the institution will have positive impacts on the emotional wellbeing of these people and further cultivating a caring supportive social world within the institution
View Specifically, it remains unclear whether individuals with poor mental health experience more barriers to participation
View Studies have identified that some people experience more barriers to participating than others in particular individuals of lower socio-economic status lower educational attainment and lower income as well as older adults and individuals from an ethnic minority group [-]
View Finally in relation to motivations individuals with poor mental health frequently have decreased participation in activities such as exercise and socialising [-]
View Second we analysed whether the relationship between mental health and any identified barriers was explained by specific symptoms of mental illness by contrasting the findings for individuals with depression vs individuals with anxiety
View Sensitivity analyses The pattern of results was maintained when restricting our definition of depression and anxiety to moderatesevere with the exception that physical opportunities remained a significant factor reported as likely to enhance engagement amongst individuals with anxiety
View People with depression and anxiety both reported that enhanced feelings of capability would encourage them to engage more with arts activities
View This was partly explained by differences in physical health in particular higher levels chronic illness and chronic pain in people with poor mental health and lower levels of physical activity in people with depression
View In considering interventions that could help address these barriers a combination of training and enabling activities that initially engage individuals through taster sessions or demonstrations and then encourage individuals through graded tasks and positive feedback could be explored in future studies to assess if these approaches can help to enhance feelings of capability
View This suggests that engagement in social activities and arts activities are quite distinct and resonates with research showing independent associations between both social engagement and arts and cultural engagement and various mental and physical health outcomes [-]
View Conclusion Therefore in concluding this study showed that there are specific patterns of capabilities opportunities and motivations that could influence participation in arts activities amongst individuals with depression and anxiety and proposes interventions that focus on increasing perceived psychological and physical capabilities providing social opportunities and reinforcing both automatic and reflective motivations to engage
View Given the breadth of research showing the benefits of arts activities for improving symptoms of depression and anxiety and enhancing wellbeing future studies are encouraged to explore whether behaviour change interventions could reduce inequities in participation
View The classes helped participants develop self-confidence, create and strengthen relationships, and encouraged more active lives
View Developing confidence Participants reported that they exceeded their expectations regarding their achievements and their ability to learn
View Participants reported a mixture of increased energy and fulfilment
View As well as integrating new interests into their lives the classes inadvertently encouraged healthier routines
View [Female years old crafter] A few participants reported an increased use of local facilities and resources and that having a positive experience in the venue encouraged them to go there again for other community events
View Discussion Overall findings These data corroborate past findings that lifelong learning enhances self-confidence and reported well-being and further establish the claim that creative activities can benefit individuals through providing a sense of achievement and purpose as well as a release from stress
View The inadvertent transition to more active lifestyles ties with previous findings that adult learning is associated with improved health and greater uptake of health-promoting behaviours such as quitting smoking and taking more exercise
View By giving individuals a reason to be active adult education classes can have repercussions beyond the classroom that transform participants lifestyles and support better mental and physical health outcomes
View Social capital The comments collated here support previous findings that adult education tends to enhance social capital through facilitating a sense of belonging promoting tolerance of others and providing participants with the opportunity and skills to extend their social networks
View Participants felt more confident to take an assertive role in their futures and more integrated into their local communities
View Moreover the classes allowed them to strengthen ties with close friends and family through sharing their new interests and they enjoyed enhanced well-being linked both to more positive moods and a sense of belonging
View In elderly people physical cognitive and social functioning decline occurs
View Due to changes in cells and fibrous substances comprising body tissue weight is reduced cartilage tissue is deteriorated and the functional degradation of body organs such as blood vessels and lungs occur)
View According to one study higher cognitive function in elderly people was associated with lower levels of depression) and depressive symptoms increased in elderly people with cognitive decline acting as a factor lowering the quality of life in elderly people)
View Elderly people are at an increased risk for developing geriatric diseases such as cerebrovascular disease degenerative disease or dementia due to physical and cognitive decline and increased depressive disposition)
View Therefore in order to maintain or improve physical and cognitive functions in elderly people and to induce their active social engagement it is necessary to develop and implement a variety of intervention programs of interest to elderly people
View Although community activities toward normal elderly people have been attempted to prevent their physical and cognitive decline the number of related community activities is still insufficient and the contents are limited to art therapy or music therapy )
View Recreational activities can help elderly people participate in activities and release positive and joyful energy)
View The results of the present study showed that ADL improved remarkably in both men and women after the intervention cognitive function improved significantly and depression levels decreased significantly
View Depression levels decreased more especially in women
View DISCUSSION The present study aimed to determine the effects of a combined physical activity recreational activity and art and craft program as an intervention for improving ADL and cognitive function and decreasing depression in elderly people
View Recreational activity improves self-esteem and intimacy through enjoyable interactions with other people
View Looking at the effects of the intervention on depression found in the present study depression was found to significantly decrease in both elderly men and women and was found to markedly decrease especially in women
View Although depression in elderly people is the greatest influence on subjective wellbeing) and entails negative emotions that can easily occur in elderly people interventions for depression are feasible and depression is thus an integral part of elderly care
View The results of the present study provided an opportunity to see that a combined physical activity recreational activity and art and craft program had positive effects on the health of elderly people and can be used as evidence for health management for the elderly in the current situation under which the elderly population is gradually growing
View Introduction There are few intervention studies that demonstrated linking social participation to lower risk of cognitive decline
View We examined prospectively the protective effect of a community intervention program promoting social participation on the incidence of cognitive disability
View Discussion Our study suggests that operating community salons that encourage social interactions, light physical activity, and cognitive activities among older participants may be effective for preventing cognitive decline
View As shown in Table the results of the multivariate model showed that salon participation frequency was not significantly associated with lower risk of cognitive disability
View The log-transformed frequency of salon participation was also associated with lower risk of incident cognitive disability
View In addition the MSMs results indicated that frequency of salon participation was protectively associated with cognitive disability even after adjusting for time-dependent covariates and attrition
View The association between frequency of salon participation and incident cognitive disability appears to be statistically and clinically important
View The intervention sought to increase social interaction among seniors through online conversations with trained interviewers for weeks
View Our study suggests that operating community salons that encourage cognitive activities social interactions and light physical activity among older participants may be effective for preventing cognitive decline
View We also lacked information about incident diabetes mellitus which may have affected both salon participation and cognitive decline
View Participants experienced the arts group as providing a sense of freedom and respite, strengthening identity through promoting achievement, offering social support through a collective focus on art- and craft-making and increasing resilience for coping with caring
View Recurring themes are that engagement in artmaking reduces stress facilitates contact with more positive emotions increases self-worth and promotes feelings of social connectedness
View The reported findings focused primarily on benefits for participants with dementia such as increased cognitive engagement reminiscence new learning and social inclusion
View In brief participants described their everyday life as a compromised experience requiring considerable tolerance ongoing concessions and modified expectations and loss of self
View Enjoying being together - group participation motivates participation All participants highlighted the social benefits of participation in the programme as well as enjoying the inner experience of creativity
View Three participants experienced this as having long-term benefits enhancing their sense of control and providing a resource for caregiving for some time after the end of the sessions: It was easier to care I dont feel so stressed and under pressure
View Participants felt that the experience of focusing deeply on creative expression enabled them to return to their caregiving role in a better state of emotional control and relaxation
View Tangible artistic products helped demonstrate participants capability to self and others
View also described the gallery experience as offering carers a bridge into new occupations unrelated to mental health settings and the caregiving role
View Participants in this study linked the respite experience to having their loved ones nearby
View Close physical proximity appeared to help participants manage feelings of guilt and moral obligation that act as barriers to leisure participation and its health-promoting properties as well as maintaining their identities as committed carers
View Conclusion This qualitative study found that a short-term creative arts leisure intervention for carers of people with dementia facilitated self-expression and positive identity addressing the undermining effects of chronic caregiving on self
View The arts group also provided a deep sense of camaraderie and mutual encouragement
View The creative art-making within a supportive social environment helped to alleviate the sense of depletion that carers associated with caregiving and offered a brief experience of respite that they felt enhanced their resilience and coping resources
View Museums and art galleries are being increasingly recognised as having a role to play in promoting well-being being rich in cultural heritage offering a sanctuary from everyday stress and promoting cognitive and emotional exploration in a non-stigmatising setting
View Impact of arts participation on health outcomes for older adults
View Relationship between perceived burden of caring for a family member with Alzheimers disease and decreased participation in meaningful activities
View The role of the clinician as agent of change is displaced with the space for interaction with patients occupied by the language of safety efficiency and the patient as consumer representative of the unchallenged hegemony of the market in healthcare
View The larger social distance was reflected in limited use of humour and empathic communication whereas patients with fluent English commonly shared jokes with the clinician and provided stories to account for lapses in their self-management
View Social prescribing in primary care is a way of expanding the therapeutic options available to primary care consultations such that new life opportunities may be offered to the patient that can add meaning form new relationships or give the patient a chance to take responsibility or be creative
View Doctors are agents of change from disease to health from brokenness to a more connected responsive and responsible whole
View Well-organised arts and other community projects can play a part in facilitating clinical agency through allowing connections to be made horizontally across health wellbeing and clinical care
View An example of a successful evaluation shows that involvement in community arts projects can be linked to wider impact on families such as healthy mothering []
View The results showed positive changes in self-reported general health, mental health, personal and social well-being
View Such initiatives can perform an important role in supporting the health improvement objectives of formal health care services
View In recent years in the UK many community centre-based organisations have explicitly linked their aims to the promotion of health and wellbeing through the delivery of for example exercise cooking social arts and creative activities []
View A focus on reducing stress and anxiety increasing physical activity and healthy eating through confidence building and encouraging the development of friends social networks and local community participation
View A focus on local collaboration with other agencies and stakeholders with an interest in health promotion and building community capacity
View Although much of the activity participation combined a range of elements as part of a holistic approach to promoting wellbeing % participants took part in an initial project activity that had a focus on healthy eating
View Activities such as those delivered through the community centres in this study have a part to play in helping shift an agenda towards the promotion of wellbeing and positive health
View Conclusions This study found that group-based activities in community centres are associated with improvements in the health and wellbeing of adults who experience poor health and other forms of social disadvantage
View Creative activities have been used as a means of intervention in occupational therapy since the beginning of the profession especially by occupational therapists working with patients in psychiatric health care and also in the rehabilitation of soldiers during World War I
View Studies in occupational therapy and in related areas such as social science education nursing and midwifery demonstrate the benefit of creative activities and the positive impact and value that it has for human health and well-being
View In a recently published review on the therapeutic effectiveness of creative activities in the area of mental health based on papers published between and Leckey found that creative activities could have a healing and protective effect on mental well-being
View Animal-assisted therapy that is to use animals as a mediator for therapy is receiving more interest in rehabilitation with beneficial outcomes in various areas such as the care of the elderly alleviating the perception of loneliness and depression and with calming effects on children before dental care
View More than half the respondents worked with patients in somatic rehabilitation and almost one quarter in psychiatric rehabilitation
View Finally more men reported working with patients in psychiatric rehabilitation and with stressed patients/patients with chronic pain and less often within somatic rehabilitation compared with women
View Also respondents who worked with patients in psychiatric rehabilitation used creative activities significantly more often than those working with patients in somatic rehabilitation stressed patients/ patients with chronic pain or other groups of patients
View Occupational therapists working with patients in psychiatric rehabilitation reported using creative activities more frequently compared with the other areas of health care
View Psychological and social interventions are widely used in combination with drugs in an effort to further improve the health and social outcomes of people with schizophrenia and several interventions have been shown to be effective
View It has been argued that for people with severe mental disorders such as schizophrenia art therapy has advantages over other treatments because the use of art materials can help people to understand themselves better while containing powerful feelings that might otherwise overwhelm them
View Few attempts have been made to examine the effectiveness of group art therapy as an adjunctive treatment for people with schizophrenia but the results of a pilot trial suggested that it may help bring about clinically important reductions in negative symptoms of schizophrenia
View Findings of this study together with those of trials of other creative therapies have resulted in the inclusion of arts therapies in national treatment guidelines which recommend that clinicians consider referring all people with schizophrenia for arts therapies particularly for the alleviation of negative symptoms of the disorder
View We examined the impact of adding group art therapy to the treatment of people with schizophrenia compared with both active control treatment and standard care alone on global functioning and symptoms of schizophrenia
View Health and social care professionals working on inpatient units or in community teams day centres and rehabilitation and residential units identified potential participants
View Art therapy was carried out in keeping with recommendations of the British Association of Art Therapists and aimed to enhance self expression improve emotional health and help people develop better interpersonal functioning
View Strengths and weaknesses of the study The main strengths of the study are that it was adequately powered used a rigorous approach to minimising bias and used broad inclusion criteria to assess whether the intervention could help most people with schizophrenia
View Although it has been argued that involvement in creative activities is inherently good for mental health it may be that for people with severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia it is only when such activities are used in combination with other interventions that benefits are seen
View Participants took many years to make positive lifestyle changes
View Findings Participants accounts confirmed previous research into the experience of CFS/ME describing significant problems such as loss of concentration fatigue stigma and difficulties in maintaining work leisure and family roles
View Participants had all acquired practical craft skills prior to their illness
View Colour within the artwork itself had positive effects on emotional state through both its direct stimulus and its capacity to trigger positive memories about life and self before illness
View The study participants spoke mostly of a belief in crafts as a therapeutic tool that could motivate patients to regain functions so that they could participate in society again
View The participants said that their encounters with the people who had to stay in hospital for years touched them emotionally
View Through the presentation of objects the participants showed how much they cared for the patients and this may be seen as further support of the idea of both therapists and patients as fellow human beings
View The participants argued that the production of craft activities gave meaning to patients everyday lives and provided challenges in creating patterns for objects to be produced
View The participants believed that the patients had to find a motivation for the rehabilitation and craft activities could evoke this motivation
View The participants revealed that they often lacked prescriptions for each patient related to the restoration of function goals to be achieved and stimulating patients interests to make sure that the use of activities was therapeutic
View The aim of this study was to discover and characterize components of engagement in creative activity as occupational therapy for elderly people dealing with life-threatening illness, from the perspective of both clients and therapists
View The potential value of and interest in using creative activities for psychosocial interventions is increasing for several reasons including growing numbers of elderly people and improved survival rates for a range of serious illness conditions such as cancer
View When people encounter life-threatening illness they experience a disruption in their habituated sense of daily life
View Creativity emerges as individuals grapple with the challenge to rearrange practices ideas and values that redefines connections among materials and people
View Other studies examining creative activity in relation to the elderly and disease take a perspective either on a diagnosis or a specific activity such as going to a museum and engaging in needlecraft or pottery
View The aim of this study was to discover and characterize components of engagement in creative activity as occupational therapy for elderly people dealing with life-threatening illness from the perspective of both clients and therapists
View The generous environment provided a positive space that also embraced difficult experiences of ambivalence in the process of engaging in creative activity leading to salient existential questions that motivate and structure the constructive aspects of creative engagements
View This shows the value of being able to continue participation in cultural traditions of giving gifts and receiving recognition and appreciation
View As illustrated unfolding of creations can provide a vehicle for sharing and the building of companionship as the participants followed each others challenges of engaging in creative activity and in handling their individual course of life with illness
View The meaning of creating connections to life is seen as functioning on many levels to be in contact with ones roles sense of identity and earlier experiences but also to stay connected in life and to know you are alive and living despite serious illness
View By drawing up and refashioning memories and experiences from the clients life both therapists and participants in the workshop re-established and supported the clients as individuals rather than in their roles as clients
View Thus as creations are connected to the clients life they provide an opportunity to express and strengthen the sense of self and thereby reduce what Michael Bury characterized as a root cause of distress in illness the biographical disruption
View The findings in this study add knowledge for the understanding of components necessary for establishing a space or therapeutic environment in which creative work and acts of defining and reconstructing meaningful connections to cultural traditions and life in the community can take place
View Clearly engaging in creative activity holds the potential for clients to confront and rebuild attachments to core cultural ideals and values as well as social relationships not just with physically present people but also remembered and idealized social others including their own past identities and self-images that are brought forward again to engage contemporary challenges
View Have companies and their brands incorporated through the audiovisual narrative of their advertising positive messages in favour of individual and collective resilience in Spain
View Companies and brands have played a social role acting in the public interest against the pandemic and having a direct eect on the health and psychological comfort of society
View The findings of this research work show that this pandemic has given companies the opportunity to develop new roles and to contribute to society by spreading messages promoting resilience and de-stressing thus attaining a dual goal: To exercise a social function and to maintain their position in the minds of consumers
View Combining audiovisual information with factual information also resulted in lower perceived cognitive load in younger patients as compared with older patients
View Such information relates to the benefits and harms of treatment options which a patient considers in the light of personal values and preferences
View In addition older adults weigh information differently than younger patients in health-related decision making ; specifically older patients rely more on emotional intuitive reasoning
View Therefore this study aimed to assess the effects of audiovisual information and narrative information in a PDA on information processing and use in older patients as compared with younger patients
View Older patients are expected to benefit more from audiovisual information as they face age-related declines in working memory capacity
View As a result older patients may experience greater cognitive overload than younger patients do likely leading to dissatisfaction with information and decisional con-flict
View Altogether the following hypotheses can be made: Ha: Being provided with audiovisual information in a PDA compared with textual information will have a positive effect on cancer patients satisfaction with information information comprehension and information recall and a negative effect on perceived cognitive load and decisional conflict
View Hb: This effect of audiovisual information will be greater in older patients as compared with younger patients
View Hence we hypothesized the following: Ha: Being provided with narrative information in a PDA compared with factual information will have a positive effect on cancer patients satisfaction with information information comprehension and information recall and a negative effect on perceived cognitive load and decisional conflict
View Based on the abovementioned theories and evidence we hypothesized -way and -way interactions: Ha: Being provided with audiovisual narrative information in a PDA compared with other combinations of modality and narration style will have a positive effect on cancer patients satisfaction with information information comprehension and information recall and a negative effect on perceived cognitive load and decisional conflict
View Interaction Effects of Modality Narration Style and Age The interaction between modality narration style and age had a significant interaction effect on perceived cognitive load
View Younger patients exposed to audiovisual factual information or textual narrative information perceived less cognitive load than younger patients exposed to textual factual information
View Older patients provided with audiovisual narrative information perceived less cognitive load than older patients provided with textual narrative information or audiovisual factual information
View Younger patients provided with audiovisual factual information perceived less cognitive load than older patients provided with the same information
View One main finding was that irrespective of age audiovisual information about benefits and harms of treatment options enhanced cancer patients information processing when compared with textual information
View Specifically it reduced perceived cognitive load increased satisfaction with information and increased perceptions of effective decisions
View Our study further showed that narrative information reduced perceived uncertainty in only younger patients that no interaction effect existed between modality and narration style on any of the outcome measures and that the combination of audiovisual and factual information better reduced perceived cognitive load in younger patients compared with older patients
View Nevertheless we consider it highly relevant for practice that audiovisual information reduced perceived cognitive load and decisional conflict and increased satisfaction in patients
View However our findings show that older patients did not benefit more than younger patients on any measure whereas younger patients accrued more benefits such as lower perceived cognitive load and lower uncertainty about the decision
View In our study sample older patients showed quite high health literacy and quality of life a possible signal of normal cognitive aging
View Another explanation might be that the type of information provided could have exceeded the working memory capacity of younger patients as well
View Further research is needed to understand the effects of narration style on patients information processing
View Social interaction The effects of the music-video channel had the potential to prompt social interaction between individual exercisers and facility staff
View Accordingly it appears that an appropriate musicvideo channel might prompt individuals to burst their personal listening bubbles in order to enjoy exercise alongside others in a social context
View Rationale: Pulmonary rehabilitation after hospitalizations for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease improves exercise capacity and health-related quality of life and reduces readmissions
View Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are one of the most common causes of emergency hospital admission and account for over % of healthcare costs associated with COPD
View For patients exacerbations requiring hospitalization are associated with significantly reduced physical activity levels impaired health-related quality of life skeletal muscle dysfunction and reduced physical functioning
View Pulmonary rehabilitation is a comprehensive patient-tailored intervention that includes exercise training and education designed to optimize the physical and psychological well-being of people with chronic respiratory disease
View In the latest iteration of the Cochrane Systematic Review Puhan and colleagues included randomized controlled trials and patients and found moderate-to-large effects of postexacerbation PR on health-related quality of life and exercise capacity and moderate-quality evidence that postexacerbation PR reduces hospital readmissions
View As reported barriers to PR include poor patient engagement with or lack of awareness of PR we hypothesized that education of patients regarding the benefits of PR might improve uptake
View Although a significant proportion was unable to recall watching the video at hospital discharge qualitative interviews of participants in the intervention group revealed positive feedback regarding the education video with those recalling watching the video making suggestions for improvement
View Despite a strong evidence base to support the benefits of posthospitalization PR and guidelines recommendation observational studies have consistently shown low patient uptake and completion
View The focus of the intervention was to educate patients about the benefits of posthospitalization PR as poor patient knowledge and engagement have consistently been observed to be major barriers to uptake
View Previous studies that have used device-based interventions with minimal counseling have also been unsuccessful in changing the behavior of patients with COPD
View Fifth we observed significant improvements in physical performance and health-related quality of life in both intervention and control groups which is likely to reflect natural recovery from an exacerbation requiring hospitalization
View A previous observational study showed that % of patients awaiting discharge after an exacerbation had cognitive impairment with % considered to have pathologic impairment of processing speed
View Conclusions In summary this assessor- and statistician-blinded randomized controlled trial demonstrated that a patient-codesigned education video shown on the day of hospital discharge had no effect upon patient uptake of posthospitalization PR nor on referral or completion rates
View Based on brain activity analyses and cognitive tests a neurocognition research [] demonstrated that when viewing a video learners develop a cognitive activity that reinforces memorization and problem-solving processes
View Our results showed that short of being actively involved attending a filmed role-playing is equally effective for learning
View Several participants even said the actors could have been more expressive particularly since patients with dengue fever generally arrive in great pain
View The majority of participants appreciated the humorous tone of the dramatic and animated videos which held their interest more and in so doing enhanced their concentration
View This affected participants ability to assimilate knowledge
View This pilot study tested the benefits of an audiovisual integrative training for improving the cognitive and upper limb motor functions in older adults with mild cognitive impairment
View Conclusions: The findings suggest that the AV integrative training has the potential for enhancing the cognitive and motor functions of older adults with MCI
View In terms of the age effect on multisensory integration it was found that older adults undergo significantly more enhancement in multi-sensory processing when compared to younger adults due to the effects of general cognitive slowing [ ]
View [] found that patients with MCI and alzhiemers disease exhibited sufficient audiovisual integration a greater peak and broader temporal window of multisensory enhancement when compared to healthy older adults
View Based on previous finding it is believed that older adults with MCI who are associated with more sensory processing declines than healthy controls might benefit more in their behavioral performances from multisensory integration which reduces their sensory processing demands
View Therefore the present study hypothesized enhanced attention and motor functions in the individuals with MCI than the healthy older adults after AV integrative training
View In addition to attentional control upper limb motor function was also investigated in the present study because previous findings suggest that multisensory integration significantly enhances motor control and motor learning []
View It was hypothesized that older adults with MCI have more significant improvements in their attentional control and upper limb motor functions concurrently undergoing AV integrative training when compared with those healthy controls
View Besides attentional control the AV integrative training was found to significantly enhance the MCI participants non-dominant hand function when compared to the healthy controls which is consistent with prior findings []
View Conclusions In summary the current findings support that the AV integrative training has the potential for enhancing the cognitive and motor functions of older adults with MCI
View Importantly the present findings suggest that AV integrative training can serve as an alternative non-pharmacological intervention for combating cognitive and motor decline in older adults
View An informed decision occurs when the patient has an adequate understanding of the health condition treatment options and benefits and harms and the decision is consistent with the patients personal values
View Moreover structured tailored or interactive communication tools can increase patient knowledge
View The Cancer Prevention Center serves approximately patients per year and provides cancer screening cancer risk assessments and other cancer prevention programs
View Second we hypothesized that the differences in knowledge scores between the intervention arms would be greater for patients with lower health literacy than for patients with higher health literacy
View The culture of healthy living behavior needs to be socialized so that people's knowledge increases and the incidence of osteoporosis in Indonesia decreases
View Knowledge gained during health education includes the notion of osteoporosis signs and symptoms of osteoporosis risk factors for osteoporosis body parts that often experience osteoporosis causes of osteoporosis and prevention of osteoporosis
View This result is in accordance with the aim of implementing a health education program according to WHO namely to increase individual or community knowledge in the health sector by disseminating knowledge about how to maintain and promote health achieving changes in individual family and community knowledge in fostering and maintaining healthy and healthy behaviors and an active role in efforts to realize optimal health degrees
View iCanCope with Pain is a mobile phone app designed to help adolescents cope with chronic pain
View The app comprises 5 evidence- and theory-based features: symptom trackers for pain, sleep, mood, physical function, and energy; goal setting to improve pain and function; a coping toolbox of pain self-management strategies; social support; and age-appropriate pain education
View In their systematic review of the literature in this area Fisher et al showed that self-management interventions are accessible through computer-based programs or mobile phone apps and that such interventions may reduce chronic pain intensity among children and adolescents []
View Theoretical Framework The iCanCope with Pain app comprises evidence- and theory-based features: symptom trackers for pain sleep mood physical function and social function; goal setting to improve pain and function; a coping toolbox of pain self-management strategies; social support; and age-appropriate pain education
View My trackers are integrated as a daily check-in functionality in the app wherein the adolescents can rate their level of pain intensity pain interference mood physical activity sleep quality and energy
View They reported finding it easy to perform a daily check-in and liked the idea of monitoring pain patterns which could contribute to a better understanding of their pain experience
View Participants favored articles related to CBT distraction techniques and help with developing a treatment plan
View Regardless social support plays a protective role for adolescents with chronic pain and is important for their social development []
View It has become vital to design educational strategies that guarantee an effective learning process
View Differences in terms of emotional reactivity between men and women have been previously reported; in this regard women have been described as having a greater excitement in most emotions compared to men which shows that when watching videos that induce an emotional response men frequently show more intense emotional experiences while women experience a greater emotional expressiveness
View Conclusion The tools of cognitive neuroscience could become useful in the evaluation of attention emotional response and memory in scenarios of educational strategies in health and public health interventions which have the purpose of improving outcomes through the social acceptance of knowledge
View Video clips of knowledge about maternal and neonatal health demonstrated greater effectiveness in the acquisition of knowledge in terms of attention emotional reaction and recall compared with the control video
View Specifically imagery was reported to have attracted and held attention better; garnered stronger cognitive and emotional reactions; elicited more negative pack attitudes and negative smoking attitudes; and more effectively increased intentions to not start smoking and to quit smoking
View With this in mind it is as important to evaluate the affective impact as much as the effectiveness of any health intervention designed to change awareness and increase antimicrobial stewardship amongst the public
View Introduction Recommendations from the American Heart Association highlight the relevance of teaching cardiopulmonary resuscitation to lay people because of its association with greater survival chance of cardiac arrest victims in the prehospital setting
View Considering that the use of technological resources contributes to the success of health education and that communication with the deaf occurs through visual means it is worth highlighting the feasibility of using videos as a resource for the provision of health information according to observed in a study conducted in California whose results showed the effectiveness of a video about cancer aimed at health education for deaf people
View The construction and validation of an educational video for deaf people about CPR is relevant because it provides a didactic resource that can be used for training of a great number of people with standardized instructions and also corroborates with a self-directed and flexible learning process because it provides the possibility of autonomy for the learners to watch the video in any moment they prefer and as many times as they deem it necessary
View Consultation audio-recordings can improve patients' recall and understanding of medical information and increase their involvement in decision making
View Conclusions: The SecondEars app allows patients to have control and autonomy over audio-recording and sharing their consultations while maintaining privacy and safety for medical information and legal protection for clinicians
View Introduction Background Facilitating Patient-Centered Care Shared decision making and patient participation are essential elements of patient-centered care []
View Clinicians and hospital administrators understand that consultation audio-recordings are beneficial for patients but they emphasize that successful implementation would require a system that has low upkeep with minimal burden on clinical processes and resources addresses medico-legal concerns clearly defines who is responsible for the audio-recording once it is made and responds to patient preference by allowing the patients to control when they audio-record and with whom they share the audio-recording [ ]
View The aim of this study was to use experience-based co-design to design a consultation audio-recording mobile app called SecondEars that utilizes this patient-identified solution while working to meet the implementation requirements identified by clinicians and hospital administrators
View An app could also link audio-recordings to the hospitals medical record or information technology systems and allow patients to share the audio-recording with family or friends indicating the safety and utility of audio-recordings which may change clinicians hospital administrators and patients beliefs about consultation audio-recording
View The ultimate aim of the app was unanimously decided and described as Improve the quality of patients care that is improving the quality of patients participation understanding and support during treatment diagnosis decision making and support during their cancer journey
View The pattern of use also shows that the patients may share the audio-recordings with their family members or friends after their hospital encounter
View Longitudinal evaluation could also provide opportunities to study the impact that the SecondEars app has on patients recall and understanding of medical information and their participation in clinical decision making
View Audiovisual distraction takes control in an enjoyable way over two types of sensations hearing and visual and at the same time it succeeds in partially isolating the patient from the sounds and sight of the unfriendly clinical environment
View Group I: No specific behavior management technique during treatment Group II: TSD applied during treatment Group III: AVD applied during treatment Group IV: TSD and AVD applied during treatment Anxiety was recorded in these patients using the following parameters: FIS VPT systolic blood pressure PR and SpO
View CONCLUSION The AVD is more capable of reducing anxiety than TSD for patients undergoing dental treatment in their first visit
View The treatment of disabled patients is performed in an individualized manner according to their particular clinical aspects
View This research demonstrates, through an experiment, the use of a wheelchair adapted to have the support of VR and EEG for training of locomotion and individualized interaction of wheelchair users with visual impairment
View According to the results of the physiological data those readings taken after the training sessions show an increase in the vital signs of the patient as given in Table
View This research demonstrates through an experiment the use of a wheelchair adapted to have the support of VR and EEG for training of locomotion and individualized interaction of wheelchair users with visual impairment
View Conclusions This study found that watching a digital animation is more effective in reducing anxiety among international visitors to Japan compared with reading a standard brochure because it presents the summary of important information in an enjoyable but succinct way
View Smart glasses can give the clinician information such as patients data vital signs or imaging studies results within their field of vision so the clinician can use it simultaneously with performing other tasks or procedures
View It shows that smart glasses can be successfully used in training process
View The concept of smart glasses can empower patients in sense of interaction between them and the clinic or other patients telemedicine simplifying hospital or outpatient visits among many other functions
View Search strategy The studies had to occur outside hospitals and directed to primary healthcare defined as general practice and paediatric surgeries sexually transmitted diseases family planning and mother and child clinics to be eligible
View On the other hand the GPs personal involvement affects their motivation to apply the message displayed by the AVA: a probable change in their care behaviour during their encounters with patients creates a bias in the study results []
View Robust controlled trials on large populations with a clear design and method are required to prove changes in patients behaviour resulting from media campaigns developed in waiting rooms
View Background: Medical advances continue to improve morbidity and mortality of serious pediatric diseases, including cancer, driving research addressing diminished physical and psychological quality of life in children with these chronic conditions
View Empowerment enhances resilience and positively influences health, disease, and therapy understanding
View Children with cancer who played Re-Mission a sedentary video game designed to improve disease education and therapy compliance showed improved mood cancer-related knowledge and chemotherapy adherence
View However the few video games and apps designed expressly for pediatric oncology patients are limited primarily to a late-effects management app for cancer survivors and Re-Mission
View The initial of concept of coupling physical exercise and mental empowerment as a video game intervention for children with cancer stemmed from several pivotal clinical observations: the incredible determination and resilience of a child and their family members when a child is diagnosed with and undergoes treatment for cancer the significant physical and emotional deconditioning that necessarily accompanies the months of pediatric cancer treatment involving surgery radiation and chemotherapy and its attendant adverse effects and the sense of empowerment exhibited by a child whether young or older when he or she overcomes a disease or treatment-related obstacle
View Discussions involving children with cancer and their parents nurses child life specialists psychologists physical therapists social workers pediatric oncology physicians and video game developers confirmed interests to develop of an exercise-empowerment video game for children with cancer
View Based on the aforementioned experiences our efforts shifted toward developing a video game promoting physical activity empowerment and behavioral change in pediatric cancer patients using a mobile tablet platform
View Pediatric Cancer Patients Video Games and Empowerment Playing commercially available video games can decrease chemotherapy-associated nausea in oncology patients when used as distraction therapy and playing virtual reality computer games as add-on therapy improves depressive symptoms
View Recently developed mobile apps address empowerment and managing late effects associated with successful childhood cancer treatment
View Playing the sedentary videogame Re-Mission resulted in significant improvements in both disease understanding and medication compliance in a large randomized prospective clinical trial of teens and young adults with cancer and it has been well documented that medication adherence is positively correlated with cancer cure in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia
View The potential contribution of mobile disease-related interventions is illustrated by the development of Re-Mission a mobile online sedentary video game for teenagers with cancer that promotes empowerment selfefficacy and positive emotions while also encouraging medication adherence
View In contrast to the treatment of acute self-limited illness children with chronic diseases have a more prominent role in directing their own care with parental guidance and in making ongoing changes in how they live their lives particularly as they transition into adulthood
View As summarized in Table the broader applicability of a disease-specific exercise-empowerment pediatric video game becomes evident when one studies the shared challenges and potential intervention targets of representative chronic pediatric diseases
View Obesity is a complex multifactorial chronic disease of increasing prevalence that also greatly increases risk for other chronic diseases including depression type diabetes obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension While hereditary factors ethnicity and particular socioeconomic and sociocultural conditions exacerbate the risk and severity of obesity some modifiable personal behaviors like physical exercise expenditure sedentary and screen time and dietary intake also play a significant role in disease severity
View For children with congenital heart disease participation in both hospital and home-based cardiac physical activity programs is safe and feasible and improves QOL and exercise capacity
View In children with epilepsy disease-associated depression and anxiety occur more commonly than is characteristically seen in most other pediatric chronic illnesses
View In Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis which is characterized by pain fatigue stiffness and diminished exercise capacity sustained adherence to exercise and medication programs is very challenging
View Digital Empowerment Tools and eHealth and mHealth Health-promoting interactive technologies show significant potential for effecting behavioral change and promoting disease self-management by education and active patient involvement directed at understanding health disease and treatment
View Adults with depression randomized to treatment with add-on video game therapy showed significantly fewer depressive symptoms at month compared with the control group
View Depressed adolescents treated with computerized cognitive behavior therapy using SPARX an online computer program designed to help young persons with mild to moderate depression showed significant improvement in depression rating equal to those treated with traditional face to face cognitive counseling
View Zora a multiuser Internet-based psychosocial intervention designed for children undergoing hemodialysis and organ transplantation provides a safe beneficial virtual city/com-munity support network for coping and sharing experiences
View Significant improvement in attention was seen in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder after weeks of playing EVO an iPad-based intervention designed for children with ADHD
View Learning that children like and will play such a game that parents endorse the incorporation of such a game into their childs treatment program and that there is strong approval by healthcare providers together all support continued development of a disease-specific exercise-empowerment video game as adjuvant medical treatment
View Coupling physical exercise with personal empowerment in a judiciously designed and disease-specific video game that is created on a mobile platform provides the opportunity for widespread affordable application to children with cancer and serves as a prototype for management of diverse chronic diseases across many ages
View Also, intake of vitamin D , folate , calcium , and dietary fibre was increased in the HBM group compared to the control group 3 months after education
View Studies have shown that per capita consumption of fat has increased in Iran
View Information about the benefits of increasing the consumption of fruits and vegetables the benefits of a high-fibre diet the benefits of restricting meat and high-fat foods the need to receive adequate levels of vitamin D and the benefits of consuming foods containing folate and calcium for the prevention of CRC
View The results demonstrated an increase in knowledge perceived severity perceived self-efficacy and perceived benefits
View In the control group the results demonstrated a significant increase in bread serving intake and red meat and significant decreases in fruit and vegetable and white meat servings after education
View Comparison of the mean differences of food servings and dietary micronutrient intake before and months after education in both groups showed that the mean difference in fruit and vegetable and dairy servings as well as vitamin D folate calcium and dietary fibre intake increased while red meat servings decreased in the HBM group compared to the control group
View Intervention with the use of the educational CD was successful and appears to be associated with producing significant increases in nutrition knowledge and significantly decreasing red meat consumption while increasing fruit and vegetable and dairy intake
View In this study micronutrients such as vitamin D folate calcium and dietary fibre increased but education failed to reduce energy intake and consumption of saturated fat
View In this study multimedia education based on HBM increased the consumption of fruits and vegetables and dairy products and increased the intake of micronutrients including vitamin D folate calcium and dietary fibre
View Also in Alidostis study changes in health beliefs led to an increase in the consumption of fruits and vegetables and dairy products
View DATA EXTRACTION: Studies of adult or pediatric hospitalized patients reporting physician identification, understanding of provider roles, patientprovider communication, and satisfaction with care from the use of visual tools were included
View Studies showing higher patient satisfaction have reported lower -day hospital readmissions and improved overall health
View Conversely communication failures are associated with dissatisfaction among hospitalized patients and adverse outcomes
View Bedside visual tools such as whiteboards and pictures of medical staff have been widely used to enhance communication between patients families and providers
View Understanding Providers Roles Six studies assessed the effect of visual tools on patients understanding of provider roles
View used individual pictures of physicians with descrip tions of roles and found a negative association as demonstrated by fewer patients rating their understanding of physicians roles as excellent or very good in the intervention period compared with the baseline
View stated that the tool improved provider communication
View Two of studies that assessed patients understanding of team member roles reported a positive influence while reported no differ-ence
View One study reported a positive impact on patient-provider communication
View The portal improved patients identification of physicians and patients understanding of roles
View Results by Outcomes Provider Identification and Understanding of Physicians Roles Four studies that assessed the influence of visual tools on provider identification and understanding of roles reported a positive association
View Pa tient-Pro vider Communica tion Two studies assessed the impact of patient portal use on communication and reported a positive association
View We increased the number of participants to provide more detailed analysis
View The dataset contains transcripts of verbal interviews with healthy controls and people with Alzheimer's disease including those with mild cognitive impairment
View They extracted several vocal features from the audio recordings and classified them into healthy controls and mild cognitive impairment with % accuracy and healthy controls and Alzheimer's disease with % accuracy
View For people with Alzheimer's disease mutual gaze was preserved reecting relative maintenance of this aspect of social behavior despite increasing cognitive impairment
View For instance since elderly people have difculty listening to fast speech and high-pitched voices we reduced the articulation rate of the avatar voice and lowered its mean pitch value based on consultation with a professional psychiatrist
View > INTRODUCTION In the past decades the prevalence of smoking in Western countries has decreased which reduces the risk of several major health threats like cancer pulmonary disease and cardiovascular disease
View showed that participants with limited health literacy a characteristic that is also related to a low-education level recalled information about inhaler use better when they had seen a video that narrated and illustrated the use of an inhaler than when they had read a print version with the same text and images
View Interpersonal communication has been shown to be an important factor in the effects of communication campaigns
View The secondary outcome was improved patient understanding of pulmonary rehabilitation procedures
View Results: Subjects in all three intervention groups, compared with control subjects, demonstrated postintervention improvements in inhaler technique , preparedness to manage a COPD exacerbation , ability to achieve goals in managing COPD , and understanding pulmonary rehabilitation procedures
View Introduction Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality and a driver of health care costs worldwide
View Achieving success in self-management has been associated with an increased sense of patient self-efficacy- and high levels of patient confidence in their ability to understand and follow providers instructions and recommended action plans
View Multiple factors affect patients ability to learn and adhere to care plans including patients perception of their disease type of treatment or medication quality of patient-provider communication and impediments to comprehension and uptake posed by language and cultural barriers
View The secondary outcome was improved patient understanding of Pulmonary Rehabilitation program procedures
View Initial recruitment included patients from which participated in focus groups to prioritize educational materials topics and content patients helped in the development of materials and role-play in the videos patients participated in pilot testing and finalizing the educational materials and the remaining patients were invited to participate in the main study
View Patients with lower education showed significantly less improvement
View In addition the effect of audiovisual interventions on patients confidence in managing exacerbations supports earlier research that shows improvements in patient self-management practices following video intervention
View ' The finding supports research which found that patients reported a significant improvement in self-management of chronic conditions after receiving instruction from clinicians or professionals particularly in the video format
View Past studies have indicated that low numeracy influences a patients ability to understand and use health-related information to make informed medical decisions
View Other studies have found that short educational videos instructed by professionals have better results on patient outcomes compared to longer videos
View We found in our previous studies that information provided by community members has a positive impact on patients understanding of disease management
View Although males showed a greater improvement in the correct use of inhalers and the self-assessment of being able to remain calm during a worsening females showed a greater improvement in their perceived ability to self-manage their condition
View Older participants showed a significant improvement only in the ability to distinguish inhalers which may be a consequence of having dealt with their condition for a longer period of time and having a greater overall awareness of COPD
View Younger participants showed a significantly greater improvement in understanding the steps associated with PR which may be a function of greater cognitive acuity and also better numeracy skills
View This finding aligns with other research that found patient education changed medication habits improved inhaler compliance and improved patient outcomes compared with uneducated/ low-educated patients
View It is also essential to improve COPD patients confidence in their ability to follow physician instruction and self-management practices for example by augmenting self-efficacy
View Clinical implication Our study shows that a simple culturally and linguistically appropriate disease management education intervention improved inhaler techniques and exacerbation management among Mandarin and Cantonese COPD patients
View It is concluded that community-based bibliotherapy and therapeutic creative writing groups support well-being in older adults by providing a unique space in which participants feel acknowledged, accepted, challenged and inspired
View Although research has lagged behind practice in this area there is now a growing evidence base indicating that engaging in creative activities such as visual performing and literary arts may be effective for reducing anxiety stress and mood disturbance
View Key findings from qualitative studies of Arts on Prescription have included participant reports of increased confidence and self-esteem as well as a sense of acceptance and social belonging Older adults have been identified as a group that can particularly benefit from community arts programmes which have been found to help with fostering healthy ageing; supporting brain function; preventing frailty; increased social participation; reduced depression anxiety and stress; and increased self-esteem confidence and sense of purpose
View reported findings that engagement in a community-based arts programme can reduce loneliness doctor visits falls and medication usewhilst increasing overall health activity and morale
View Other possible benefits of arts interventions during older adulthood may include psychological benefits such as feelings of accomplishment improved resilience in response to loss improved cognitive functioning and increased creativity as well as physical benefits such as increased activity levels improved cardiovascular health and improved mobility
View Shechtman and Nir-Shfrir's results indicated that more productive client work occurred during the bibliotherapy group sessions due to decreases in resistance and simple responses and an increase in emotional exploration
View | Therapeutic writing It is generally believed that bibliotherapy affects change by gently breaking through defence mechanisms to help participants develop increased insight
View Group therapeutic writing interventions have been found to enhance group cohesion and group poetry therapy has been found to improve attitudes and increase self-discovery as compared to conventional group psychotherapy
View Participation in a therapeutic creative writing group has been found to promote personal growth decrease feelings of isolation increase confidence increase participants' sense of support and enhance both desire and ability to communicate about experiences
View Expressive writing has been found to reduce anxiety depression and post-traumatic symptoms and has a literature which largely supports the idea that writing about emotions and emotional experiences contributes to positive outcomes
View Participants reported finding the groups through adverts on physical and online community posting boards and through word of mouth
View Mazza additionally asserts that older adulthood can be a time of unique creativity and advocates for the use of poetry to assist the elderly in transcending loss and maintaining a vital connection to the life process
View Many participants also reported experiences of personal development stating that that they had developed increased self-confidence and self-efficacy
View The idea that safety and group cohesion are vital to the success of the groups fits with Yalom's writings on the importance of group cohesion and research which has demonstrated poetry therapy interventions to be effective in enhancing this
View The safety participants reported experiencing appears to be key to facilitating their ability to share their experiences with the group without feeling pressure or judgement and to listen to others with openness and empathy
View Based on these findings practitioners can provide a theoretical rationale for the integration of bibliotherapy and therapeutic writing techniques into their work to facilitate the development of group cohesion to encourage exploring new ways of relating to self and others and to enable participants to access and express deeper insight and emotion
View Whilst acknowledging the vital role of qualitative research in evaluating community arts interventions Clift presents a clear argument for the need for more robust controlled studies that will provide measurable health and well-being outcomes
View A skilled facilitator with training in both the psychotherapeutic and literary arts was found to be a key component of the groups as their ability to contain and work with emotional content was reported to be equally important to the participants as the facilitator's knowledge of literature and creative writing
View The findings of this study suggest that reading and writing for well-being groups could be particularly effective as an intervention for reducing social isolation and loneliness in older adulthood as the design of the groups aligns with the recommendations of Dickens et al
View She found that reading contributes to self-confidence social interaction and wellbeing
View Pennebaker has studied the effects of expressive writing on psychological and physical wellbeing
View invited patients with psychotic experiences to write about their path into mental health care
View Moreover studies have shown that reading and writing might support recovery among patients with for example depression and anxiety and traumatic experiences
View The purpose is to validate the patients feelings encourage sharing of experiences and when done in group therapy participate in discussions
View The patients are encouraged to express themselves through different forms of writing for example poetry letters diaries or stories which allow them to approach and express their emotions
View Also Richards has presented an open approach to creative activities and their impact on wellbeing and recovery
View Everyday creativity is an essential but under-valued part of life that is necessary for presence and ability to experience life and accordingly for health and wellbeing
View In order to understand how patients in mental health care perceive reading and writing personal experiences need to be acknowledged
View Results New perspectives The participants sensed that reading and writing as well as other creative expressions and popular culture could support the patients to see a situation or themselves in a new way
View They sensed that since psychologists basically use themselves as tools when they encounter their patients their personal interest in reading and writing has become a natural part of their work
View The participants sensed that negative school experiences can cause some patients to hesitate or even refuse interventions centered on reading and writing
View In other cases the patients spontaneously say that they feel like the character in a movie or a book
View Freedom to express oneself The participants also sensed that the freedom to express oneself in whichever way one feels comfortable with supports recovery
View The freedom to express oneself in a way one feels comfortable with offers an opportunity to also focus on the patients abilities and on activities that are considered meaningful
View According to the participants it is important to identify the patients abilities and interests since experiences of being a capable person strengthen ones sense of self
View The participants sensed that for some patients it was easier to articulate their memories experiences thoughts and emotions through writing
View Some participants mentioned that patients with negative school experiences might hesitate or refuse to read or write
View The participants are aware that popular culture such as movies might be meaningful for their patients which is in line with the openness of poetry therapy as described by Mazzas
View They suggest that such a simulation supports understanding of social interaction through indirect experiential learning
View Our participants also emphasize the patients need to feel safe in order to express themselves freely a perspective that is shared by psychotherapy researchers Summers and Barber
View found that patients with psychotic experiences who wrote about their pathway into care increased their understanding and acceptance of their life and their difficulties
View studied the importance of micro-affirmations for recovery among patients in mental health care
View suggest that during such moments patients may sense that the difference in power between practitioner and patient is momentarily erased an experience that might support sense of self-worth as well as agency
View Assessing and addressing spiritual needs is a key factor in the quality of life and overall wellbeing of cancer patients
View Bibliotherapy understood and practiced as a subtle balance of texts and group processes alleviates cognitive and emotional symptoms of a spiritual concern and facilitates finding meaning in life in general and illness in particular
View As an intervention, it is effective, affordable and attractive; moreover, it equips patients receiving treatment and rehabilitation with the lifelong skill of reflective reading
View Harold Koenig refers to this expansion of the concept of spirituality with constructs of positive psychology personal wellbeing and mental health as a contaminated understanding of spirituality and draws attention to the tautology of results in measuring spirituality in a research context
View Due to eorts made for the inclusion of the spiritual perspective in clinical care several assessment tools have been developed and tested to obtain a spiritual history of patients and meet their needs
View Patient-reported outcomes associated with bibliotherapy included improved coping skills reduced levels of anxiety and depression increased self-esteem social function quality of life better interpersonal family school and global QoL self-ecacy perception of helpfulness and perception of support
View According to previous experience related to the length that patients can stay in therapy and the duration of Simonton trainings based on imaginative techniques a week-long period was assigned to the bibliotherapeutic group intervention
View We found that issues of interest covered general topics such as gender roles family and marital relationships vocation and self-fulfillment freedom and subordination taking dicult decisions finding meaning in everyday life and illness experience expression of feelings and wishes resilience and communication etc
View One may discover recurrent themes of cancer patients such as loss of body integrity deficiencies indetermination fear of relapse or fear of not being able to achieve ones life mission or vocation while others include general human concerns of freedom authenticity uniqueness freedom of choice recognition of life a weighing of achievements and a well-lived life
View We have found that cancer as an illness aected the mental health of our patients not only by causing distress and a great number of bodily symptoms but by reviving buried psychosocial or spiritual problems such as inner conflict
View A healthy connectedness to the self was displayed when one patient evoked a childhood memory of witnessing a car accident involving some close relatives
View The patients anxiety about the future and the possible inability to raise her children was successfully addressed during sessions through the understanding and emotional support of the group
View Conclusions We have analyzed the minutes and written feedback of our bibliotherapeutic group interventions in the search for the spiritual needs directly and indirectly expressed by nonterminal cancer patients during sessions
View Nevertheless we consider it a success of the bibliotherapeutic intervention that after experiencing the benefits of therapy some patients committed to seeking further individual therapy
View Tales have been told everywhere and in every time to educate entertain and increase individuals awareness about moral principles and customs thus representing an important part of traditional heritage as well as a way to reinforce tolerance and mutual knowledge among different populations
View -Actually school represents the ideal setting to perform health-related interventions and positively influence students wellbeing as well as their academic achievements
View We summarized definitions of health presenting wellbeing as the main goal of every educational practice and school system as the ideal setting to display health-related interventions
View Through implicit meanings embodied in the stories children indirectly acquire pedagogical messages able to influence their global personality and stimulate a social sense of duty
View Digital storytelling is a helpful instrument to generate more appealing and stimulating learning experiences
View Finally it can be said that storytelling activities in school setting represent innovative didactic experiences capable to build up also health knowledge and promote students global wellbeing
View Encouraging children to overcome fears and inner conflicts tales act as promoters for change positively influencing their social behaviour
View It helps patients and health professionals to tell and listen to the complex and unique stories of illness through an active approach or passive mode
View Efficacy of narrative-based strategies to promote health and wellbeing in school setting Health is defined by WHO Constitution as a state of complete physical mental and social wellbeing
View Actually education and health are intertwined and it is undoubtable that wellbeing has also a remarkable impact on students learning outcomes
View The adoption of cooperative practices into daily classroom activities can contribute to the enhancement of students wellbeing lowering the competition and anxiety due to the pressure of success currently detectable among schoolchildren
View From fairytales and fables - plenty of adventures heroes personified animals enchanted forests and magical objects - children gain additional experiences feelings and thoughts learning to cope with inhibitions vulnerability and shyness
View Beyond its educational purposes childrens literature can positively influence mental wellbeing nurturing thoughts feelings and behaviours of young generations
View Stories - as a kind of creative form of art - help children to fight for good things and success in their life satisfying their spirit of play spreading good mood with benefits on physical health mental brightness and moral virtue
View Learning experiences carried out in a friendly school environment generate improvement of emotional health and better academic achievements - A properly chosen book stimulates childrens power of observation reason memory and imagination broadening the range of experiences compelling the readers to reflect on their behaviours and find out possible solutions to their troubles while providing entertainment
View Reading a storybook or listening to stories is helpful for children as it promotes pupils emotional expression and psychological wellbeing; it can be used to stimulate changes in young people lifestyles encouraging them in practicing physical activity and reducing the consumption of sweets and soft-drinks ultimately resulting in a measurable reduction of body mass index in specific cohorts
View Therapeutic libraries have been established for paediatric patients or their families in hospital setting according to the vision that literature can help children to improve their quality of life reducing stress and pain levels associated with the hospitalization process
View In a randomized trial a combination of storybooks and workshop sessions have been successfully tested in primary prevention programs for anxiety management showing a significant improvement in coping skills and perceived self-efficacy: every session was based on a story describing characters facing common stressors and how they deal with their daily problems
View Based on international evidence childrens literature and specifically developed storybooks can encourage the adoption of healthy choices and represent a useful preventive tool to foster young peoples global wellbeing helping them to better cope with emotional/ social problems while proposing proper patterns of behaviours and conveying health contents
View Implications for practice This review indicates that childrens literature not only presents a strong pedagogical and didactic value but it can also generate benefits for global development and wellbeing of young people
View Patients with mild to moderate depression receive the least intrusive intervention first with the aim of reducing their symptomology and also preventing their symptoms from worsening whilst waiting for access to psychotherapy
View Books are prescribed via multiple access routes for example general practitioners IAPT practitioners or other healthcare professionals are able to prescribe self-help books to patients who are experiencing disorders such as depression anxiety phobias or chronic fatigue etc
View Participant flow Figure shows the flow of participants through the trial
View Part of the book helps the user to gain an understanding of depression and its causes
View Part provides the user with guidance on managing their depression
View The book also explores the role of thoughts and feelings in depression and identifies methods for labelling and challenging negative thoughts that may contribute to the symptoms of depression
View The results of the current study show that the PP book Positive Psychology for Overcoming Depression was as effective at reducing symptoms of depression and increasing feelings of well-being as the CBT book Overcoming Depression: A Self-Help Guide using Cognitive Behavioural Techniques when delivered over an week intervention period with reminder emails sent weekly
View Patient preference in the treatment of depression has more recently come under investigation with some researchers finding an improvement in efficacy when patients are allocated their preferred treatment although the evidence is mixed
View Evidence suggests that psychotherapy from a range of other perspectives is effective at reducing depression symptomology and given the evidence for PP for reducing depression symptomology it would be beneficial for patients to have a range of treatment approaches represented via books on prescription schemes where evidence-based self-help books are available
View Participants in the current study self-selected to take part and self-reported symptoms of depression and future research may wish to explore the efficacy of the PP book with a GP or IAPT referred sample who have a clinical diagnosis of depression
View The results of the current pilot study found that both Positive Psychology for Overcoming Depression and Overcoming Depression: A Self-Help Guide using Cognitive Behavioural Techniques reduced symptoms of depression and increased feelings of well-being when delivered over an week intervention period with reminder emails sent weekly
View Typical symptoms of both involve depressed mood diminished interest in activities weight loss/gain insomnia/hypersomnia psychomotor agita-tion/retardation fatigue feelings of worthlessness and/or guilt lack of concentration or decisiveness and recurrent thoughts of death
View For instance Watkins and Teasdale note that overgeneral memory is a disorder specific phenomenon found in depression and posttraumatic stress disorder but not in generalised anxiety disorder social phobia or obsessivecompulsive disorder with Watkins amplifying this into the more general claim that the level of goal/action identification adopted in major depression is abnormal and dysfunctional with patients with depression tending to adopt more abstract levels of goal/action identification at least for negative information than non-depressed controls
View patients with GAD demonstrate a biassed tendency towards a more abstract level of processing
View Specifically there is a small body of evidence that exposing the depressed and the anxious to stimuli that exhibit a construal level opposite to that which characterises their condition yields positive therapeutic results
View In the case of depression Werner-Seidler and Moulds establish that prompting depressed and recovered individuals to recall an autobiographical memory in abstract and concrete modes yields a positive impact in the concrete mode; in their words a concrete processing mode enabled positive memory recall to have a reparative effect on mood for depressed and recovered participants
View Equivalently Watkins et al show that complementing treatment as usual for depression with concreteness training seems to be an efficacious treatment for mild to moderate depression in primary care producing significantly better outcomes than TAU
View For instance in a study that involved patients with cancer in a non-abstract watercolour-based art therapy intervention Bar-Sela Atid Danos Gebay et al found that depression was reduced while anxiety levels remained the same
View A review [] comparing pure and guided self-help with other or no treatment found comparable effects to those achieved by other psychological therapies on bingeing and purging other eating-disorder symptoms interpersonal functioning depression and treatment dropout
View The idea of combining both cognitive and embodied approaches with approaches focused on social and cultural factors is gradually gaining traction in eating-disorders research [] and such rejections of polarised perspectives will be essential to more fully understanding any mental illness
View Helpfulness indicators suggest a particular role for gaining more or a different perspective on illness and recovery while harmfulness may be mediated in particular by changes to eating disorder-related behaviours and an increase in obsessive thoughts about those behaviours or bodyweight and shape
View One -year-old mental healthcare assistant and research assistant in recovery from anorexia described the nostalgia that reading about eating disorders induces in her but also the reflective processing that accompanies the initial response: I feel a kind of nostalgia whenever I read about an individual with an eating disorder
View Taken as a whole the survey data support what the limited prior evidence from research policy and practice suggest: that engagement with literary texts can play a major role in the onset maintenance and recovery processes associated with the biopsychosocial realities of eating disorders
View In rating texts helpfulness/harmfulness for their eating disorder respondents overall also reported their preferred type of non-eating-disorder fiction to have significant therapeutic potential combined with lower anti-therapeutic potential than that associated with other text types with positive changes in cognitive perspective particularly prominent
View The differentiations between the more cognitive-emotional and the more behavioural facets of response resonate with findings which suggest that psychological aspects of disordered eating are targeted more effectively than behavioural aspects by self-help books []
View This article in the field of bibliotherapy investigates how participation in a reading circle can contribute to psychological well-being in people with mental illness such as long-term depression and anxiety
View Through a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, the study which the article is based on, showed that participants had short-term improved psychological well-being after participating in a guided reading circle
View Psychological well-being The reading circle was apparently meaningful to the participants and taking part had a positive effect on their perception of their health and psychological well-being
View They show that participation in the circle provided a short-term better sense of well-being for all study participants
View Increased social well-being according to that study involves increased self-confidence increased self-esteem diminished social isolation an experience of increased social community and improved communication skills
View The participants in my study exhibited most of the increased abilities and skills mentioned by Billington and all participants decreased their social isolation by taking part in the reading circle sessions
View Summary This study showed that participants in the reading circle had short-term improvement in their psychological well-being
View It also clarified through the interviews that participants had increased self-confidence and became more socially active
View Efficacy was defined as mean change scores in depression and anxiety symptoms
View Depression and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents are associated with poor academic performance poor vocational attainment and achievement difficulties with interpersonal relationships substance abuse attempted and completed suicide substantial burdens and increased risk for other mental disorders - and they often tend to persist into adulthood
View It uses a self-help book to guide and encourage the patients to challenge unhelpful thoughts and behaviors resulting in improved self-management rather than just providing information
View Bibliotherapy was defined as a treatment ) that used a self-help book to guide and encourage the patients to make changes resulting in improved self-management and ) the patients worked through these procedures with or without the help of their parents while ) the therapist gave support in working through the procedures with limited contact ) or without therapist support
View Given that youth depression and anxiety symptoms highly correlate and can be treated by combined interventions we examined the overall effects of all interventions on symptoms of anxiety and depression in a common analysis
View Bibliotherapy was significantly more beneficial than control in studies including depressive patients and showed less robust effects in studies including anxiety patients
View Future studies with follow-up assessments to get long-term effects of treatment are needed and should perform an individual patient data meta-analysis to explore study variability and participant characteristics as moderators of treatment outcomes
View A systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions to improve carers experience of caring for people with severe mental illness concluded that carer-focused interventions appear to enhance their quality of life and experience of caring while also reducing psychological distress and should be offered as an integral component of service delivery for individuals with severe mental illness
View The PSB group completed the PSB Reaching Out: Supporting a Family Member or Friend with First-Episode Psychosis which contained five modules: Strengthening carer well-being and coping skills Getting the best out of support services Promoting the well-being of the person with FEP: preventing relapse and understanding treatment Dealing with the effects of the illness Part A: communication lack of motivation social withdrawal risky and unrestrained behaviour disturbed sleep hallucinations and delusions Dealing with the effects of the illness Part B: weight gain reluctance to take medication substance misuse aggression and suicidal behaviour Carers completed all modules independently over weeks
View Carers reported that their support role had affected their mental health employment physical health and socialization adversely
View In CBT for IBS patients are educated about the physiological cognitive behavioural and emotional influences on their condition and are taught self-control strategies to enhance coping behaviours reduce stress and alter dysfunctional thinking about IBS
View reported benefits of an internet delivered exposure and mindfulness treatment
View Ferreira and colleagues showed that participants acceptance of IBS increased and that this mediated improvements in symptoms stress quality of life and avoidance behaviours
View The coexistence of mystery and familiarity facilitated improvements in wellbeing and helped in the recovery process
View Several key studies have examined observed reading practices concluding that reading is viewed positively and can comfort inspire provide validation of emotions and selfrecognition be cathartic and help to provide information to cope with life
View Participants volunteered to be interviewed in response to recruitment posters explaining the study placed in public libraries and via articles written for local service magazines
View This therapeutic intervention was effective on mental health dimensions of paranoid ideation, psychosis, phobia, aggression, depression, interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, obsessivecompulsive and somatic complaints
View After retirement social relations of the elderly people decrease and their emotional complications increase
View Today in developed countries bibliotherapy is used frequently and effectively in social environments such as hospitals schools prisons and rehabilitation and counseling centers to treat some common psychiatric disorders such as depression
View The greatest impact of participation in the audio books workshops on the dimensions of mental health of the elderly population based on the average scores and from the highest to the lowest ones are paranoid ideation psychosis phobic anxiety aggression depression interpersonal sensitivity anxiety obsession-compulsion and somatic complaints
View have also indicated the effects of bibliotherapy on reducing depression
View reported that the higher social protection of the elderly can have a significant impact on their mental health and social functioning
View Lang also introduced audio books to maintain a positive feeling and reducing social isolation for the visually impaired elderly
View compared the individual psychotherapy to bibliotherapy in the elderly with depression and preferred individual psychotherapy over bibliotherapy in the next stage of depression treatment but considered bibliotherapy as an effective treatment of depression in the elderly especially those who have no desire to engage in psychotherapy
View Research shows body dissatisfaction in a significant proportion of the population particularly for girls and women but also in boys and men; it is associated with negative affect reduced levels of physical activity onset of eating disorders low aspirations and a range of risky behaviours including steroid use in men and smoking in women
View Most of the research on EW has focused on quantifiable measures of physical well-being such as doctors visits trends in school grades and changes in employment status as well as specific applications in clinical populations such as cancer patients and people with mood disorders
View Those studies indicate that EW helps to reduce stress levels in young college women which results in a lowered likelihood of eating disturbances and self-reported improvements in mood and quality of life in young women with negative body image
View Body dissatisfaction is linked to having a higher weight-to-height ratio or body size misperception; to an internalisation of the thin ideal a drive for leanness or muscularity engaging in social comparisons strong gender identification exposure to media and the interactional effects between media exposure and psychological variables such as materialism and internalisation of the thin ideal
View While the research is still preliminary it shows significant promise for offering subjects an engaging interactive exploration of negative events related to body image encouraging cognitive processing of these events
View Increased education and training regarding the principles and practice of self-help based therapies may facilitate the necessary paradigm shift that positions clinicians as partners working with rather than working on patients
View The use of creative bibliotherapy: the use of fiction and poetry to work with individuals and groups to promote better mental health may also address prescriber and consumer desire for simpler shorter texts with a focus on wellbeing and stories
View Relative to controls, elevated depressive symptoms and motivation to reduce depression amplified posttest depressive symptom reduction for CB group, and elevated baseline symptoms amplified posttest symptom reduction effects of CB bibliotherapy
View Findings suggest that both CB prevention programs are more beneficial for youth with at least moderate depressive symptoms, and that CB group is more effective for youth motivated to reduce their symptoms
View It has been hypothesized that the didactic and self-directed treatment strategies used in psychoeducation could also very well be imparted by bibliotherapy an intervention in which patients are supplied with written self-help material that they can work through with or without therapist contact
View Seventeen of the participants had a high educational level of the participants had a medium level of education and had a low educational level
View Recently, the importance of auditory training to prevent and improve late-onset auditory deprivation has been reported
View % of college students showed a moderate level of social anxiety
View Individuals with social phobia find it very difficult to seek professional help and show up for their appointments due to their fear of meeting someone new or their tendency to avoid social situations
View Such studies have revealed that BT and other self-administered interventions have a medium to large effect size particularly in the treatment of anxiety disorders
View Therefore the participants lacked the opportunity to practice exposure training
View Given most of the participants had a paucity of experiences in the social world activation of mental representations of the social interaction situations relative to the social performance situations might have been harder to achieve which has impeded a new learning in the social interaction situations to occur
View For adolescents with negative attributional style, prevention condition emerged as the most important predictor: Those receiving bibliotherapy showed a 5-fold reduction in depression disorder onset relative to adolescents in the three other intervention conditions
View For adolescents with negative attributional style prevention condition emerged as the most important predictor: Those receiving bibliotherapy showed a -fold reduction in depression disorder onset relative to adolescents in the three other intervention conditions
View Depression is one of the most prevalent mental disorders among adolescents with approximately % experiencing major depressive disorder and % experiencing minor depression
View Through -month follow-up group CB participants showed greater reductions in depressive symptoms than those in the three other conditions as well as reduced risk for major depression compared to brochure controls
View Group CB participants also showed greater reductions in depressive symptoms than bib ho therapy and brochure control participants by - and -year follow-up ; in addition risk for onset of major or minor depression over -year follow-up was lower for both group CB participants and CB bibliotherapy participants compared to brochure controls
View Knowledge of factors that reduce the effectiveness of a prevention program provides direction for developing more effective interventions
View We selected this cutoff because an epidemiologic study found that % of communitydwelling adolescents scored above on the CES-D and this cutoff appeared to maximize sensitivity for detecting youth at risk for major depression
View Intervention Conditions Group CB focused on increasing fun activities learning cognitive restructuring and developing a stress response plan
View Results Frequency of Occurrence of Depressive Disorder Onset By the -year follow-up of the participants had onset of major depression or minor depression : of brochure control participants of group CB participants of group supportive expressive participants and of CB bibliotherapy participants
View Conversely group CB relative to brochure control was associated with significant or near significant effects at -month -year and -year follow-up which suggests that group CB has superior effects in reducing depressive symptoms compared to bibliotherapy
View The book Feeling Good provides almost an exclusive cognitive intervention focus and potentially teaches the adolescent much more cognitive restructuring than the CB group which may be essential in preventing depression given the pessimistic attributional style
View The degree to which bibliotherapy is truly more effective than a CB group interventions in preventing future depression among high-risk adolescents has important implications for dissemination efforts
View On the other hand not only depression treatment enhances capacity of affected women for sensitive parenting but also management of this psychological disorder prevents developmental retardations which may occur in the infants of the depressed parents
View METHODS This was a randomized clinical trial and multi-central study which assessed the impressions of concomitant application of bibliotherapy and text messaging on the patients recovery as well as their treatment compliance
View Ages marital status and educational levels of the patients did not differ significantly between our trials; nevertheless frequency of sex significantly differed [Table ] Repeated measures ANOVA documented that intensity of depressive symptoms was significantly affected through time and group factors as well as time-group interaction [Table ] Based on treatment compliance interactive effect of group factor and the time factor was statistically significant [Table ]
View Post-hoc Bonferroni showed a significant difference in intensity of depressive symptoms between our interventional and control groups ; nevertheless neither of the interventional groups differed in intensity of depressive symptoms [Table ] T Data regarding patients treatment compliance and variations occurred in the intensity of depressive symptoms at different times have been shown in Table
View Immediately after the intervention patients allocated in text messaging group achieved significant recovery; nevertheless their recuperation process declined after the treatment
View For example Baumel demonstrated that CBT obviously resulted in remission of depressive symptoms/ In another study patients significantly recuperated from depressive symptoms when pharmaceutical approaches were associated with CBT/ In addition CBT cost-effectiveness was shown in refractory depressive symptoms which were resistant to conventional pharmacotherapy
View Hence bibliotherapy can be applied in health promotion system of different communities when it train people to harness frequencies intensities and durations of their negative moods/ The results of this study showed indirect instructions which was conducted in our interventional groups decreased depressive symptom intensity
View Most research into the therapeutic aspect on the elderly diseases has focused on organic mental disorders such as dementia and functional mental diseases such as depression
View Most therapeutic research on elderly diseases is focused on organic mental disorders such as dementia and functional mental diseases such as depression
View To understand the elderly in such circumstances it is necessary to reduce the gap between the theory of literature therapy and actual practices through the life experiences of the elderly in community centers hospitals and sanatoriums
View Within-group analysis demonstrated significant decreases in anxiety symptoms and cortisol concentrations for MBAT participants, with no significant decrease in perceived stress
View Data collected from institutions counseling centers from through reflected a significant increase in college students reporting symptoms of generalized anxiety depression and overall distress
View Unmanaged anxiety and stress can have devastating consequences to a students academic career as depression and anxiety have strong correlations with lower grade point average and increased risk of dropout but consequences extend beyond academic success
View It can also elevate blood pressure increase risk of cardiovascular disease lead to the development of an autoimmune disease or even exacerbate the symptoms of a preexisting disease like rheumatoid arthritis or multiple sclerosis
View Participation in holistic exercises times a week for weeks effectively improved their stress levels and coping
View In Switzerland Germany and Austria a therapist-guided online stress management program was offered to newly diagnosed cancer patients to help them with the psychological distress that comes with adjusting to a cancer diagnosis
View The -week program consisted of self-directed stress management modules and patients received guidance from a trained psychologist in the form of weekly feedback and individual support through a secure chat function
View Program participants experienced improved quality of life and significant decreases in distress when compared with the waitlist-control group further supporting this concept of web-based minimal contact mental health support
View Art therapy researchers are gaining a better understanding that in addition to the therapist-client relationship and the directives used in session the art material itself can affect a client down to neurological and physiological levels
View Findings from previous studies suggest that the material properties of clay complement mindfulness practices as even brief clay sculpting is associated with increased gamma and theta power brain waves linked to information-processing and deep meditative states respectively
View Gratitude which constitutes having a more positive and appreciative outlook toward life has been identified as having a lasting protective effect against stress and depression among college-level students
View Research emphasizes that it is the ongoing practice of mindfulness that enhances physical and mental benefits while a brief single-session clay task can affect cortisol concentrations
View The program facilitated by an art therapist through a minimal contact approach could offer college students a place to learn skills for managing stress and experience anxiety reduction all while the ongoing practice impacts them down to the physiological level
View Pharmacological treatment causes side effects and a significant percentage of patients which is integrated in several mental health care programs for people with anxiety and is also provided as a standalone therapy
View The focus is on the process of creating and experiencing aiming for facilitating the expression of memories feelings and emotions improvement of self-reflection and the development and practice of new coping skills [ ]
View According to Haeyen van Hooren & Hutschemakers [] patients experience a more direct and easier access to their emotions through the art therapies compared to verbal approaches
View The AT intervention focussed on the creative expression of traumatic memories which can been seen as an indirect approach to exposure with active engagement
View The connection between art therapy and emotion regulation is also supported by the recently published narrative review of Gruber & Oepen [] who found significant effective short-term mood repair through art making based on two emotion regulation strategies: venting of negative feelings and distraction strategy: attentional deployment that focuses on positive or neutral emotions to distract from negative emotions
View The described or hypothesized working mechanisms of art making are: induction of relaxation; working on emotion regulation by creating the safe condition for conscious expression and exploration of difficult emotions memories and trauma; and working on cognitive regulation by using the art process to open up possibilities to investigate and change cognitions beliefs and thoughts
View Findings The findings of the study highlight the significant impact of IPV on the lives, mental health and well-being of older women
View This study reports the findings of an arts-based project with older women as survivors of IPV to explore their experiences of survivorship and the impact of IPV on their mental health and well-being
View The current study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of art as a creative therapeutic procedure for enhancement of hand functions, self-perception, and quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
View Results: There was an improvement in hand functions , self-perception , and quality of life in art therapy patients which was similar to conventional therapy patients
View Conclusion: Art is an equally effective therapeutic intervention to conventional therapy for the enhancement of hand functions, self-perception, and quality of life in patients with RA
View Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis is known to severely affect the hand making it difficult for the patients to perform many gross and fine dexterous activities such as opening jar lids turning door knobs gripping small objects and holding heavy objects
View Applications such as physiotherapy and rehabilitation significantly augment medical therapy in patients with RA by preventing disability increasing functional capacity providing pain relief by educating the patients for prevention of comorbidities associated with the disease and help them lead a better life
View An alternative to this can be sought by using bimanual components in fine arts as a therapeutic tool because when people are provided with an opportunity to work with creative and artistic processes they are able to create congruence between their illness and conceptual sense
View [] The present study found that art is an equally effective therapeutic intervention for the enhancement of hand functions self-perception and quality of life in patients with RA
View [] It can also prove to be an effective medium for outlet of feelings such as anger frustration depression and sadness which can be observed in chronic longstanding disease conditions such as RA
View [] Nonspecific conventional exercises can be monotonous for the patients [] whereas art therapy can be equally effective and interesting as it encourages patients by creating varied opportunities that revolve around tasks and activities which help them improve their hand function
View It also encouraged the patients to carry out tasks in multiple planes and axis promoting combined
View Research has shown the influence of dance interventions on positive psychological and physical wellbeing
View Findings indicated that participation in the dance intervention fostered opportunities for pupils to connect with one another, to feel safe to build confidence and engage meaningfully, all factors that have been linked with SOB
View The study gives strength to the use of dance to support the psychological wellbeing of newly arrived migrant pupils
View Schools have a key role in fostering positive attitudes and feelings amongst migrant pupils and these in turn can influence their long-term psychological wellbeing and inclusion within society
View Zachos found that teachers attitudes and perceptions could impact on migrant pupils school experiences and Hilt makes an argument for inclusive teaching practices when migrant pupils first arrive in schools
View Dance to foster SOB The use of dance to engage young people and improving wellbeing has been widely researched
View The use of dance as an extra-curricular intervention has many potential benefits most notably the improvement of physical and mental wellbeing
View Examples of such evidence include a study conducted with fifty-five -yearold females from a number ofUK secondary schools which found that a contemporary dance intervention improved participants health and wellbeing and most significantly self-esteem
View Similarly a study examining the impact of a dance intervention on teenage participants mental health found a decrease in mental dissatisfaction in participants
View The dance sessions began using a cued response teaching style allowing participants to copy before becoming more pupil-led as participants gained experience and improved in self-esteem
View Based on the observations of both the pupils and staff the dance sessions provided experiences that brought the pupils together and facilitated new friendship groups and relationships that went beyond the sessions
View The pupils talked about how the dance sessions facilitated such opportunities and relationships through frequent shared experiences and enjoyment beyond the sessions as seen when the pupils continued to share and enjoy the dance experience on their way home or at lunchtimes
View Participants report feelings of peer acceptance positive social interactions and improved ability to make friends
View Dance can be seen as an inherently social activity that due to its collaborative nature provides opportunities to connect with others and develop together
View found that participation in a dance intervention offered enhancements in psychological wellbeing including feelings of safety and reductions in anxiety
View Purpose: This review aims to reveal how music and dance participation relates to key social determinants of health, and acts as population wellbeing and health promotion and preventive tools for people without pre-existing health issues in diverse social groups
View Conclusions: A significant opportunity exists for cross-disciplinary collaboration to advance healthcare and arts policy, generate cost-effective approaches to preventive healthcare practice, and enhance the wellbeing and health of large and diverse populations
View In the modern world perceptions of what it means to be healthy indicate an imperative to explore alternative ways of addressing quality of life and wellbeing for all people at all stages of life and levels of health
View Performing arts are a social praxis offering potential wellbeing and health benefits to participants and are increasingly being viewed as an alternative or complement to traditional biomedical health practices and processes
View We focus particularly on active participation and healthy populations taking a social determinants of health perspective to examine how in today's world humans are maintaining their wellbeing and health through performing arts that involve music
View Historically the performing arts have been vitally important not only to individuals in ill-health but also an important contributor to the wellbeing and health maintenance of individuals without preexisting health behavioural or social issues
View While the strength of connection between performing arts and health seems to have diminished in modern times particularly in Western societies there is growing interest in applying a modern-day lens to understand the contribution of performing arts participation to wellbeing and health
View Arts health is a domain concerned with promoting positive wellbeing and health outcomes for participants through engagement with various art forms including music and dance
View With such common ground both being practices created by humans for humans it is plausible that human experiences of healthcare and performing arts practices might also share some positive wellbeing and health outcomes for participants
View Recent research on arts and health centres on how performing arts can best serve people living with debilitating and chronic illness such as dementia Parkinsons disease and mental illness
View For example multiple studies have shown that dance therapy can significantly improve gait movement balance and wellbeing in patients with Parkinsons disease
View According to the World Health Organization wellbeing is a crucial aspect of health
View Therefore active engagement in socio-cultural performing arts practices such as music and dance have the potential to enhance improve and maintain wellbeing with likely impact on the quality of health experienced by individuals and social groups
View Reviewing the impacts that active engagement in cultural activities such as music and dance can have on populations and communities has the potential to identify prevent and improve health and enhance quality of life in populations in ways that are both cost effective and enjoyable
View Research aim and questions Inclusion and exclusion criteria The aim of this paper is to review contemporary literature addressing the effectiveness of performing arts specifically music and dance participation to maintaining and enhancing good health and wellbeing within a population
View What gaps exist in the current body of research examining how healthy individuals/populations maintain and promote good health and wellbeing through music and dance participation
View The music studies examined wellbeing effects or physiological cognitive health effects on participants
View Wellbeing The research focusing on wellbeing outcomes through music participation focused on older adults and yielded mixed and often conflicting results
View After one year of participation in a chorale programme the intervention group showed an increase in overall health and social activities and decreases in prevalence of depression reported falls and healthcare utilization compared to the non-chorale control group
View In a case study of older people in a community musical theatre group in Melbourne Australia Joseph and Southcott found that participation in the group provided its members with a sense of purpose and fulfilment which they attributed to good quality of life and positive wellbeing
View One study focused on music in a developing country to enhance population health and wellbeing
View McConnell suggested that music activities helped to create social capital and build on new and existing social relationships in a way that was culturally appropriate in order to encourage healthy behaviour changes
View Their aim was to assess any changes in the participants performance on cognitive attention and working memory tests
View In a study of older amateur musicians Hanna-Pladdy and MacKay found that the longer and more actively an individual participated in musical activities throughout life the better they performed on cognitive tests
View Music summary of key findings Overall the research suggests that active music participation promotes the maintenance or improvement of sound wellbeing and health
View The dominant research focus on older adults points to an apparent connection between social group-based music participation and positive wellbeing outcomes for older people; supporting the notion that active engagement in socio-cultural performing arts practices represents an important social determinant of health
View Further evidence suggests that music participation can contribute to building social capital as well as combating social isolation which is important to good wellbeing and health across cultures and age-groups
View A persons functional capacity and their ability to positively engage in the world around them can heavily influence their wellbeing
View The ability to improve cognitive health through active music participation is important in maintaining positive wellbeing in individuals and populations
View As the research predominantly involves older adults and Western cultures further studies are needed to fully understand the contribution of music participation to wellbeing and health for wellfunctioning individuals and populations across cultures and age groups
View Wellbeing The contribution of dance participation to wellbeing involves a variety of social physical and personal components
View Through a randomized control trial involving women aged - years in Portugal Cruz-Ferreira Marmeleira Formigo Gomes and Fernandes observed an increase in life satisfaction and physical fitness in the intervention group when compared to their control group after weeks
View Nadasen too found that a group of older women participating in regular dance classes reported a significant increase in their engagement in social activities and a widening of their social networks
View She found that the building of community and participating in such a sensual art form had a positive impact on the participants relationships with their bodies and they reported feeling more emotionally and psychologically comfortable with themselves
View Cognitive and physical health The research reviewed suggests that dance participation makes an important contribution to the cognitive and physical health of older adults
View month period of participation dance was the only activity that improved attention switching and cognitive flexibility in older participants
View In an intervention study of older people Kattenstroth Kalisch Holt Tegenthoff and Dinse also found that participants in the dance class intervention group showed improvements in cognition attention motor skills posture reaction time and self-reported wellbeing
View One study involving children found that dance participation promoted physical health
View Ballroom dancing participation increased the time involved in physical activity heart rate and provided an alternative and creative opportunity for children to be active during their school day
View Dance summary of key findings Dance participation appears to contribute positively to individuals wellbeing and health across cultures and age groups
View It seems to provide a safe context for social engagement and building communities which crucially enables participants to construct and maintain their own wellbeing and health in a range of ways: cognitive function physical health stress reduction self-perception and mental health
View The research has focussed on older adult women and the contribution of social group-based dance participation to sound cognitive and physical health and experiences of wellbeing and quality of life
View This indicates an opportunity to expand the research to examine the particular wellbeing and health affordances of dance participation beyond female populations
View Mobility and good physical health make important contributions to an individuals sense of autonomy and confidence to maintain overall health
View Further research is also needed to more fully understand the impact of dance participation in younger populations including children and how this might facilitate individuals to self-manage their wellbeing and health across the lifecourse
View The evidence suggests that dance participation affects individuals in a range of ways that can improve health determinants such as stress and social capital which can lead to an improvement in overall wellbeing and health
View Discussion The results of this systematic review indicate that participation in music and dance performing arts is effective for maintaining and promoting wellbeing and good health within a population
View For example music and dance participation can improve social determinants of health such as stress social isolation autonomy and social capital and maintain or enhance individual wellbeing
View Sociocultural performing arts practices that enable active participation such as music and dance provide people with positive and creative ways of engaging with their communities and challenging personal physical cognitive and emotional systems
View Engagement in music and dance potentially offers participants a range of wellbeing and health benefits that are unsurpassed by other activities such as tai chi writing and sport
View Music and dance activities appear to be highly engaging and enjoyable indicating that participants might be positively motivated to commit to ongoing participation in music and dance interventions or programmes
View The evidence reviewed here suggests that music and dance activities enhance participants physical cognitive and social health and wellbeing across all groups and interventions can be highly effective and able to be adequately maintained
View The second research question sought to identify gaps in the current body of research examining how healthy individuals/populations maintain and promote good health and wellbeing through music and dance participation
View Music and dance are increasingly being associated with creative ageing practices and explored as cost-effective means for older adults to improve social cognitive and physical health
View Childhood and adulthood are critical periods of life in which to establish participation in activities that are going to assist people to maintain their wellbeing and health into old age
View Future research should prioritize developing the body of research across all age groups regarding the wellbeing and health affordances of participation in cultural activities in order to assist indivi-duals/populations to recognize opportunities and develop skills to enhance and maintain their sense of wellbeing now and moving into the future
View Future research should attempt to build engagement with current minorities to understand how music and dance participation enhances the wellbeing and health of entire populations
View It is recommended that further research is needed to investigate how minority and Indigenous groups wellbeing and health might benefit through active participation in culturally appropriate music and dance activities
View Without such theory little can be concluded as to the exact mechanisms that might make culturally situated music and dance participation such effective tools for personal management of sound wellbeing and health or purposeful health intervention strategies
View This is also of critical importance for generating a strong evidence base linking performing arts cultural practices to wellbeing and health with significant implications for contemporary healthcare practice and policy
View The research reviewed here seems to reflect the challenge in attempting to apply a health science lens and platform to examine and communicate the wellbeing and health affordances of music and dance participation whilst maintaining the fluid and humanistic qualities that characterize the art forms
View Effective collaboration and communication between those working across arts and health disciplines and healthcare is paramount in continuing to move forward and make meaningful changes to the cultural health of individuals and populations
View We identified a small body of research examining the wellbeing and health outcomes for participants of music and dance performing arts practices
View Conclusion The results of this review suggest that actively participating in music and dance is an effective means through which individuals and populations can maintain and promote wellbeing and health across the life course
View Performing arts participation crucially relates to social determinants of health particularly from the perspective of building social and cultural capital encouraging healthy behaviours such as physical exercise and management of stress and mental health and reducing social isolation
View Shifting understandings of what good health actually means to both individuals and populations suggests that health professionals and policymakers might too need to review the concept of what it means to be healthy and how to best support people to manage their wellbeing and health
View There is substantial evidence of the positive health and wellbeing outcomes from older peoples engagement in music, but no studies on older men, music and wellbeing
View Regardless of musical genre or whether singing, playing, dancing or listening to music, the men used music to come into contact with their bodies and emotions, as well as improving relationships and social contacts
View Discussion: This study shows that engagement with music fills deep psychological and social/emotional needs for the participants, in both being with the music and doing musical activities, where also talking about music is highlighted as an important part of the musical engagement
View Mens experiences of wellbeing as retirees are heavily tied to opportunities to redefine their masculine identities through engaging in activities and interests that they find meaningful
View Older people have reported high levels of subjective wellbeing despite physical impairments
View People can report high levels of wellbeing despite physical illness and conversely feel distressed despite being physically well
View It is well established that everyday music use has significant health and wellbeing implications as a provider of vitality - that is emotional stimulation and expression; tool for developing agency and empowerment; resource in building social networks; and a way of providing meaning and coherence in life
View Musical engagement can strengthen the sense of self and personal and collective memories
View Increasing mens contact with their embodied emotions has the potential to develop empathy and improve their social relationships and consequently wellbeing
View Among older people there is evidence that singing playing and listening to music has positive health and wellbeing effects
View Singing in a choir can lead to positive emotional experiences making friends achieving a sense of mastery and meaning and staying active in both mind and body
View Group songwriting can help retirees feel more creative and engaged enjoy accomplishment and positive relationships and achieve a stronger sense of community and meaning
View Whilst some studies have suggested that expressive music making is more efficient from a health and wellbeing perspective than receptive others show that both expressive and receptive music making are equally beneficial as long as there is an active engagement involved
View Therefore given: a) the specific wellbeing challenges facing older men; b) the difficulty in creating male-friendly health-promoting activities; and c) the well-documented health and wellbeing effects from engaging in music the purpose of this article is to explore the wellbeing effects from different kinds of musical engagement amongst men in the third age
View Most participants had been engaged in music throughout their lives whereas some developed interest as grown-ups mainly through the influence of their wives
View The main difference is that they describe their listening experiences in emotional and existential terms whereas the benefits from expressive music making also contain practicing focus and discipline achieving acknowledgement and recognition and strengthening self-esteem through improving skills and overcoming difficulties
View Listening provides a sense of emotionality whilst expressive music making adds a component of achievement and recognition also accounted for by other participants
View He judged that the singing had a positive effect on both of them making the contact less tense and more positive creating moments of reminiscence and emotional wellbeing
View Both give ontological security control and creativity pleasure validation of self and comfort but while refurnishing involves a process of letting music influence and make changes in the external environment DeNora states that removal does not alter anything in the socially shared space
View To return into the world with a renewed contact with the self and an improved mood can completely change the perception of the socially shared space which in turn affects relationships - and consequently wellbeing
View Their desire to experience emotions is an important finding since it contradicts the stereotypical image of men being emotionally restricted and supports work by Galasinski indicating mens desire to both experience and express emotionality
View Men can develop a greater understanding of their own emotionality through developing their engagement with their bodies
View Attending to the wellbeing of the caregiving partner is vital
View Implications for music therapy research and practice As stated there is a need to develop gender-sensitive approaches which focus on wellbeing challenges amongst older men such as loneliness isolation and depression
View These studies show that playing and performing together effectively improved participants psychological wellbeing regardless of previous musical interest or skills
View The data contradict stereotypical images of older men as suffering from different degrees of loss or being incapable articulators whilst recognising that making music music listening and talking about music have the potential to facilitate greater interpersonal communication and subjective wellbeing
View This popularity warrants an investigation into participant's demographic characteristics, their total physical activity, as well as their motivations for dancing in the dark and any impacts on health and wellbeing
View The benefits of sports participation extend beyond physical health improvements to include mental health educational attainment community wellbeing and social capital [-]
View The contribution of NLNL sessions to total annual participation in organized physical activity was calculated based reported participation in sessions of both organized activities and NLNL specifically
View Health and wellbeing Half of the participants reported having a medically diagnosed mental health condition and % reported having a chronic physical health condition
View In addition to the environments being reported as safe NLNL sessions had a high proportion of people participating who reported having a chronic health condition or medically diagnosed mental health illness
View Individuals can just show up to the sessions enjoy dancing and be physically active in their community
View Sport and physical activity organizations should monitor their participants health wellbeing and physical activity behaviors to ensure they engage and maintain engagement of insufficiently active populations in physical activity
View Dance Movement Psychotherapy utilises the therapeutic power of dance within a psychotherapeutic frame to both alleviate distress as well as promote overall wellbeing
View The results suggest that integrative approach to DMP may be an effective option to support the caregivers of children on the autism spectrum to maintain their state of wellbeing
View Parents can be seen as the backbone for healthy development of their offspring
View Carpenter and Steffen identify the broad effects of stress which include physical and/or psychological symptoms such as depression fatigue restlessness elevated neural and hormonal pathways or an increased risk for ulcers or heart diseases
View Research studies have reported high levels of stress anxiety higher incidence of depression and lower levels of overall wellbeing in parents of children with ASD when compared to parents of neurotypically developing children as well as parents of children with other developmental disorders
View Dance Movement Psychotherapy and children on the autism spectrum To our knowledge there are no reports on the effects of DMP on caregivers of children with ASD specifically on emotional wellbeing stress and depression
View Overall results suggest that DMP can support children to become aware of personal boundaries experience social dynamics improve communication and develop social and emotional skills
View Amos noticed that it was challenging for the parents to synchronise their body rhythms and communication style with their children on the autism spectrum as they exhibited dysregulated internal rhythms
View It is speculated that DMP could influence the way stress is perceived and response to the stressors as it aims to promote awareness of senses feelings images and thoughts
View Description of the intervention The development of the particular intervention was directly associated with an intention of offering support to the parents to build their resources to face the challenges and strengthen their abilities
View For the participants in the study DMP appeared to play a critical role in reversing the effects of parenting stress and reducing levels of depression; this can be inferred from the results of post-therapy scores of PSI-SF and HAM-D where there is a significant reduction in the posttherapy scores of the participants in the experimental group
View Thus the results are possibly associated with participants being able to identify their agent of stress evaluate and decide how much weight to provide accept the reality think of adaptive ways of coping primary control coping and secondary control coping and provide a positive response to the stress
View Currently as a part of the first authors doctoral study a cross-over research design is being implemented to investigate the bidirectional influence of wellbeing of children on the autism spectrum their caregivers and their teachers in the UK
View The advanced age besides changes in physical fitness increases sensitivity to chronic diseases and disabilities and reduces the quality of life
View Improving or maintaining their nutritional status combined with exercise is associated with many benefits including increased physical fitness and strength reducing the incidence of sarcopenia reducing functional loss and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries reducing the risk of falls and/or their frequency
View Also improving gait and balance their quality of life and mortality and morbidity of diseases by % of all causes
View shown that after sessions for adults aged on average and trained in low-impact aerobic dancing the dancers had improved their dynamic balance in Time Up-and-Go test but not their static balance
View investigated the effects of dance programs on patients with hypertension with specific cardiac vascular conditions
View Hackney and Bennett attempted to evaluate Parkinsons disease impact on dance participation as these patients had mainly mobility problems with an increased risk of falls reducing their quality of life as a result
View After weeks of dance program observed significant progress in physiological peak parameters such as oxygen consumption and exhaustion time
View Other research with Greek traditional dance performed on people with breast cancer showed improvement in their physical functioning satisfaction with their lives as well as reducing depression symptoms
View Data Participants underwent an evaluation of physical fitness both before and after the intervention
View In the Foot-Up-and-Go task out of participants decreased their scores and nine participants showed increased score after the training compared to the baseline
View Eighty-two participants enhanced their scores after training participants preserved their performance while out of participants showed a decreased in their scores at the Back and Scratch task
View Ninety-one participants increased their Arm Curl scores participants showed the opposite finding whereas participants did not change their performance
View s study showed that after an exercise program with aerobic activity flexibility balance and muscle strength the time of this test decreased resulting in improved dynamic balance reaction time and the strength of the lower limbs
View According to Duncan and Earharts research after a period of -months of dance intervention participants had significantly reduced their time in this test indicating that dance participants had improved over time
View reported that dancing is a type of physical activity that indicates that this particular activity might improve older adults lower body bone-mineral content and muscle strength as well as reduce the prevalence of falls and cardiovascular health risks
View Dance beyond many benefits helps individuals to improve their body posture
View Lima and Vieira at their research showed that after a dance intervention the elderly had improved skills such as flexibility balance and coordination but also improved attitude and control of their movements
View In a previous research on people over years showed that social dance supported efforts to relieve physical and psychological degradation provided a strong sense of pleasure and continuity as well as a vehicle for the changes required by aging
View It also provided a strong sense of community as it allowed participants to showcase their cultural heritage
View Another research with older social dancers showed that after the intervention they had better balance walked faster and had a longer mean step with a more stable pattern during walking with reduced stance time longer swing time and shorter double support time
View The importance of social interaction through music places them in a process so the elderly can share their passion with others
View This interaction with other people eliminates the feeling of loneliness and enhances their psychological status
View As well exercise and participation in physical activities are associated with better performance in cognitive functions
View In order to maximize findings and explore the clinical process, this systematic review aimed to examine a broad range of research evidence for the benefits to health and wellbeing for adults aged 65 and older with dementia
View The increasing numbers of people with dementia worldwide presents an ideal time for the production of evidence of how therapies that concentrate on embodied communication can potentially reduce symptoms of dementia and facilitate wellbeing
View The review concluded that providing people with dementia with at least five sessions of a music-based therapeutic intervention probably reduces depressive symptoms but has little or no effect on agitation emotional wellbeing or quality of life overall behavioural problems and cognition
View c To focus on positive therapeutic outcomes of health and wellbeing
View Memory recall was vital to the process and simulated through the use of a variety of stimuli: sensory visual auditory and kinaesthetic to help give the person back a sense of self identity
View Synchrony refers to three aspects of body movement: space rhythm and effort whereas symbolization refers to the way the experiences of the individual such as thoughts and emotions are mediated and transformed into body movements and bodily expressions
View Coatens study aimed to identify the effects of DMT on people with moderate to severe dementia and their care staff in a hospital ward and to investigate the processes taking place; in particular the study examined the connection between embodied practice and scores on wellbeing
View study was to investigate whether a drama and movement therapy group had any measurable impact on scores of cognition and depression and to document positive experiences
View In addition Dementia Care Mapping provided quantitative scores to indicate a positive change on raising and supporting observed wellbeing sustained for min following the end of the session
View findings also suggest the importance of improvised drama and movement scenarios to help organize self-expression
View Hills findings identified significant moments characterized by heightened sensibility expressiveness aliveness integration of body mind and feeling and aesthetic quality
View Within the studies there is a focus on the clinical process and efforts are being made particularly through the use of video to identify the key elements of practice that contribute to the health and wellbeing of older adults with dementia
View Findings of this review indicate that DMT was well tolerated by participants who qualitative observations suggest find the intervention an enjoyable empowering experience that helps create connections between thoughts feelings and physical sensations
View Peoples experiences also involve a sense of purpose and pointlessness
View Dance-related reviews of evidence have examined the effectiveness of dance therapy on psychological and physical health and well-being outcomes in patients with cancer for schizophrenia and on depression
View A review of reviews on physical activity and mental health in children and adolescents identified an association between physical activity and positive wellbeing outcomes connected to reduced depression and anxiety and enhanced self-esteem and cognitive func-tion
View All studies identified the frequency and type of intervention activity the duration and content of activity sessions the delivery site and the number of times per week participants took part
View One study reported no significant difference in self-esteem mindfulness quality of life stress or sympton intensity in young people taking part in Baduanjin Qigong compared with usual exercise practice
View Qualitative findings from the one grey literature report identified negative and positive aspects of well-being associated with engagement in community sport including enhanced feelings of social connectedness pleasure and sense of purpose as well as concerns related to personal capability competence and unfavourable comparisons to peers who are sporty
View Overall the published evidence suggests that meditative physical activity has the potential to improve subjective well-being in terms of reduced anxiety depression and anger and enhanced positive mood in young people
View This evidence also shows that taking part in dance can lead to positive well-being outcomes in terms of mood enhancement and self-reported reductions in feelings of depression in some youth populations
View Unpublished grey literature illustrated that taking part in or watching dance or other forms of performance-based physical activity and community sport can instil positive well-being feelings such as exhilaration and sense of purpose and increased confidence self-esteem and feelings of belonging and purpose
View The findings support work that has associated physical activity with positive outcomes connected to depression anxiety self-esteem and cognitive function in children and adolescents
View The current state of the evidence means that it is not possible to identify a common effect of sport and dance on the subjective well-being of young healthy people or be certain about the influence of such physical activity on peoples wellbeing
View Knowledge should be improved through rigorous complex community intervention research incorporating valid comparator groups to determine which sport and dance interventions are most effective in improving wellbeing in young people
View This included depression , wellbeing , subjective health , quality of life , perceived stress and mental health and physical health
View While prior research uncovered the spiritual and religious elements as well as the transpersonal nature of EDM events, this preliminary study further explored the types of transpersonal phenomena that participants experience at EDM events and their subsequent integration of these experiences into daily life
View Findings suggested that EDM events have the potential to foster interpersonal relationships with the numinous, spiritual beings, and human beings, as well as cause transformative intrapersonal and spiritual experiences, implying an enhancement in psychological and physical health and wellbeing in day-to-day life
View Eight participants reported that Ecstasy/MDMA was intrinsic to their experiences of transpersonal phenomenawith two reporting the use of Ecstasy/MDMA mixed with LSD and one reporting Ecstasy/MDMA mixed with speed
View It was also suggested that electronic dance music dancing as well as set and setting have an effect on EDM participants and play a role in facilitating the induction of transpersonal experiences
View Six participants described their spiritual experiences as ineffable
View All participants reported experiences of extrasensory perception and other anomalous phenomena
View The ASC was described as a trance by seven participants and as heightened consciousness by four participants
View Two participants described being engulfed in love
View Eleven participants reported positive emotions during experiences of transpersonal phenomena at EDM events characterized as happiness joy positive energy ecstasy euphoria and bliss
View Four participants said that this sense of oneness carried over into their day-to-day lives
View Seven participants referred to unity as a collective spiritual experience
View Five participants described unity as feeling of being part of a larger whole
View All participants described relationships formed at EDM events as being maintained in their daily lives exemplified in the development of romantic relationships as well as friendships cultivated and reinforced through EDM participation
View Seven participants expressed increased openness to people from diverse backgrounds and four participants reported that EDM participation has enabled them to connect more easily with people in their day-to-day life
View Eleven participants stated that EDM participation had a lasting therapeutic impact on their lives
View Eight participants emphasized that EDM participation cultivated increased authenticity
View Five participants described EDM participation as helping them to deprogram familial and cultural conditioning
View Eleven participants reported EDM participation to have positively influenced their career path and profession
View Four participants stated that EDM participation assisted them in developing professional relationships and rapport with others at work
View Two participants developed an interest towards activism as a result of EDM participation
View Participants described their transpersonal experiences as a turning point and a marking point in their lives as well as an initiation
View Eleven participants proclaimed EDM participation to be transformative
View Five participants expressed experiencing a whole new world in the EDM scene
View Eleven participants described electronic dance music as having a powerful effect on the mind and body
View Four participants described the loud volume and the beat of electronic dance music to have a powerful effect
View Participants recounted losing themselves in the music being taken on a journey by the music the music evoking a sensation of moving through space and the music as healing them
View I want to help people feel that sense of peacefulness
View Six participants said that dancing provided them with more energy while four stated that dancing kept them fit
View Seven participants revealed that EDM participation enhanced their relationship with their body
View Five participants reported being more conscious about their health and eating habits due to EDM participation
View Participants expressed that EDM participation provided a new relationship with my body and caused me to view my body as a temple as well as made me more embodied more connected to my body and more connected to and able to express sexual energy
View All participants reported a conscious commitment to integrating their EDM experiences into daily life
View Their ability to integrate and benefit from their experiences may be credited to having personal structures that facilitate the integration process such as a spiritual and/or religious framework through which they understand their experiences as well as supportive friendship networks
View Prior research emphasized the central importance of the body in EDM participation the embodied nature of EDM participation and the playful vitality that EDM participants tap into
View As the findings in this study suggest such states of consciousness have a beneficial impact on EDM participants lives relationships and psychological and physical health and wellbeing
View However, dance appears to be safe and, given its popularity and demonstrated benefits on other health/wellbeing outcomes in older adults, it is important that future research considers its potential benefits on falls/fear of falling in older age
View Falls are associated with a range of deleterious outcomes including increased morbidity fractures hospitalization and elevated risk of early mortality []
View The present study sets out to assess the efficacy of a socio-emotional learning after-school program, Experiencing Emotions, on the socio-emotional skills of middle school pupils, as well as on their well-being and school engagement
View Socio-emotional skills are considered necessary for the understanding and manage ment of life tasks such as school learning relationship building and adaptation to the demands of contemporary society and according to the Collaborative for Academic Social and Emotional Learning organization cover five main domains: self-awareness defined as the ability to accurately recognize ones emotions and thoughts and their influence on behaviors; social awareness referring to the ability to take the perspective of others to understand social and ethical norms and to recognize resources and support; self-management concerning the ability to regulate ones emotions thoughts and behaviors; relationship skills defined as the ability to establish and maintain healthy and rewarding relationships; and responsible decision-making related to the ability to make constructive and respectful choices about personal behavior and social interactions based on for instance the consequences of various actions
View Subjective well-being is currently viewed as a multidimensional construct entailing three main dimensions: an emotional dimension related to life satisfaction and the experiencing of positive emotions while minimizing negative ones ; a psychological dimension centered on personal accomplishment ; and a social dimension which is related to how well individuals function in their social lives
View Experiencing Emotions is an after-school program targeting middle school pupils which consists of hourly sessions to be implemented as extracurricular activities in schools and aims to develop pupils socio-emotional skills in the main areas considered in SEL programs : self-awareness social awareness self-management relationship skills and responsible decision-making
View The present study The present study entails an alternative approach to SEL programs the Experiencing Emotions SEL program using Education through Art with a view to better contributing to pupils responsiveness towards after-school interventions by choosing activities that may be more appealing and interesting to children and adolescents
View There was emerging evidence that therapeutic dance can be safe and feasible for people with mild to moderately severe PD, with beneficial effects on walking, freezing of gait, and health related quality of life
View Other forms of physical activity such as cycling walking hydrotherapy and martial arts could be helpful adjuncts to traditional therapy Evidence is emerging that dancing can be a beneficial form of exercise for people with mild to moderately severe PD
View As well as being a highly social and engaging physical activity it has the potential to increase body awareness wellbeing and movement control through the use of cueing cognitive strategies creativity and music-
View It also includes outcome variables such as freezing of gait walking performance quality of life and wellbeing
View Dancing can also have a positive impact on quality of life and adherence to physical activity over the long term
View Dancing was associated with short-term improvements in freezing of gait walking performance and wellbeing in some individuals
View Also under-researched was the use of different dance genres in mixed dancing classes efficacious scheduling of therapy the optimal frequency of dance classes the effects of different music genres participant satisfaction with therapy socialization and the extent to which there was retention of improvements associated with different types of dance
View Nevertheless a recent article by Dhami et al hypothesized that rhythmical music used in dancing classes could activate neurons serving motor control and increase blood flow in regions such as the hippocampus and frontal temporal and parietal cortices
View The Rhythm Experience and Africana Culture Trial is a multi-site randomized controlled intervention study designed to examine the efficacy of using African Dance as a form of moderate-intensity physical activity to improve cognitive function in older African Americans
View This increased risk may be attributed to lower level and quality of education, lower socioeconomic status, and higher prevalence of vascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and obesity, all of which are recognized as risk factors for dementia
View Fortunately, interventions targeting cardiovascular health are associated with improved neurocognitive function and a reduced risk for dementia, so African Americans may be particularly suited for interventions targeting cardiovascular health and cognitive function
View For example higher fit adults have larger hippocampal volumes than their less fit counterparts [] and a one-year walking intervention increased the size of the hippocampus in cognitively normal adults []
View Participants are compensated for completing the pre-intervention and post-intervention cognitive and fitness assessments
View Participants also are instructed about healthy lifestyles behaviors and risks for disease
View Both groups also receive intellectual stimulation and cognitive engagement as both education and dance are cognitively engaging
View Recreational Drumming is a group activity designed to induce joy and for participants to experience fun and cohesion in a collective setting
View Because the human body is a natural resonator and drumming and voice generate harmonic frequencies organs tissue bone and fluids absorb the vibratory energy emitted by the drums and resonate to the expressed activity of the source
View Rhythmic patterns and frequencies also stimulate the vagus nerve and hold the potential to entrain heart pulse and systemic coherence ie the synchronization of cortical cardiovascular and respiratory functioning
View When elements such as water air fire and earth are paired appropriately with plant medicine colors and rhythms synergy evolves and facilitates a spiritual experience and connection with higher consciousness
View The intimacy generated by the ceremonial process fosters community networking new relationships and renewed affection between the participants
View In response to the findings the San Francisco Department of Public Health endorsed the therapeutic model as an innovative and community defined best practice
View Background: Dance is an embodied activity with benefits for mobility, balance, and quality of life of persons affected by Parkinson's Disease
View The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of measuring changes in psychological outcomes, specifically well-being, body self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and experienced beauty after a single Argentine Tango intervention in a workshop format
View Results and Discussion: The study supports the feasibility of measuring health-related psychological changes from a single Argentine Tango intervention for PD patients, as well as acceptance and appropriateness of the intervention for the patient group
View Participants also experienced an increase in beauty of their movements and other aesthetic aspects
View We suspect that, in addition to the functional and psychological factors identified so far, the aesthetic experience in dance may be an important therapeutic factor mediating several outcomes of dance and other arts-based interventions
View Integration of dance and particularly tango as an innovative approach into PD rehabilitation is supported by a number of recent reviews reporting dance-related effects on physical functions as well as on cognitive and psychological outcomes such as depression level enjoyment and well-being
View The subjective bodily experience of the patient is taken seriously and the embodied interaction with the patient as experienced by the clinician is an important source of information
View Hackney and Earhart found that a -week program of dance classes improved balance walking velocity and cadence among people with mild or moderate PD
View In a similar vein McKee and Hackney showed that community-based Tango lessons over weeks improved spatial cognition balance and executive functions while disease severity decreased compared to a control-group receiving educational lessons
View In addition to effects on gait and balance tango increased QoL personal and social activities and cognitive and psychological variables
View Therefore the purpose of the exploratory part of the study was to assess the effects of a single intensive tango intervention on wellbeing body-self efficacy and patients outcome expectancies
View The goal of this study was to employ tango for PD patients to explore its impact on health-related psychological outcomes in the course of assessing the feasibility of a workshop format and to explore the aesthetic experience as a therapeutic factor an aspect previously unaddressed
View The Present Study The aim of our study was to show the feasibility of measuring health-related psychological changes following a single tango intervention to ensure patient acceptance and that the workshop format is appropriate for patients with severe neurodegenerative health problems such as PD
View We therefore explored whether a single tango intervention can increase well-being in PD patients
View Since PD has many effects on the body level bodily skills experienced as resources are an important factor to strengthen the resilience of PD patients
View Procedure The study was conducted in three introductory workshops to tango therapy for PD patients
View During the partnered dance the PD patients worked with their spouses relatives/friends or students of the SRH Dance Movement Therapy Master Program as partners or in rare cases with other patients
View Psychometric Instruments Psychological well-being Well-being was measured by the -item Heidelberg State Inventory with a range from to assessing tension anxiety coping positive affect depressed affect and vitality
View We looked at this subscale separately because in working with PD patients we became increasingly aware that art-based intervention have additional therapeutic factors other than functional and classical psychological ones
View Therapeutic Factors of Arts Therapies in PD related to the Aesthetic Experience The scale on therapeutic factors of arts therapies in PD was composed on the basis of face validity of the symptoms and needs of the PD patients and the assumed aspects of the aesthetic experience such as beauty flow happiness unity with self and unison with partner
View RESULTS Feasibility and Acceptance Feasibility of the intervention was evidenced by the fact that merely one participant had to sit out from the intervention for physical reasons by observations of an increase in patients positive affect by participant utterances in brief interviews and by the fact that we received continued requests for more workshop offers from participants
View Exploratory Study Primary Outcomes In the post-test participants showed significantly improved scores on well-being body self-efficacy and the cognitive aspect of outcome expectancy
View The therapeutic factors scale of eight items reflects central hypothesized active factors in arts therapies related to the aesthetic experience particularly geared toward PD patients such as experienced beauty pleasure/joy happiness expressiveness fluency of movement and speech body-mind unity and unison with the partner
View Participants reported an increase in the aesthetic experience after the tango workshop : Happiness increased after the tango intervention t = -
View After the intervention we observed increased well-being body self-efficacy and outcome expectancies; our exploratory results are in line with prior and present studies suggesting positive effects of dance on psychological outcomes
View The study suggests that the tango intervention may positively influence well-being patients cognitive expectancies and body self-efficacy
View The suggested increase in well-being with a medium effect size is in line with prior findings of effects of dance movement therapy on other patient groups such as depressed patients or subclinical samples
View Movement in a protected setting seems to generally stimulate positive affect vitality and coping and to decrease tension depressed affect and anxiety
View In this study particularly positive affect vitality and coping increased
View Cognitive and affective expectancies increased after the intervention leading to the assumption that the interest and motivation to continue the activity was present in the participating patients
View Interestingly the data suggests that patients with initially higher expectations showed a higher increase in well-being and body self-efficacy and less negative affect than participants with lower initial expectancies of therapy outcome
View Even though or maybe because of the fact that patients verbally reported the intervention to have been a challenge for them the feeling to have mastered the challenge could have been one contributing factor to this increase of the belief in ones own bodily skills
View In tango the patients not only practice functional skills such as walking backward over an extended time turning initiating and stopping but also experience the pleasure of the music of the company of their partner and of the dance as a holistic experience per se
View suggest that music facilitates activation of motor networks that bypass the disease-affected networks via cerebellum-thalamic-cortical circuitry
View Future studies with arts-based interventions should look at the additional outcomes of depression anxiety and body image changes as well as the mediating factors of rhythmic activity and resonance with self and other in terms of body feedback and embodied intersubjectivity
View It finds a positive relation between the tango intervention and the health-and adherence-related psychological outcomes of well-being body self-efficacy and outcome expectancies in PD patients and identifies the potentially influential mediator of aesthetic experience
View The usefulness of embodiment approaches and the role of the aesthetic experience as a therapeutic factor of the arts therapies is an aspect of Tango for PD that calls for further attention and investigation
View The lack of changes of cardio-respiratory fitness indicates that even moderate levels of physical activity can in combination with rich sensorimotor, cognitive, social, and emotional challenges act to ameliorate a wide spectrum of age-related decline
View Successful aging implies the avoidance of disease and disability and the maintenance of physical and cognitive functions with an engagement in social and productive activities
View Compared to activities such as physical exercise or playing an instrument dance comprises rhythmic motor coordination balance and memory emotions affection social interaction acoustic stimulation and musical experience apart from its requirements for physical activity
View To provide direct evidence for a beneficial role of dancing in ameliorating age-related performance decline in elderly individuals we investigated the effect of a -month long professional senior dance class with a workload of h per week in a pre-post design study on a group of neurologically healthy elderly subjects
View Besides increased reaction times other factors are involved in mediating reductions in postural stability such as impaired sensory perception a decline in muscle strength and impaired proprioceptive abilities which are similarly positively influenced by participation in dancing activities
View While some aspects of enhanced hand-arm function might be directly related to dancing activity such as increased muscle strength and sensorimotor coordination other less specific factors such as attention and concentration might also play an important role particularly for tasks requiring steadiness
View Consequently many studies in the elderly have shown that improving aerobic capacities through physical exercise programs has beneficial effects on cognitive performance and that physical activity can even reduce the likelihood of developing cognitive impairments
View In contrast stress and depression have been extensively documented to produce widespread CNS reductions of neurotrohpin expression followed by atrophy degeneration and loss of excitatory neurotransmitter release in animal models
View Housing animals under enriched environmental conditions have shown increased neurotrophin gene expression which thus exert neuroprotective effects
View It was observed that the learning of new and complex dance-related movements entailed changes in both functional and effective connectivity in unfamiliar dance situations
View However most of these studies used a vigorous intervention with high intensity levels of -% to -% of the peak heart rate for min per week for months sessions of min at -% VOmax for weeks or -% of peak heart rate in sessions of min per week for -months
View Our findings therefore suggest that even activities requiring moderate doses of cardio-respiratory fitness are capable of driving remarkable behavioral and cognitive improvements in elderly participants
View Background: People with idiopathic Parkinson's disease frequently have low activity levels, poor mobility and reduced quality of life
View Although increased physical activity may improve mobility, balance and wellbeing, adherence to exercises and activity programs over the longer term can be challenging, particularly for older people with progressive neurological conditions such as PD
View Background Idiopathic Parkinsons disease is a progressive neurological condition associated with reduced physical activity poor mobility falls and reduced health related quality of life
View Safety is particularly important in people with PD given the prevalence of balance impairment and falls
View Details of program content Standard physiotherapy program according to the KNGF guidelines for physical therapy in Parkinsons disease Cognitive movement strategies: to divide complex automatic activities into simple movements avoiding dual tasking and to practice the movements and rehearsed in the mind
View Falls prevention strategies Gait training: to walk safely and to increase walking speed with the use of cues and cognitive movement strategies and to train muscle strength and mobility of the trunk and upper and lower limbs
View Adverse events We recorded all adverse events such as injuries distress falls deaths and hospital admissions as a results of injures from the programs
View People with Parkinsons disease appeared to have the potential to benefit from dancing classes that incorporate elements such as rhythmical music large amplitude fast movements dancing with partners and step routines
View They provide opportunities and support for learning and knowledge development, health and wellbeing, community development, and economic development
View The library delivers value through its impact on individuals families groups and communities - the pre-schoolers and caregivers engaging with library storytimes the children eating lunch during the summer when the free school lunch program is no longer available the teens getting homework help and meeting with friends the students using high-speed broadband to do academic research the staff using D printers to create personal protective equipment for people responding to the COVID--related public health emergency the newcomers learning about local resources and a new language the unemployed persons getting skills training the entrepreneurs exploring legislation for small businesses the veterans connecting to benefits and places to shelter the community members taking part in arts and cultural programming the seniors chatting with staff and neighbors
View It is important for organizations to maximize the social value of their activities so that the wellbeing of those affected by the organizations work is improved equity among those affected is increased and sustainability of the environment is enhanced
View The literature demonstrates that libraries provide economic value through a solid return on financial investment and responsible stewardship of public funds; and that libraries deliver social value within three umbrella categories each with notable aspects: support for personal advancement including knowledge and learning economic benefits and emotional and physical wellness; support for vulnerable populations such as people experiencing homelessness immigrants veterans early learners and adult literacy learners; and support for community development including crisis response and community resilience social capital and generalized trust social infrastructure and public fund stewardship
View They provide opportunities and support for learning and knowledge development health and wellbeing community development and economic development
View Learning and knowledge development Californias public libraries provide opportunities and support for learning and knowledge development; for health and wellbeing; for community development; and for economic development
View Public libraries provide opportunities and support for learning and knowledge development through formal and informal classes; one-to-one tutoring; access to books instruments technology and other resources ; space for individuals and groups to interact with others; cultural programming; and opportunities for people to study research play and create
View Californias public library literacy programs help adults gain basic literacy skills achieve learning goals and use library services effectively
View Health and wellbeing Our category of health and wellbeing includes physical mental and emotional health as well as the six dimensions of wellness developed by the National Wellness Institute : occupational physical social intellectual spiritual and emotional
View Public libraries support health and wellbeing in multiple ways that include providing access to books reading information and other resources ; providing work and career development services ; facilitating connections to social services and other community agencies ; meeting basic needs such as free lunches for children and teens during the summer when they do not have access to the free school lunch program ; supporting community engagement and connections between community members ; and providing opportunities to participate in cultural activities sports games and other leisure activities
View Community development The category of community development includes crisis response and the librarys contribution to community resilience; the generation of social capital within local communities; and the librarys contribution to the communitys social infrastructure
View Libraries help individuals and communities in a crisis by acting as second responders and providing access to resources including information water power and broadband connectivity; providing connections to other agencies and space where community agencies can deliver services; and providing a trusted and welcoming space to be
View Libraries support community resilience by providing services and resources that help communities prepare for and recover from crises
View Robust social infrastructure fosters contact mutual support and collaboration
View It protects our democracy and contributes to economic growth
View Libraries contribute to the communitys social infrastructure by providing a public space where people can make connections
View Resources The librarys resources include artifacts activities and experiences
View adults carried out by Pew Research Center in found that % of respondents think their local libraries contribute a lot to their communities by providing a safe place for people to spend time; % by creating educational opportunities for people of all ages; % by helping spark creativity among young people; % by providing a trusted place for people to learn about new technologies; % by promoting a sense of community among different groups within their local area; % by helping people decide what information they can trust; % by helping people when they seek health information; % by serving as a gathering place for addressing challenges in their local community; % by helping people find jobs or pursue job training; % by helping people when natural disasters or major problems strike their communities
View Between their fourth year of medical school and first year of residency training % of doctors-in-training will meet criteria for psychiatric morbidity particularly depression anxiety or substance abuse [] These individuals often do not report symptoms due to fear of stigma and marginalization []
View In addition to improving psychological capacities like attentional and emotional self-regulation [] mindfulness training has been recognized as a viable treatment to prevent recurrent depression and depressive relapse [-] and even as a potential preventative for such disorders helping to counter behaviors such as rumination that precede and cooccur with depression [ ]
View Providing spaces for wellness activities can also support the diverse spiritual and religious needs of health care professionals and patients with one study suggesting that spirituality has powerful protective benefits against burnout in the health care field []
View Internationally the use of library facilities has also been seen to contribute to levels of social capital by adding to the social impacts of existing community-based networks by reducing social isolation and fostering inclusion by promoting collaboration between other types of service providers or through interacting with trends in structural or social patterns of neighbourhoods
View There is increasing evidence in the international literature that engagement in the arts can enhance the physical and psychological wellbeing of older people
View Such engagement can increase the self-confidence and morale of older people and provide opportunities for increased social connections, leading to higher levels of social cohesion
View There is a small mainly cross-sectional international literature that reinforces this view with evidence that engagement in the arts can enhance the physical and psychological wellbeing and the quality of life of older people
View Such engagement has been found to increase the self-confidence and morale of older people as well as providing opportunities for increased social connections both with other older people and with younger people
View Moreover it has been suggested that engagement in the arts can result in increased social cohesion
View Some specific examples of positive outcomes include experimental research in the United States of America which found that involvement in a theatre group resulted in improved memory and an increase in psychological wellbeing for older people
View There is evidence that participating in arts programmes within various care settings can have beneficial impacts on the physical health of patients and on their psychological wellbeing
View Drama therapy can help patients who have difficulties in communication cognition and social skills and can enhance self-expression in people with dementia
View Participatory arts programmes can have positive effects on the general health mental health and social activities of older people
View The questionnaire included questions on type of organisation level of involvement satisfaction with Bealtaine impact of Bealtaine on the participation of older people in national and local arts programmes; impact of Bealtaine on the quality of life wellbeing and social interaction of older people
View Libraries and Older Persons Groups said that the Bealtaine festival creates awareness of the service they provide
View According to organisers participants sometimes discover hidden talents participation and learning new skills boosts the confidence of older people attending classes increases their independence and opens up to the concept of lifelong learning
View An even higher proportion of participants agreed that participation in Bealtaine encouraged their personal development in terms of enhanced learning and organisational skills
View In contrast a majority of participants believed that participating in Bealtaine had encouraged them to think critically about the arts
View Interviews with participants suggest that being part of comprehensive professionally led programmes particularly encouraged the development of a critical perspective
View Quality of life Over two-thirds of organisers believe that participating in Bealtaine had a strong impact on the quality of life of older participants
View Another interviewee emphasised that the opportunity to participate in a public forum to perform/display their talents had a positive effect on their self-esteem: The festival allows older people to publicly share their talents which is good for self-esteem
View Overall both organisers and participants strongly believe that participation in the festival has a very positive impact on quality of life
View Social networking A majority of organisers see strong effects on social networking
View Again there was a very high positive response among older participants to the statement that participation in Bealtaine had increased their level of involvement in their community
View The Health Services Executive has also been slow to recognise the potential benefits of the arts for the health and wellbeing of older people notwithstanding the excellent work done by some organisers in day care centres and long-stay residential care settings
View In particular we need more complex intervention studies to explore how creative expression and participation in arts programmes can enhance health and wellbeing for some people
View Almost % of all affected with AD experience BPSD resulting in increased healthcare costs heavier burden on caregivers poor patient outcomes early nursing home placement long term hospitalizations and misuse of medications
View Background Reminiscence therapy is a mechanism to jog deeply embedded memories by use of prompts such as photographs personal belongings and or household items with one or more persons from the family of the affected person
View A literature review of several studies conducted on Reminiscence therapy revealed that the cognition functional ability and the mood of affected people was found to be improved - weeks after treatment; the caregivers of the people affected with dementia who participated in the reminiscence therapy noted lower stress when compared with no treatment
View The field of neurological rehabilitation has been attracting attention due to the growing awareness of improvement in cognitive functionality among the people affected with the debilitating disease of dementia
View Studies have also reported other beneficial effects such as improvement in mood well-being and behavior
View There has been an observed improvement in functional connectivity in corticocortical and corticocerebellar networks after listening to music
View Animal assisted therapy was found to be helpful in reducing stress and lowering blood pressure
View Elicitation protocol The emotional elicitation protocol used to investigate the relation between emotion and physiological changes was based on a slide show of the participants baby pictures or another happy event from the past or if these are not available then pictures of cute baby human/animal pictures along with music in the background
View Several non-pharmacological interventions such as aromaacupressure pet or animal therapy massage therapy music and reminisce therapies have been proved to be helpful in improving sleep reducing symptoms of agitation and frustration
View This user study has helped us understand the feasibility of using the heart rate variability and electrodermal activity sensors to gauge the stress levels that will ultimately help us predict BPSD episodes in the future
View In August the UKs Department of Health and leading dementia charities -Alzheimers Research UK and Alzheimers Society - launched a new platform Dementia Citizens which aims to help people with dementia and those who care for them using apps on smartphones and tablets
View This objective builds on reminiscence therapy research and the activity of compiling personal pictures to capture and elicit memories in people with dementia both of which have been part of sensitive dementia care services for many years
View Our approach to dementia is nested within psycho-social models which encourage a strong focus on the remaining skills that the individual has as opposed to what skills or experiences that have been lost and the importance of interactions between carers and people living with dementia and the socio-technological environment they operate in
View What is the role of multimedia and personalisation in the stimulation preservation and sharing of special memories in people living with mild to moderate dementia
View Keeping people with dementia calm and responsive is sometimes perceived as more important than supporting their social communication which may lead to their social isolation
View Studies show that by engaging and empowering people living with dementia with the reminiscences of families and carers supports their identity and self-esteem and enables them to access long-term memories
View We acknowledge the paramount role family carers play in the lives of people living with dementia and suggest that future research designs studies extend our findings by the focus on the dyad of carer/person living with dementia
View Almost 90% of all affected with AD experience BPSD, resulting in increased healthcare costs, heavier burden on caregivers, poor patient outcomes, early nursing home placement, long-term hospitalizations, and misuse of medications
View Almost % of all affected with Alzheimers disease experience behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia resulting in increased healthcare costs heavier burden on caregivers poor patient outcomes early nursing home placement long-term hospitalizations and misuse of medications [] BPSD play a major role in increasing burden on the caregivers of individuals affected with dementia []
View Indirect cost increase due to BPSD in person affected with AD was % above the cost of AD while the direct costs increase was % above the direct AD costs [] As the disease progresses many affected individuals develop psychological problems in the form of behavior issues such as agitation irritability aggression depression delusions and hallucinations wandering and sleep disorders [-]
View Among behavioral symptoms approximately % of the patients suffer from apathy % suffer from aggression and % suffer from irritability while among psychological symptoms % of patients suffer from depression % suffer from delusions and % suffer from anxiety
View The first developed by a research team made up of professionals from the National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health from Finland Dementia Services Information and Development Centre from Dublin the Norwegian Centre for Dementia Research and Dementia Voice from the United Kingdom evaluated the effectiveness of a musicbased and multimedia program in dementia care centers in the four represented countries with the primary aim of stimulating patients and to give them pleasure
View The second application Snoezelen is a multisensory environment that seeks to reduce agitation and anxiety or stimulate reactions of communication in patients by creating a very engaging yet controlled environment
View Patients communication improved during the Snoezelen sessions and patients showed improvements in both short- and long-term followup evaluations []
View Research question: Can a multisensory mobile multimedia reminiscence therapy app reduce the frequency of BPSD episodes by helping calm and reducing agitation irritation and apathy by recreating an event/episodic memory in persons with AD
View The mobile application is built for the Android platform and is designed to be user-friendly so a caregiver can easily set up a patient and create the multimedia episodic happy memory event-based presentations for the patients
View Figure shows the welcome page of the application when it firsts starts; Figure gives user the option of entering the information for a new patient as this application can be used for multiple individuals affected with AD; Figure shows the screen where an existing patient can be selected from a database of patients; Figure shows where the caregiver has the choice of either choosing to create a new happy memory multimedia presentation or selecting from a list of happy memories that were created in the past; the happy memory events created are unique to each patient with their photos and music
View The stress process model identifies BPSD as the greatest source of stress on caregivers with sleep disturbance agitation/restlessness depression and apathy causing the most emotional distress
View Conclusions Our interdisciplinary team of computer scientists and a clinical neuropsychologist are working together on developing a tool to help individuals affected with AD and their caregivers cope with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia
View All participants showed improvement or stability in depression scores
View Five participants had improved scores on the quality of life measure
View Feedback on digital life storybooks from people with dementia relatives and staff Participants relatives and staff welcomed the idea of developing a life story movie and reported a positive experience of taking part in this project
View The development of the life story movie encouraged person-centered care in that it helped care staff to see their client as a person and to value their experience
View All the participants expressed pleasure in viewing their movies
View Dementia is a condition commonly associated with memory decline however the disease also impacts other cognitive functions such as speech decision making reasoning or learning thereby making it more and more difficult for people with dementia to engage in meaningful and social activities
View As dementia progresses individuals experience memory loss disorientation and in later stages a loss of their sense of self
View It is argued that reminiscence may be particularly important for demented individuals psychological health given that the progressive deteriorating nature of the disease erodes the ability to achieve present successes and makes individuals increasingly dependent on past accomplishments for a sense of competency
View Furthermore abilities like sensory awareness musical responsiveness and emotional memory are thought to persist in dementia making reminiscence through audiovisual and tactile media possible
View Symptoms such as memory loss, speech impairments and limitations in higher cognitive functions affect peoples abilities for communication and social interaction
View We designed an entire course rooted in the principles of action teaching in which students facilitated the positive effects of art, nature, and music on the well-being of individuals diagnosed with dementia
View RT has been proven to have a positive effect in terms of increased life satisfaction decreased depression and increased communication skills and patient-caregiver interactions []
View Other factors which make identification of reminiscence materials a challenging task include generational and cultural barriers between the facilitator and person with dementia acquired communication difficulties in dementia and a lack of a collateral history to inform patient biography where such difficulties exist
View There is evidence to suggest that RT is effective in improving mood in older people without dementia and its effects on mood cognition and well-being in dementia are present but less well understood []
View To address the needs of the residential care population and their associated activity coordinators REMPAD proposes a solution to enhance facilitator knowledge and provide access to personalized reminiscence material for the benefit of aiding conversation and memory recollection amongst nursing home participant users in a group context
View Aims: To assess the biopsychosocial effects of participation in a unique, combined arts- and nature-based museum intervention, involving engagement with horticulture, artmaking and museum collections, on adult mental health service users
View The study used an exploratory sequential mixed methods design comprising two phases Phase 1 : qualitative research investigating the views of participants through semi-structured interviews and diaries and Phase 2 : quantitative research informed by Phase 1 analysing psychological wellbeing data from participants who completed the UCL Museum Wellbeing Measure prepost programme
View Results: Inductive thematic analysis of Phase 1 interview data revealed increased feelings of wellbeing brought about by improved self-esteem, decreased social isolation and the formation of communities of practice
View Statistical analysis of prepost quantitative measures in Phase 2 found a highly significant increase in psychological wellbeing
View Conclusion: Creative green prescription programmes, using a combination of arts- and nature-based activities, present distinct synergistic benefits that have the potential to make a significant impact on the psychosocial wellbeing of adult mental health service users
View Museums with parks and gardens should consider integrating programmes of outdoor and indoor collections-inspired creative activities permitting combined engagement with nature, art and wellbeing
View The Academys mission is to develop and advance social prescribing to promote health and wellbeing at local and national levels
View Other high impact actions related to social prescribing include active signposting that provides patients with a first point of contact to direct them to an appropriate source of help such as web and app-based portals and supporting people to play a greater role in their own health
View Arts on Prescription has a long history in the UK and the evidence base continues to grow demonstrating a range of psychosocial outcomes that include supporting mental health recovery; combatting social isolation for people with mild to moderate anxiety and depression; as well as increased levels of empowerment and improved quality of life
View A review of Arts on Prescription studies illustrated a body of evidence indicating that participation in creative activities can promote health and wellbeing quality of life levels of empowerment and social inclusion and positively impact people with mental ill-health
View There is also good evidence to show that creative engagement in museums supports health and wellbeing quality of life social inclusion and lifelong learning
View An extensive Museums on Prescription study that carried out -week programmes of museum-based sessions in seven central London and Kent museums with participants found significant wellbeing improvements
View Another type of social prescribing green prescription where outdoor spaces are used to improve health and wellbeing is beginning to gain momentum with a potential for impact across the life span
View The review found that a key characteristic of nature-based health interventions is that a single intervention can potentially improve wellbeing across a range of domains
View Nature prescriptions can promote physical activity leading to positive health outcomes while contact with nature can have an additional restorative effect on mental wellbeing
View The evidence included reduced symptoms of depression and anxiety and a range of self-reported benefits across emotional social physical occupational and spiritual aspects of the lives of mental health service-users
View Qualitative studies further consolidate understanding of the psychotherapeutic mechanisms for how nature prescriptions can impact wellbeing and mental health in particular
View In addition as meaningful activities with opportunities for knowledge and skills developments nature-based interventions help to consolidate selfreliance and bolster self-esteem; factors known to improve individual psychosocial wellbeing
View The current UK-based study utilised the trend by museums and art galleries starting to use their outdoor spaces with a wider focus on wellbeing activities
View The aim of this study was to explore the health and wellbeing outcomes derived from engagement in a combined programme of horticulture and creative arts-based activities
View Phase used a quantitative within participants design with an independent variable of pre- and post-intervention and dependent variable of psychological wellbeing score on the UCL Museum Wellbeing Measure specifically the positive generic wellbeing measure with high reliability
View Materials Materials included the participant information leaflet consent form museum activity schedule interview protocol weekly diaries with guideline questions and the UCL Museum Wellbeing Measure a positive mood scale where participants rate each of six mood items on a -point scale
View Decreasing social isolation Another effect of the intervention was related to enabling participants to gain motivation and a positive reason to leave their homes
View Participants felt that the intervention gave them routine and structure with an opportunity to engage positively with others which in turn decreased the sense of social isolation and was felt to support wellbeing and the potential of recovery
View Or even maintaining wellbeing interacting with others
View Descriptive statistics showed that mean total scores for wellbeing increased postintervention compared with preintervention
View DISCUSSION The aim of the study was to explore the health and wellbeing outcomes derived from a combined programme of naturebased horticulture and arts-based responses to museum collections as part of a creative green prescription
View Although mental wellbeing was not mentioned explicitly by all participants most of the themes they expressed had positive outcomes with many related to improvements in quality of life and individual psychological wellbeing; consequently it was appropriate to use the positive mood UCL Museum Wellbeing Measure for Phase of the study
View Furthermore support for selfesteem and allied confidence agency ability and sense of purpose are theorised to improve individual psychosocial wellbeing
View It was interesting that all of the six mood items on the Wellbeing Measure increased significantly after the -week programme particularly Excited and Inspired that linked into the overall creative and outdoor experience of the intervention
View Active also contributed to overall wellbeing which could be related to the physical elements of the programme in particular the outdoor horticultural activities
View As a creative green prescription for adults with mental health issues this study focused on engagement with a dual arts- and nature-based intervention and found predominantly positive biopsychosocial outcomes
View Given the positive improvements for the two groups of participants in this study held in a museum with adjacent parkland it appears that green prescriptions combining creative arts- and naturebased activities have the potential to significantly impact the lives of adult mental health service users
View Museums with outdoor spaces need to recognise the health wellbeing and quality of life benefits in green prescribing and the opportunities for combining creative outdoor and indoor activities using their spaces and collections
View Further research exploring interconnections between creativity arts nature health and wellbeing outcomes is warranted to fully explain the dual and potentially synergistic benefits of creative arts and green prescriptions
View The rooms moved forward in time in a loose chronology implicitly tied to phases of scientific discovery including the identification of the HIV virus through to the development of effective medical treatments as the posters shift in emphasis from warning of a deadly disease to depicting people living with HIV
View Economics inequality in sexual relationships social marginalisation mental health and addiction issues poor nutrition low levels of education lack of access to services or a safe place to live all contribute to the risk factors for contracting the virus as well as the impact this will have on an individuals health and wellbeing
View Archivists and curators institutionalise remembering and forgetting by accessioning objects and transforming them into heritage
View Notably the extent to which older adults perceive their lives as meaningful and purposeful has been robustly linked with extended longevity improved physical and mental health and social engagement
View Across art forms increasing evidence suggests that engagement with arts-based activities can contribute to multiple aspects of experienced evaluative and eudaimonic well-being such as enriched experience enjoyment meaning bonding and aesthetic appreciation
View Both forms of engagement often difficult to delineate clearly in real life are believed to provide unique individual encounters with the arts which can inspire; aid exploration and expression of ones identity emotions and talents; facilitate social interaction; and provide a temporary escape rest and catharsis
View Repeated Engagement Experienced and evaluative well-being In the fully adjusted models there was no difference in experienced and evaluative well-being outcomes between participants who reported repeated engagement in any of the arts activities and those who reported no or infrequent arts engagement at all waves
View Sustained Engagement Experienced well-being In the fully adjusted model sustained engagement with the theater/concerts/opera compared with no or infrequent engagement at all waves was associated with higher odds of maximum score of positive affect
View The findings therefore suggest that although receptive arts engagement is associated with well-being in older adults the evidence for the association over time across the activities is the most robust when engagement is sustained
View This finding is in line with a previous study that linked both sustained cultural inactivity and decreasing cultural engagement to the same level of risk of impaired selfreported health and suggested that continued frequent engagement may be necessary for lasting health promotion
View Nonetheless evidence from previous small-scale intervention studies suggests that older adults consider regular participation in creative activities a good means of staying cognitively stimulated as well as seeing them as a purposeful occupation and enriching daily routines
View This is consistent with a previous prospective study linking baseline levels of engagement with music art and theater to enhanced happiness levels years later and in line with intervention studies reporting increases in older adults subjective experiences of pleasure enjoyment and other positive emotions as a result of music-and museum-based interventions
View In relation to eudaimonic well-being we found sustained and repeated arts engagement with galleries/exhibitions/ museums and theater/concerts/opera was associated with increased control/autonomy and self-realization
View These findings are in agreement with intervention studies that suggest that participating in creative and musical activities can foster feelings of control and autonomy as well as providing an opportunity for personal growth and engaging in challenging simulating activities
View For instance participatory musical activities have been previously described to help increase and maintain social cognitive and physical independence in older age through among other factors the physical activity involved in participating in them
View In addition we identified demographic socioeconomic health and social engagement differences in arts engagement profiles
View Finally with some preliminary evidence suggesting that arts-based activities and cultural spaces such as galleries and museums may help older adults to decrease feelings of loneliness and to facilitate positive social interactions future studies should examine these associations further with a particular focus on loneliness and social isolation which are known risk factors for low well-being in older adults
View Conclusion Frequent visits to galleries exhibitions museums the theater concerts or the opera sustained over the majority of a -year time span are associated with increases in experienced evaluative and eudaimonic well-being specifically positive affect life satisfaction perceptions of control/au-tonomy over ones life and self-realization
View The A-Health RCT study provides an opportunity to confirm the benefits of a participatory art-based museum activity on the elderly population and to show the key role played by museums in public health promotion
View Background Participation in creative art activities has been receiving increased interest in the past decade [ ]
View Art-based activities help patients regardless of their disease to build a sense of self transforming the illness experience into a positive experience and improving patients well-being and quality of life [-]
View Wellbeing is positively associated with quality of life and physical health benefits including a decreased risk for disease speedier disease recovery and increased longevity [-]
View In parallel it has been found that art-based activities are positively associated with numerous aspects of individuals physical health like a better immune system response and slower disease progression with these effects being related to well-being improvement [ -]
View Frailty which is used to classify the health condition of older adults and their ability to respond to an intervention is a condition of vulnerability related to an accumulation of morbidities and exposing individuals to incident adverse health events which increase health and social costs [-]
View With a pre-post intervention single arm prospective and longitudinal design we showed that the MMFAs participatory art-based activity improved the well-being quality of life and frailty of older community dwellers in Montreal
View Art therapy is a non-pharmacological approach to improving well-being and quality of life used in patients with cancer neuropsychiatric diseases and physical disabilities []
View In the past decade the field of art therapy has undergone a shift toward novel application art-based activities benefiting individuals other than patients with obvious health and wellness needs and expanding settings to include museums [ ]
View There is growing evidence that art-based activities have positive benefits for patients such as improvements in self-esteem confidence and mood [ ]
View In contrast when compared to those performed in patients there is a limited number of studies showing that participatory art-based activities may improve wellbeing and/or quality of life either in older adults in residential care facilities or in community-dwelling older adults in relatively good health [ ]
View Our previous study Art-Health showed for the first time that it was possible to act on the physical health condition of older community dwellers through participatory art-based activities as the proportion of frail participants decreased after a month cycle of Thursdays at the Museum
View The A-Health RCT is an opportunity to confirm a participatory art-based museum activitys effects on mental and physical health and to show the key role museums can play in health promotion for the elderly population
View But if viewing and making art can lower rates of anxiety and depression and help soothe chronic pain-and if laughter helps blood vessels function better and improves the flow of oxygen to the heart and brain-then perhaps we unwittingly deprive our patrons and patients of an important tool in the health and wellness toolbox
View As a program director at the Art Institute of Chicago I receive many articles crediting art as a healer: it can lower rates of anxiety and depression in both men and women help soothe chronic pain stave off symptoms of dementia and Alzheimers disease and accelerate brain development in young children
View A Psychology Today article points to numerous studies showing that laughter reduces pain increases job performance connects people emotionally helps blood vessels function better and improves the flow of oxygen to the heart and brain
View By unintentionally muting giggles and guffaws do museums and hospitals deprive their patrons and patients of the positive effects that humor could have on their health
View Even so every now and then when laughter bubbled across the hushed ward nurses and doctors smiled the air became lighter and patients and their families displayed a mild sense of relief
View Conclusions: Frequent engagement with certain receptive arts activities and venues, particularly museums, galleries and exhibitions, may be a protective factor against loneliness in older adults
View As loneliness and inadequate social relationships have been previously linked with for instance increased risk of depressive symptoms [] coronary heart disease and stroke [] and mortality [] this demographic change combined with vulnerability to loneliness among older adults poses a significant societal and public health challenge
View The risk of loneliness increases with age due to factors such as bereavement decline in physical health cognitive function and mobility as well as changes in living and socioeconomic circumstances including living alone or in a nursing home [-]
View The role of participatory and receptive arts engagement in preventing or alleviating loneliness among older adults as well as facilitating bonding in new and existing relationships has been also increasingly recognised [ ]
View Studies involving adult populations further suggest that engagement with group-based musical and other creative activities increases the pace of social bonding and perceptions of closeness among participants with some evidence suggesting a stronger effect for singing compared with other activities [ ] albeit inconsistently []
View Health covariates included long-standing illness status eyesight and hearing problems as well as experiences of moderate or severe pain that could hinder ones overall arts engagement
View Similarly the monthly Meet Me at MoMA programme run at the Museum of Modern Art in New York for people in the early and middle stage of Alzheimer's disease and their carers was observed to support and facilitate shared experiences as well as being an inherently social experience []
View Indeed Camie and Chatterjee argue that museums and art galleries play an important social role in the health and wellbeing of communities []
View Other intervention studies also demonstrate that participatory engagement with visual arts within community setting helped older adults to overcome prolonged social isolation and facilitated socialising with others [ ] We found lesser evidence of a longitudinal protective association for older adults' engagement with the theatre concerts and opera and no longitudinal association between engagement with the cinema and loneliness
View Indeed it has been suggested that participatory arts involving active involvement in arts-based activities may be most effective at tackling loneliness and assisting isolated older adults in regaining their confidence to reconnect with others []
View Further research is needed to investigate the differences between art forms and cultural venues in opportunities for social inclusion and shared experiences facilitating positive social contact of older adults
View Relationships created or strengthened as part of engaging with the arts such as making music in local community groups can increase access to different forms of support such as peer or informational support and act as a source of social affirmation [ ]
View More research is also needed to understand barriers and facilitators of arts engagement in lonely and isolated adults
View Future research is needed to understand the mechanisms through which different arts activities in particular receptive arts engagement can contribute to preventing and alleviating feelings of loneliness and facilitating social connectedness among older adults
View As studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of cultural engagement for many of the components of frailty, this study sought to explore whether community cultural engagement is associated both with a reduced risk of becoming frail and a slower trajectory of frailty progression in older adults
View Although related to multi-morbidity and disability frailty is distinct in that it encompasses a multitude of health deficits that include but are not limited to mobility self-reported general health eyesight and hearing; being able to carry out basic tasks of daily living; depressive symptoms; and cognitive function
View It also supports emotion regulation stress reduction wellbeing and helps protect against depression
View Cultural engagement showed a moderate association with broader social engagement and a small negative association with broader civic engagement
View Given that frailty is associated with falls delirium fluctuating disability increased care needs and increased use of health services the identification that engagement with existing community cultural activities is protective is important
View The Hunger for Connection and Meaning in Museum Settings Declines in empathy social participation religious participation and art museum attendance along with rises in narcissism individualism and materialism suggest a crisis of meaning especially among younger American generations
View Be a Model of Empathy First art museums can play an active role in building empathy and social connection within their communities and the first step is to be a model of empathy and warmth for visitors and those who dont currently attend
View The Museums as a Site for Social Action project led by the Minneapolis Museum of Art is working with museum practitioners to actively engage in equity and social justice initiatives both within the art museum and outside the museums walls
View Consider how to encourage people to connect with nature and enjoy quiet moments of reflection on museum grounds
View Their goal is to collaborate with researchers scholars philosophers content experts artists thought leaders and colleagues at other art museums to create and disseminate a number of activities and exercises that can be used to develop empathy and related emotional skills among art museum visitors
View Examples include imitating the actions or expressions of others noticing similarity between self and others caring for vulnerable or young people or animals engaging in role taking or perspective taking engaging in active or reflective listening and being taught to pay attention to and recognise emotional signals in others such as facial expressions and body language
View Both observational and intervention studies have found protective associations or effects between arts participation or cultural engagement and positive wellbeing the prevention of mental illness and the management or treatment of mental health conditions
View For example cultural engagement can support emotion regulation provide protective cognitive stimulation provide social interaction which can be a source of social support as well as buffer stress reduce sedentary behaviours associated with depression and support coping skills
View Background The research aimed to assess, through physiological measurements such as blood pressure and heart rate, whether exposure to art museums and to different art styles was able to enhance visitors well-being in terms of relaxing and stress reduction
View The majority of the participants exposed to figurative art significantly decreased systolic blood pressure compared to those exposed to modern art and museum office
View Conclusion Findings suggest that museum visits can have health benefits, and figurative art may decrease systolic blood pressure
View Using standardized physiological measures may be a good strategy to assess the visitors aesthetic experience in an art museum as they could help more than self-reports to control for the subjective variability linked to individual preferences or cultural differences in the appreciation of museum experiences
View Visits to art museum in particular representational art style may have positive effects on stress decreasing heart rate and blood pressure
View According to the European Society of Hypertension and to the European Society of Cardiology for people suffering by hypertension a difference in the changes of mm Hg in the SBP before and after a behavioural treatment can be considered an index of restorative relaxing and well-being effect
View Studies on figurative art and ancient art museums have reported positive feelings in participants but modern art can arouse negative emotions
View For example in a study with people with dementia and caregivers across traditional and contemporary galleries it was found that both art sites promoted well-being benefits including positive social impact and cognitive capacities enhancement
View Conclusions and implications Taken together our findings suggest that museum visits can have health benefits and figurative art may decrease Systolic Blood Pressure
View If bringing people to museums and showing them a realistic art style can have a positive effect on physiological reaction such as blood pressure we might consider an art-prescription to support medical therapies of patients with hearth-related diseases
View The Le Louvre lhpital study presents a new approach in which the museum moves to the hospital by displaying and discussing artworks with patients interactively
View Decreased anxiety after the art sessions was reported by 1,0 of 2,1 patients
View Out of 4,1 patients, 4,6 said the art program had met their expectations, and 3,2 wished to continue the experience with caregivers
View Early intra-ICU psychological intervention p omotes recovery from posttraumatic stress disorders anxiety and depression sym toms in critically ll patients []
View Listening to music has been shown to have a beneficial effect on anxiety in patients ope ated on during the postop ative period [] in those h spitalized for co onary heart disease [] and for ancer []
View Further previous studies reported health-based nterve tions in museums or art-galleries consisting of m l group tours of ambulatory patients only but this was intended mai ly to patients hospitalized in geriatric rehabilitation units nursin g homes or Alzheimer clinics [-]
View The present Le Lou vre lh pital stud reports a new approach in which th museum moves t the hospi al and t the patie t himself by displaying and discussing on an int ractive basis artworks in patients rooms dining rooms circulation are s a d hospit ls arden
View The program also provided training for hospital paramedics and car givers o subsequently replace the museums staff in managing groups of patients further
View Artworks consisted of large monumental statues displayed over the hospital garde s copies of large masterpieces of p inting displayed over the hospital hall dining rooms and in the circulation areas r productions of sm ll size paintings displayed in the patients rooms
View Hospital-Related Anxiety The subgroup of patients from the department of geriatric medicine was tested for anxiety before and after the small group guided art discussions organized as a coffee-break lasting for about h
View Since changes in anxiety associated with short punctual interventions are rather difficult to rate using conventional scales such as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [-] patients were asked qualitatively for their perception of decreased anxiety after completion of the session
View They also engaged int ractive view with other patients the museum staff member or a paramedic asked o agree or disagree with he first patients perception
View This lasted for a few words in some cases but in most instances patients reported more extensively their perceptions of the artwork the reasons for their choices and the personal life-recollections they advocated about
View Finally visits to the museum concerned patients only while patients attended museum activities inside the hospital ie a -fold lower rate
View This is particularly relevant since paramedics reported that the Museum staff plays an important role in keeping the activities interesting and helping them to feel comfortable and accepted
View Anxiety Among patients hospitalized in the departments of geriatric medicine and asked for anxiety by paramedics before and after a small-group guided art-discussion / reported decreased anxiety after the session
View Patients admitted in the rehabilitation day care unit in the rehabilitation unit and in the long stay care unit reported similar responses
View On average as reported by the museum staff and paramedics attending the sessions patients rated the small group sessions program highly at to out of
View Also according to the museum staff and caregivers participating to the program age association of mild or moderate cognitive impairment as well as the type of disease were not associated with differences in satisfaction of patients
View Discussion Art music cultural programs and participatory-based art interventions have been shown to provide opportunities to enhance quality of life and to reduce hospital-related anxiety and depression in a large panel of inpatients [-]
View The program also included training sessions for healthcare workers to allow further continuation of the hospitals art engagement after the study
View In a subgroup of patients hospitalized in the long term care department art guided discussions reduced hospital-associated anxiety in a substantial proportion of patients including those with mild Alzheimer disease
View Accordingly a museum therapy program in the hospital rather look as a specific therapy targeted to a specific patient than as a nonspecific approach devoted to improve quality of life during hospital stay only
View Finally the training program devoted to healthcare givers and paramedics provided an unrivalled opportunity to optimize further maintenance of the museum art engagement program inside the hospital for the years to follow
View Peer counseling might have been as effective in improving patients anxiety as art intervention especially while helping them speaking about their life and personal recollections
View Conversely patients wanted to speak about their perceptions of art the reasons of their choices and the personal life-recollections they advocated about and this process was not associated with any reactivation of the disease which caused the hospital stay
View Fifty-seven percent of participants reported pain relief during the tour, with an average pain relief of 47%
View Participants reported decreased social disconnection and pain unpleasantness pre- to post-tour
View Participants experienced Art Rx as a positive and inclusive experience, with potential lasting benefit
View Art museum tours for individuals with chronic pain are feasible, and participants reported positive effects on perceived social disconnection and pain
View Intervention Self reported receptive arts engagement
View Conclusions Receptive arts engagement could have a protective association with longevity in older adults
View While previous studies have shown the association between arts engagement and the prevention and treatment of mental and physical health conditions including depression dementia chronic pain and frailty - whether arts engagement actually confers survival benefits remains unclear
View Within health research arts engagement could be linked to longevity by alleviating chronic stress and depression and providing emotional cognitive and social coping resources that support biological regulatory systems and behavioural choices
View Patient and public involvement In addition to broader patient and public involvement in ELSA patients and the public were involved in the formulation of this research question through a public engagement event held at University College London in July that focused on generating new research questions on arts engagement and health outcomes
View Additionally the mortality rate was higher in people with higher depressive symptoms with poor eyesight or hearing with a diagnosis of cancer lung disease cardiovascular disease or other long term condition in people who were physically inactive in those who only rarely drank alcohol and in people who smoked
View This finding is consistent with research that shows that receptive arts engagement can help in preventing and managing depression and that it can provide support in preventing cognitive decline and in developing cognitive reserve
View Further possibilities are that arts engagement improves a sense of purpose in life helps with the regulation of emotions and thereby enhances coping supports the buffering of stress and builds creativity which improves peoples ability to adapt positively to changing life circumstances
View Conclusions and future research questions In conclusion this study suggests that receptive arts engagement could have independent longitudinal protective associations with longevity in older adults
View Aims: The aim of this article is to present a new observational tool for assessing the impacts of museum object handling for people with moderate-to-severe dementia in hospital settings, focusing on wellbeing, social interaction, level of engagement and agitation
View Museum-based activities for wellbeing broadly include supported museum visiting object handling volunteering and a range of creative activities inspired from the sector's wide-ranging museum collections from art making to performing arts and music
View - Museums are increasingly developing services for people with dementia and their caregivers; a recent survey identified that out of over half of UK museums offering wellbeing programmes people with dementia are the second largest target audience
View This was a multi-sited project with multiple health and social care partners exploring the health and wellbeing impact of taking part in cultural activities focused on three audience groups: mental health service-users stroke survivors and people with dementia
View The object handling focused on a non-goal-oriented activity as opposed to reminiscence promoting sensory engagement and conversation at a level appropriate for people with moderate-to-severe dementia in line with recommendations from other nonreminiscence interventions focused on the benefits of cognitive stimulation for dementia
View ENGAGEMENT IN PEOPLE WITH DEMENTIA Engaging a person with dementia in meaningful activity is seen as a priority in care provision to promote wellbeing and quality of life
View - Studies in care homes have shown the adverse effect of prolonged lack of stimulation and inactivity such as increased risk of cognitive decline apathy depression and agitation and the positive impact of participation in activities which can lead to a reduction in challenging behaviours and depression and improvements in mood
View It has been proposed that museum activities including museum visits and object handling sessions are another example of a potential meaningful activity for people with dementia and their carers
View Recent studies reported positive wellbeing impact for people with mild-to-moderate dementia taking part in creative museum activities with their carers including museum object handling and art viewing in a gallery
View A further study defined the environmental attributes of the art gallery and their positive emotional and relational effects for people with dementia and their carers
View The authors found that people with mild dementia could readily engage with complex arts and crafts activities and cognitive activities requiring multi-steps
View Our study aims to examine the experience of engagement with museum objects in the context of a handling session delivered in a hospital ward for people with moderate-to-severe dementia
View COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH FOR CO-DEVELOPING METHODOLOGIES Previous research has highlighted the importance of conducting collaborative research into the efficacy of engagement activities for people with dementia and their carers
View Reminiscence is one of the most widely deployed engagement activities for people with dementia but research regarding the efficacy of reminiscence and other memory-recall activities has revealed mixed findings
View The REMCARE study found no significant differences in outcomes ) between the intervention and control conditions and a significant increase in carer burden anxiety and stress
View We suggest it is also useful to understand commonly used forms of assessment in healthcare settings to further elucidate how impact is framed and measured in terms of health and wellbeing outcomes and from the perspectives of healthcare staff
View Additionally informal feedback can be used with clients and patients during the pilot sessions to capture a sense of their experience and their own understandings of what supports their health and wellbeing
View Within the principles of collaborative research it is also important to factor in time to share with partners both the findings in a digestible form as evidence of the impact of the project as well as the learning applicable to project delivery
View UNDERSTANDING MULTIPLE PERSPECTIVES AND COMMONLY USED ASSESSMENTS IN A DEMENTIA CARE HOSPITAL UNIT The context for the research strand on dementia was a museum project developed for people with moderate-to-severe dementia in a specialised inpatient dementia unit
View The first phase of the study was to understand the perspectives of different individuals involved in the delivery and support of the museum project and those directly engaged in the activities
View The museum professionals wanted the programme to support participant wellbeing by providing an enjoyable time and an opportunity to connect emotionally with museum objects they might remember from their childhood
View A related second aim of the project was to encourage social interaction between patients and between patients and care staff
View The museum activities were framed to fit within this model to address patient mood and agitation provide positive cultural engagement that would capture patients attention and support positive social interaction with other patients on the ward
View While the adapted PAL tool was not appropriate for the study as it focuses on assessing patients level of ability the -item wellbeing element was identified by staff as being more useful and detailed for describing patients mood than shorter scales
View RESULTS: THE MUSEUM ENGAGEMENT OBSERVATION TOOL FOR PWD The observations of the pilot sessions and research conversations with staff and museum facilitators were integrated to identify the key areas of direct benefit for participants with moderate-to-severe dementia in museum object handling activities
View The Museum Engagement Observation Tool measures five dimensions of engagement within a museum object handling session: Attention refers to the level of concentration of participants towards the museum activity from unable to concentrate to concentrates for full periods
View It contains five items that describe the level of engagement with the object from more passive visual engagement or passive handling responding to prompts to higher levels of engagement where the participants explore museum objects in a self-directed manner and where the object sparks discussion
View Social interaction between participants and the facilitator and with other participants
View Situated as a potential adjunct to approaches such as CST object handling as a meaningful activity for people with dementia has considerable potential to take advantage of cultural assets such as museums and art galleries and develop a new suite of cultural engagement activities for people with dementia
View Service users have described how arts engagement has supported their recovery; for example Parrs study illustrates that mental health service users who regularly participated in arts groups/activities experienced a sense of belonging that fosters positive emotion and self-esteem
View Empowerment The study shows that accessing cultural institutions can support feelings of empowerment for service users
View The service users found museums to be places where they found stimulation and a place for learning relaxation and wellbeing: Museums are very important [
View Jens suggests that for him visiting a museum can create a new life perspective and it improves his sense of wellbeing: Visiting a gallery [
View The findings in this study also illustrate that there was awkward communication between the service users and the museum educators resulting in an off-putting experience for some of the service users
View Meaning in life The findings in the study show that the service users have a comprehensive understanding of the role that the arts and cultural activity have in their lives and this understanding makes them experts on their own engagement in the arts and places them in a position to contribute as an engaged expert in their recovery
View The comments offered by the participating service users show that they are aware of the value that arts and cultural activities can bring to their lives in terms of life quality as well as health and wellbeing
View Its physical practical and psychological doing is a functionality that had a positive impact on health and wellbeing for the participating service users
View Being able to develop a creative identity and engaging in arts activities has positive wellbeing benefits and provide purpose and/or meaning in life to some service users
View In this way engagement in arts can be a vital element in rebuilding life contributing to survival and providing meaning in life for a service user and as a positive step in the recovery journey
View Empowerment is a multidimensional social process through which individuals and groups gain better understanding and control over their lives
View The empowerment of individuals aims to help adopt self-determination and autonomy exert more influence on social and political decision-making processes and gain increased self-esteem
View For the material psychosocial and political empowerment that underpins social wellbeing and equitable health it is vital for individuals to be included in society
View The European Pact for Mental Health and Wellbeing notes that people who have experienced mental health problems have valuable expertise and need to play an active role in planning and implementing actions and calls on policy makers and stakeholders to involve people with mental health problems and their families in relevant decision-making processes
View The findings in this study suggest that mental health service users experience a sense of empowerment by visiting museums/galleries and arts engagement
View Arguably the visits to the museums created negative experiences for some of the service servicers partly because of the unpreparedness of the museum educators which caused unintentional outcomes; the institutional logics of not training the museum educators got in the way of the intended positive experiences
View Recognising that mental health service users benefit from arts engagement in terms of the CHIME categories identified arts engagement can arguably play a vital role in the recovery process; it is possible to use arts engagement as a tool in recovery given that it is placed within a framework as arts engagement can add something unique to each personal and complex story and each journey provided that it is facilitated adequately
View Recent studies suggest the arts can promote health and psychological wellbeing and offer a therapeutic tool for many eg adolescents elderly and vulnerable individuals
View In this vein neuroimaging studies highlighted that immediate emotional responses to artwork and low-intensity enduring changes in affective states are associated with recruitment of brain circuitry involved in emotion regulation pleasure and reward
View Moreover the activation of an emotion processing network comprising the ventral and the dorsal striatum the anterior cingulate and medial temporal areas has been associated with the transient mood changes in response to happy and sad classical music
View Moreover in a study with people with dementia and their caregivers viewing traditional and contemporary galleries both art sites promoted well-being including positive social impact and cognitive enhancement
View Museum environment and artifacts offer an extraordinary aesthetic experience that allows the recollection of positive memories and evidence suggests that these reminiscence activities can affect mood self-worth and a general sense of well-being in the elderly
View Clow and Fredhoi reported that levels of salivary cortisol and self-reported measure of stress in healthy young individuals decreased significantly after a visit to the Guildhall Art Gallery of London
View Similarly exposure to figurative art lowers systolic blood pressure which could have relaxing effects
View Results revealed that only figurative art exposure decreased systolic blood pressure
View In fluency theory processing ease increases positive emotional response to artwork
View Wikstrom and colleagues showed that an educational program based on visual art dialogue evoked emotional experiences increasing nurses empathy
View These studies suggest that embedding visual art in healthcare education may increase understanding of emotional experience of chronic pain and suffering of the patients thereby improving nursing care practices
View Here we suggest that the processing of aesthetic artwork relies on the activity of reward-related brain areas resulting in positive emotions and pleasure that modulating affective state increase the individual predisposition to cognitive activities such as learning
View Linking the Brain to Aesthetic Experience The studies reviewed so far demonstrated that the aesthetic value of artwork and their use in educational programs may affect psychological and physiological states thus promoting well-being and enhancing learning
View Enduring predominance of diffuse positive affective states influences mood promotes health and learning
View This is accompanied by greater neural activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex regions strongly associated with the experience of reward and emotion processing
View Specifically defining visual stimuli as artistic prompted participants to judge artworks depicting negative emotional content more positively meaning liked more
View Some authors described the beneficial effects of music listening on the emotional health reporting that listeners use music to enhance positive emotions and regulate negative emotions affecting mood
View For instance a person who is experiencing emotional distress and has an absorptive personality will find pleasure in listening to sad music because being focused on the aesthetic experience of appreciating the beauty of music will disengage him/her from distress promoting positive mood
View In line with these findings a recent study of Ishizu and Zeki showed that images rated as beautiful but evoking opposite emotions modulated activity in OFC but also activated areas that have been found to be involved in positive emotional states such as the temporoparietal junction and the supramarginal gyrus and negative emotional states such as the inferior parietal lobule and the middle frontal gyrus
View Moreover it appears that art-specific emotions and utilitarian emotions found a common neural substrate in brain network involved in emotion processing and reward
View A portrait a sculpture or a piece of music conveying feelings of sadness may be rated as beautiful and produce a modulation onto OFC regions and the centers of reward-related responses similar to artworks conveying positive feelings such as joy and pleasure
View Deeper understanding of the dynamic relationship between bottom-up stimulus properties and top-down cognitive appraisal on emotional experience during the aesthetic appreciation of an artwork might be useful to effective use of art-based tools for promoting individual health and well-being
View The self-rewarding nature of aesthetic experience may influence the beholders affective state possibly improving wellbeing
View Cognitive decline in older adults is a recognised public health challenge with worsening memory and other cognitive abilities associated with a lack of functional independence and lower quality of life as well as signalling the onset of dementias-
View have proposed that it is primarily productive activities that have cognitive benefits suggesting that while receptive activities involve taking part in assimilatory behaviours that use existing skills and schema productive activities require the acquisition of new skills and schema which accounts for their stronger cognitive effect
View Participation in cultural activities showed moderate inter-correlations with going to galleries or museums correlating with going to the theatre concert or opera and with going to the cinema while going to the theatre and going to the cinema also correlated
View In relation to both memory and semantic fluency attending once a year or more appeared to be protective with evidence of a dose-response relationship in particular for semantic fluency indicating that more frequent attendance had a greater effect on cognition
View For example studies of music have found that listening to polyphonic music specifically recruits bilateral temporal frontal and parietal neural circuits that underly memory attention imagery and semantic and syntactic processing
View Broader positive wellbeing is also linked with a reduced risk of cognitive decline amongst older adults at a population level
View There is a wide literature showing benefits for positive affect and wellbeing from engaging with cultural activities such as the theatre concerts and museums
View Stress has been linked with faster cognitive decline such as through weakened prefrontal networks lower systolic blood pressure reactivity or increased cortisol levels-
View Other studies have shown that social isolation and loneliness are associated with poorer cognitive function in older age whereas social activity can be protective against cognitive decline
View Music programmes and combined photography and quilt-making classes have been found to improve executive function while theatre training has been found to improve memory and music-based multitask training has been found to reduce impairments in cognitive function
View Overall this study suggests that pre-existing cultural assets such as galleries museums theatres concerts and opera houses could play a role in supporting cognitive function in older adults
View Background: In line with recovery theories, psychosocial programmes for people diagnosed with severe mental illness should focus more on well-being and social connectivity outcomes rather than clinical symptoms
View For almost a century different disciplines have been studying the impact that creative practices such as writing music dance painting have on people diagnosed with severe mental illness
View Secker Hacking Spandler Kent and Shenton in a qualitative case study found that all participants of creative workshops with a diagnosis of SMI reported improvements in three psychological processes: motivation concentration and connection with others
View Recently museums have been the focus of attention for promoting health and social inclusion
View Based on Crawford Brown Baker Tischler and Abrams our study was framed under the notion of creative practice as mutual recovery: the idea that shared creativity collective experience and mutual benefit can promote resilience in mental health new insights and well-being among patients as well as their carers friends family and other healthcare professionals
View Complex learning process All participants users keyworkers and observers describe a complex learning process that involves various cognitive functions and different skills and knowledge
View Users with more experience participating in the workshops express an increase in their general cultural level and a better knowledge of artists and styles
View The idea that keyworkers had about the functionality ability to think and traits stereotypically attributed to people diagnosed with SMI seems to changes radically when interacting with them and participating in creative activities
View This emphasis on discursive and pragmatic aspects attention training and the effect of release from rumination suggests a value to cognitive rehabilitation through creative practice
View Cognitive training interventions can result in significant improvements in specific cognitive functions across a range of mental illnesses and creative practices have been applied as effective interventions in rehabilitation programmes with people with dementia
View The creative activity we have described enables people diagnosed with SMI to participate in various social practices away from clinical contexts and helps them to increase the quantity and quality of their social activities
View For this reason it is especially important that joint participation in creative activities by people diagnosed with SMI and the general public causes in the latter a transformation of the image of dysfunction associated with mental illness
View Obviously joint participation in creative practices of users professionals and family members or people in the community do not dissolve the tensions between the different agents but we have seen in our results that they help reconfigure the different roles generate new experiences and challenge established institutional practices
View We designed a structured interview with the view to facilitate communication with participants that exhibited different levels of cognitive functionality
View In summary the perceived positive impact of creative workshop activities on recovery their low cost together with the added potential for mutual benefit to health and social care practitioners present tentative evidence to recommend the development of creative activities in non-clinical settings and where possible and feasible in partnership with a varied stakeholder group including people diagnosed with mental disorders
View This paper presents research findings that help to understand how museum programs created opportunities to enhance wellbeing and health, and changed experiences of social isolation in older adults
View These components operated within a context that was enriched by the museum as a place to support wellbeing and enhance social interaction
View To meaningfully support socially isolated older people as part of local public health strategies, museums need to be accessible and engaging places that purposively support social interaction by involving people and objects, participating in multiple sessions over time, that are facilitated by skilled and knowledgeable staff
View Social prescribing is one way to offer interventions focusing on activities of interest rather than perpetuating dependence on clinical interventions such as psychological therapies GP visits and psychotropic medication to improve social inclusion and wellbeing in older people
View Loneliness and social isolation Social isolation is described as a lack of belonging and engagement with others and limited quantity and quality relationships leading to an increased likelihood that people will need to use healthcare services
View found that social relations buffer the effect of neighborhood deprivation on psychologically-related quality of life
View Wellbeing Although a definitive theory of wellbeing remains elusive the notion of psychological wellbeing has been suggested as comprising six key components personal growth self-acceptance autonomy purpose in life positive relationships and environmental mastery
View The role of social factors is apparent in this model recognizing that relationships are important to wellbeing
View Other components that affect psychological wellbeing such as loneliness life satisfaction and self-esteem have also been identified
View The Five Ways to Wellbeing report presented empirical evidence for improving wellbeing
View The report focused on community resources and what needs to be done to encourage and enable people's prosperity and wellbeing potential throughout their lives
View The international evidence base for health and wellbeing benefits of various arts and health interventions is growing
View Evidence has also shown that participatory arts in older age groups can challenge ideas of decline re-connect people to communities and target health needs that threaten wellbeing
View Further research is needed to explore how museum-based social prescribing can be beneficial for socially isolated older people and help address the needs of an ageing population to live healthy and meaningful lives
View Research aims Museums working as public health partners with health and social care services are ideally suited to offer community-based programs to support the wellbeing of socially isolated older people; they are numerous exist across different geographical areas are often free or low cost
View Previous research reported that -week museum programs reduced social isolation and increased wellbeing
View The present study sought to understand how museum-based social prescribing programs reduced social isolation for older people by determining the specific elements and processes involved and how these interacted to create a social and physical environment that enhanced psychological wellbeing
View Intervention As a key component of the research each museum agreed to develop specific activities that sought to enhance opportunities for engaging and participatory experiences based on their respective collections and staff expertise and interests
View From the larger data pool we sampled people with different end of program responses on standardized measures of loneliness and wellbeing measured by the R-UCLA Loneliness Scale Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale and UCL Museums Wellbeing Measure - Older Adult
View For example people reported evaluating themselves and others differently as a result of the group experience communicating more effectively and becoming more socially engaged due to increased confidence
View Interacting social context Museums provided a background context in which programs operated influencing group experience and enhancing the potential for change
View The museums provided unique topics of conversation about objects and their role in history and society as well as a welcoming place that created opportunities to do so it's a nice way to start a conversation and it's a very safe conversation [Pl] and I think the museum was sort of relaxed
View This interacted with the social context creating opportunities for change in both wellbeing and social isolation
View Discussion This study conceptualized how museum programs created opportunities for wellbeing and social inclusion in older people by illustrating the complex interactions between individual and social processes
View For museums to meaningfully support socially isolated older people and to offer programs that can usefully be part of local public health strategies the museum as a social place of interaction involving people and objects needs to be considered
View Along with considerations for place and length of time the role of the facilitator as museum expert and as a socially engaging and welcoming person was seen to be essential
View Theoretical considerations Research suggests that wellbeing is enhanced by a sense of belonging and being part of a community and that older age can limit opportunities for participating in social networks
View These findings lend further understanding to other studies involving older adults which have shown that museum-led programs improve psychological wellbeing provide opportunities for meaning making and exploration of identity provide meaningful social interactions and new learning experiences
View Drawing on Rowe and Kahn's work on successful aging which identified active engagement with life as having two major elements: maintenance of social relations and productive activities longer term museum-based programs such as those presented here contain the possibility of helping to develop and maintain social relations through active engagement in learning and creativity
View found that social resources had a pivotal influence on positive affect among oldest-old adults ; more so than previous life experiences
View Moreover as a way to protect their wellbeing many older people are more influenced by moral character than abilities when judging new people
View Community practice With an ageing population and reduced funding for health care public health is increasingly being utilized to provide interventions that focus on prevention of poor health and enhancing wellbeing
View For example expectations and previous experiences of education and learning may have contributed to differences in museum experiences
View Conclusion This study aimed to explore how museum programs created opportunities for social inclusion and wellbeing in socially isolated older people
View Using grounded theory analysis the proposed model identifies elements of museum programs that created opportunities for change such as providing more intense social experiences that are novel over a longer period of time; role of the facilitator; activities involving interesting and unusual objects; and physical space
View The model links to psychological concepts of self-esteem and wellbeing to build an understanding of individual characteristics and life experiences that constitute important factors in community-based later-life social interventions
View Arts for health initiatives and networks are being developed in a number of countries and an international literature is emerging on the evidence of their benefits to people's health, wellbeing and quality of life
View Engagement in cultural and creative arts by older people can increase their morale and self-confidence and provides opportunities for social connection
View The study has identified the benefits and impacts of the arts for health programme and its feasibility for older people, with or without diagnosed memory loss dementia, living in a care home or supported living facility and their care staff
View Public policy promotes active lives for ageing populations so that older people can maintain their independence continue contributing to society and add quality to their lives
View Ensuring a positive life experience for older people is about promoting their health and functional capacity their social participation and security which contribute to overall quality of life and wellbeing
View Residents mood correlates with reported quality of life and people with dementia in care homes have significant levels of unmet needs relating to lack of stimulating daytime activities and company
View Arts and creative activities form part of social engagement/ involvement and social prescription for health wellbeing and quality of life within communities
View Arts and creative activities have the potential to improve health wellbeing and quality of life for older people in care homes and address inequalities within this vulnerable population
View However there is an emerging body of knowledge which is seeking to establish the impact and benefits of culturally based arts for health projects on wellbeing and quality of life as part of social capital engagement justice and public health
View Reminiscence therapy for older residents in care homes located five trials with activities in groups or individually by qualified health professionals found some evidence to suggest effective in improving mood with effects not well understood
View The third review was also delivered by trained health professionals using cognitive stimulation positive reality orientation to improve cognitive functioning in people with dementia and concluded consistent evidence of benefit
View Older people in care homes are more likely to have restricted activities of living impaired mobility incontinence and depression
View The programme was part of the emerging work of the gallery and museum with the community to promote access to their collections share knowledge and learning social engagement and participation in cultural and creative arts activities
View Methods Aims To identify the benefits and potential impact of an arts for health programme on the wellbeing of older people from supported living and care home populations
View While gallery/museum staff viewed this as a challenge to their presentations and planned sessions care home staff suggested their residents being engaged in everyday activities along with other visitors was positive and normal experience and countered their usual days in their homes which could be quite isolated
View It was noted that exhibits and activities did encourage visitors engagement with their personal and shared history
View Benefits impact on wellbeing feasibility of the sessions and programme The ability of gallery/museum staff to be flexible and respond to older participants needs was a recurring factor throughout the observations and group discussion
View Buildings windows and green spaces have long been known to effect health wellbeing and recovery
View Such programmes can also contribute to social and cultural capital health inequalities social justice and public health by promoting wellbeing and quality of life for the wider public and for those populations who tend to be socially excluded or isolated
View Creativity wellbeing and older people Comments and feedback from older people staff and artists indicate there were immediate and short term benefits to peoples wellbeing through social engagement arts and cultural appreciation and creative activity
View Participating in the programme provided opportunity to enrich peoples lives wellbeing and quality of life in keeping with findings of others and the basis for the arts for health initiatives locally nationally and globally
View Brooker and Duce used the dementia care mapping wellbeing six item scale in their day hospital controlled trial of reminiscence therapy
View Conclusion The study has demonstrated that the arts for health programme is feasible and facilitates older people from care homes and supported living to access public museums and galleries to encourage creative arts cultural appreciation and social engagement which promote wellbeing quality of life and social inclusion
View The museums sector has responded to the global trend of increased awareness of health and well-being challenges by creating programmes for older adults, people with dementia and mental health service users, to name but a few (Chatterjee & Noble, 2,,3)
View The museums sector has responded to the global trend of increased awareness of health and well-being challenges by creating programmes for older adults people with dementia and mental health service users to name but a few
View A growing body of evidence suggests that cultural participation enhances human health and well-being ; however robust studies regarding the efficacy of museum encounters are limited
View Museums are increasingly playing a role in improving health and well-being and evidence shows that engaging with museums provides: positive social experiences leading to reduced social isolation; opportunities for learning and acquiring news skills; calming experiences leading to decreased anxiety; increased positive emotions such as optimism hope and enjoyment; increased self-esteem and sense of identity; increased inspiration and opportunities for meaning making; positive distraction from clinical environments including hospitals and care homes; and increased communication among families caregivers and health professional
View Studies of museum object handling for example show significant benefits for a range of patients in hospitals and care homes by improving mental and physical functioning providing a positive experience during the hospital stay and improving patient-doctor/carer communication
View Camic and Chatterjee propose a framework whereby museums develop strategic partnerships with local healthcare authorities health-care funders and other local museums and galleries to coordinate health and well-being programmes
View Such programmes could offer an on prescription referral service designed and delivered in partnership with health and social care organisations and methods have even been developed to evaluate the efficacy of such programmes in the form of a Museums Wellbeing Measure
View Background: The three year Ways of Seeing project was hosted by an award-winning museum and included adults with long-term diagnoses associated with mental health and physical impairments
View Findings about the benefits of arts participation echoed other studies but participants highlighted some difficulty with the ending of the project
View Museums and art galleries as spaces away from the clinical environment have a pivotal role to play in the public health agenda both in maintaining health and facilitating recovery key objectives of current mental health strategy
View Museum staff contributed sessions to discuss and contextualise what participants had observed on the visits
View A symposium halfway through the ten week exhibition which included the participants brought together interested people from throughout the UK sharing experiences of engaging the public in active ways to promote their health and wellbeing
View Local pride An unexpected finding was the expression of local pride validating the vision of the Lightbox to include local people and the participants achievements: Woking is fortunate to have such a wonderful art gallery
View This raises interesting questions about the emphasis of community arts projects when used to promote health and wellbeing
View People had opportunities to impact on the life of the museum becoming part of the museum itself
View Using resources in this way to widen participation and foster community involvement effectively changes attitudes and promotes social integration
View This study evaluates the impact of an arts-based intervention designed to nurture learner empathy through the provision of facilitated visual literacy activities
View The physician who is able to understand the perspective of another is afforded an enriched framework for understanding a patient which can contribute to accurate deci-sions reduce patient anxiety and encourage adherence
View In this regard visual literacy exercises purport to have a positive impact on learners cognitive processing
View Also noteworthy in the IRI results was a significant control group decrease in the empathy sub-component of PDan affective construct that refers to the discomfort or anxiety that one feels when observing another s negative experienceover the course of the programme
View Establishing the potential of an arts-based programme that nurtures empathy development will provide strong support for embedding arts and humanities training as important and credible parts of core curriculum in medical education
View There are 1,6 VA PRRCs throughout the USA, designed to be transitional learning centers with curriculum-based interventions to help veterans re-integrate into the community and develop meaningful activities independent of the hospital setting
View Many veterans recovering from severe mental illness are served by the VA West Los Angeles Psychosocial Rehabilitation and Recovery Center whose mission is to stimulate hope and promote mental health recovery by offering support education and opportunities so that individuals can successfully achieve their goals in the community
View Expressive art therapies can help individuals have improved sleep and impulse control greater concentration and less depression and anxiety
View Visual art has been shown to alleviate stress and anxiety in patients in healthcare settings
View Expressionist theories claim that the function of art is to communicate on the emotional level ; for veterans who are experiencing disabling emotional distress appreciating art and learning about artists thus could have positive effects on mood self-esteem socialization and community participation and may be a protective factor in suicide prevention
View opening yourself to insight inspiration guidance
View The WLA PRRC is a holistic program centered on the recovery model that provides evidence-based treatments wellness classes and creative arts experiences for veterans with severe mental illness
View The class learned that artists express their feelings and emotions through their art
View Results Program staff have emphasized the serenity the veterans experience as they view the images and absorb knowledge and that their social skills have been enhanced by the gentle encouragement to participate provided by the discussion facilitator
View The data also provide a rationale for continuation of the class with more detailed evaluations of both its subjective impact through measures of psychological functioning and its objective impact through measures of socialization community participation and progress toward independent living
View Conclusion The WLA PRRC Art Appreciation class embraces many aspects of the recovery model for the treatment of severe mental illness in veterans providing a unique learning adventure for the participants
View The class emphasizes cultural diversity and supports community integration combining didactics with community outings to provide places to go to appreciate art a deeper awareness of the lives of artists and in turn deeper insight into the veterans own life stories
View Benefits of arts-in-health interventions are relatively well-documented yet little robust research has been conducted using heritage-in-health interventions, such as those involving museum objects
View Methods: Hospital patients participated in semi-structured, 30.40 minute facilitated interview sessions, discussing and handling museum objects comprising selections of six artefacts and specimens loaned from archaeology, art, geology and natural history collections
View Conclusions: Heritage-in-health sessions enhanced positive mood and social interaction, endorsing the need for provision of well-being-related museum and gallery activities for socially excluded or vulnerable healthcare audiences
View Arts Council England found a considerable and growing evidence base of the effectiveness of arts interventions in healthcare and in promoting well-being that included improving the mental emotional and spiritual state of Health Service users and help medical staff caregivers patients and families to communicate more effectively with each other by offering opportunities for social interaction involvement and empowerment
View The New Economics Foundation define well-being as the dynamic process that gives people a sense of how their lives are going through the interaction between their circumstances activities and psychological resources or mental capital
View Museum object handling sessions carried out with hospital patients by medical students showed improvements in patient quality-of-life measures and student communication observation and research skills
View A study of museum object handling with cancer patients using quantitative measures demonstrated significant improvements in patient psychological well-being and happiness
View Furthermore qualitative research revealed that when experienced nurses took museum objects to patients bedsides the objects acted as a vehicle for communication and emotional disclosure in women facing a gynaecological cancer diagnosis
View Theoretical Framework The multi-disciplinary study reported here used a mixed-methods approach to assess the well-being benefits of handling and discussing museum objects with a range of hospital patients
View Spector Orrell and Woods showed that twice-weekly cognitive stimulation therapy with older adults diagnosed with early stage dementia living in residential care led to increases in two measures of cognition and in a participant-rated quality of life measure when compared with no treatment
View Educational research into stimulating and integrating sensory modalities particularly the deployment of VAK preferences associated with the Montessori Method a method of educating children that stresses the development of initiative and natural ability demonstrated wider appeal and assimilation of learning from the multiple presentation of material
View Field showed that adult participation in lifelong learning had a direct effect on well-being by encouraging people to develop resources and cognitive capacities an indirect impact where people could thrive and increase their resilience to risk and a cumulative effect by influencing the social and economic environment
View Material objects also elicit a sense of identity and play a role in the development of self-awareness through multisensory interaction
View The work of Camic Brooker and Neal on found objects showed that the use of such objects in psychotherapy helped to enhance engagement increase curiosity reduce difficult feelings evoke memories and provide a sense of agency through increased physical activity and environmental action
View Pearce argued that museum objects function as symbols of identity relationships nature society and religion and Dudley suggested that multisensory museum object encounters elicit ideas and meaning-making opportunities
View The study determined that when individuals interact with museum objects the intrinsic physical and material properties of the objects trigger sensory emotional and cognitive associations memories and projections
View The study examined quantitative and qualitative changes in psychological well-being resulting from handling and discussing museum objects in on-to-one facilitated sessions
View The aim of the research was to describe typical features of this intervention consider the factors that influenced the patients contributions to the sessions and examine the relationship of these factors to immediate post-session psychological well-being outcomes in relation to the psycho-educational theories explored above
View The encounter is typical of a patient-object interaction where the opportunity for hands-on object engagement heightened the participant experience and encouraged a sharing of knowledge ideas and feelings
View The posing of questions by patients indicated engagement and a stimulation of curiosity
View Influence of social physical and environmental context was another feature affecting the participant role in the handling sessions
View Craik and Lockharts levels of processing model is relevant in that tactile qualities such as texture shape and weight could have enhanced the kinaesthetic experience of sessions leading to deep and elaborate encoding
View suggested that cognitive stimulation therapy increased cognitive processing and laid down new connections in the brain as a result of encounters with novel stimuli and social interaction
View For example NEF explained that for people to experience personal well-being they need to be engaged in activities take the opportunity to learn new things and feel that their life has meaning and purpose
View In keeping with constructivist models of adult learning participants added to their existing knowledge of objects and linked memories taking the opportunity to question information in order to construct new meanings
View The research showed that objects taken outside the museum space evoked emotion as well as the recall of events people and places
View Mack referred to the role of archive material in triggering memories and Phillips found that when used in reminiscence sessions museum objects specifically coins and medals promoted learning creative thought skills development and greater confidence
View The processes of remembering and reminiscing demonstrated how meaning-making could contribute to the beneficial effect of the session and be used in positive and constructive ways that help build self-esteem and bolster a sense of identity
View The implication of meaning-making in the healthcare setting is explicated by Park who stated that meaning-making plays a central role in the coping and adjustment of most people facing major life stressors
View While meanings are normally developed and built upon through the visual sense in a museum environment object handling in healthcare settings provided participants with the opportunity to experience museum objects through other senses specifically touch
View Arguably the chance to interact through visual auditory and tactile senses in an interesting and engaging way with museum objects triggered recall of long-term memories of events and associated meanings
View This patient-facilitator community was transitory but exhibited some of the features of learning communities notably the facilitation of information exchange knowledge sharing and knowledge construction through continuous interaction built on trust and maintained through a shared understanding
View Conclusions The evaluation of a heritage-in-health intervention conducted across four patient groups in the same hospital suggested that museum object handling sessions produced beneficial and therapeutic effects on patient well-being and happiness
View Findings added weight to the need for provision of arts- and heritage-in-health activities for communities of hospitalized adults temporarily or permanently excluded from gallery and museum visits
View As a non-pharmacological intervention the results of these object handling sessions have shown that meaning-making and thinking have the potential to help patients cope and take part in a positive experience during their hospital stay
View Museums have the potential to reach a vast audience and profoundly shape the way people understand food and make decisions that affect the health of individuals families and communities
View The study investigated the impact of museum object handling sessions on hospital clients receiving occupational therapy in neurological rehabilitation and in an older adult acute inpatient mental health service
View Results: Themes emerging from detailed analysis of discourse involving clients and healthcare staff comprised: distraction and decreasing negative emotion; increasing vitality and participation; tactile stimulation; conversational and social skills; increasing a sense of identity; novel perspectives and thoughts; learning new things; enjoyment and positive emotion
View Museums are increasingly using collections as a bridge to wellbeing social inclusion and learning often taking objects beyond the museum site itself into communities
View Mixed methods research into the benefits of museum object handling sessions in hospitals and care homes showed patients or clients demonstrating an increase in wellbeing and happiness distraction from clinical surroundings and enhanced communication with staff carers and family members
View From this an analysis of clients subjective responses to objects allowed us to both generate new concepts and determine factors for success in achieving wellbeing outcomes
View Museum objects have a distinctive impact on learning and audience engagement since they are intrinsically interesting have physical qualities that tap into different learning styles and can evoke personal connections as well as aesthetic and emotional responses
View Allowing museum objects to be handled encourages a personal exploration that adds a further dimension to the individuals experience
View Research indicates that museum collections spaces expertise and experience can all be employed to promote health and wellbeing
View United Kingdom healthcare strategy has regarded multi-agency approaches and creative or cultural interventions as a means both to increase wellbeing and to reduce the need for later medical intervention
View Museum objects have been used with mental health service users and in residential care to trigger memories ; such reminiscence activities have demonstrated enhanced socialisation orientation and validation of life experiences
View The majority of participants had taken up the activity in later life and the study indicated that needlecraft was mentally and physically relaxing built selfesteem and enhanced perceived control
View Their findings suggested that the tactile aspect of working with clay was beneficial to health and wellbeing
View This research employed museum object handling to enhance health and wellbeing with the aim of examining the impact of the sessions on emotions feelings and life experiences as encouraged through tactile interaction with museum objects
View Method We undertook facilitated museum object handling sessions in three National Health Service healthcare settings where occupational therapists routinely work with clients with cognitive deficits due to vascular and degenerative disorders
View Qualitative analysis considered the ways in which improvements in reported wellbeing health social and physical functioning resulting from the sessions might have occurred
View Key themes included increasing positive emotion decreasing negative emotion enhanced vitality tactile stimulation improved social skills and sense of identity development of novel perspectives and thoughts and acquisition of new knowledge
View Our findings indicated that engaging with objects alleviated some effects of long-term hospitalisation such as the deterioration of confidence and identity; the loss of stimulating social and environmental occupations; rehabilitation goals; discharge of negative emotions and a preoccupation with illness
View In particular neurologically impaired participants for whom the effects of hospitalisation were extreme and deeply embedded demonstrated subtle signs of engagement with the objects and small improvements in wellbeing for which the sensitivity of qualitative methods was appropriate
View The main sign of engagement was an individual being drawn to the objects observable through signs of attention wonder curiosity interaction and from asking questions as well as from finding connections between the object and personal lived experience
View It was evident from our research that object handling stimulated a sense of self-esteem rekindled social intellectual experiential and emotional identity and acted as a distraction from clinical surroundings
View Distraction and decreasing negative emotion Participants in particular mental health clients came to sessions with depressive or anxious moods that could impair engagement
View Sessions visibly calmed anxiety and in some cases increased levels of enjoyment in depressed patients
View Tactile stimulation Being able to touch objects increased participants engagement by drawing them into the session but was also an end in itself
View In the context of a lengthy hospital stay and a transformative health condition preserving a clients sense of identity is especially important
View Many personal objects people and places are stripped away from their daily experience and their illness or condition can come to dominate their personality and become connected with much of what they do and think about on a daily basis
View Participants in our sessions tended to learn something about the objects or new skills and this increased their feelings of confidence and competence
View In line with Symonss et als research involving participants with neurological conditions undergoing rehabilitation using art materials engagement with museum objects helped to increase enjoyment and positive emotion for around two-thirds of the clients in this study
View Object sessions provided a therapeutic activity to fill time meaningfully between interventions
View Our study analysed qualitative data from considerably more participants and revealed reported increases in feelings of vitality as a result of participation
View Reynolds found that many adults had taken up needlecraft to help moderate depressive symptoms
View Similarly discussing and handling museum objects with others and contributing associated personal knowledge or life experiences could help endorse a sense of achievement and increased confidence in participants in addition to positive emotions such as self esteem
View Just as Timmons and MacDonald suggested that tactile activities such as working with clay to produce ceramic objects could benefit health and wellbeing it is likely that the tactile stimulation derived from touching and handling museum objects some of which were storage vessels and pottery shards was itself beneficial to wellbeing
View Many wellbeing outcomes derived from increased levels of conversation and from improved social skills developed through discussion about museum objects
View Handling and discussing museum objects appeared to reveal a range of wellbeing benefits for inpatient mental health service users and neurological rehabilitation clients implying that it should be considered as a regular activity in occupational therapy in particular for long-term settings
View Many potential participants had either never visited a museum or had found their museum experience unconstructive or boring
View Wellbeing The existing wellbeing of clients prior to the sessions was ascertained by wellbeing measures and through staff and facilitator observation
View Clients with speech impairments rarely consented to take part although eligible and those with severe depression and attentional disorders had difficulty comprehending the nature of the session and contributed low levels of dialogue touch and interest
View In guiding and encouraging participation answering questions and ensuring the safety of participants and objects experienced facilitation was essential
View Although it would have been useful to discover that museum object handling might be added to the repertoire of occupational therapists and other healthcare professionals many staff reported the facilitator being an outside presence contributed to the success of the sessions in that the person provided museum knowledge and provided a presence not associated with illness assessment or occupational therapy goals
View Heritage objects Heritage objects as opposed to everyday three-dimensional objects added a positive aspect to the handling sessions; participants felt a sense of privilege from being able to handle these special objects
View Some for example Egyptian artefacts conveyed a sense of mystery that encouraged participants to explore them while others reminded them of visits to museums holidays and heritage sites or television documentaries
View Conclusion Museum object handling sessions introduced in long-term residential hospital contexts offered an idiosyncratic but effective activity to add to occupational therapy
View The research found that the sensory nature of museum objects combined with a positive narrative enhanced feelings of confidence vitality participation identity enjoyment and wellbeing
View The activity aided occupational therapists by increasing their understanding of client needs and in improving client wellbeing and competence so bringing clients closer to occupational goals of recovery adaptation and independence
View Although occupational therapy is concerned with the health and wellbeing of clients through occupations of life wellbeing arising from interaction with heritage and cultural objects is a relatively under-explored area
View Throughout much of the world health-care treatment is delivered in clinics and hospitals while health promotion and illness prevention activities mostly occur in schools community organisations and the workplace
View Museums can be places that encourage people to learn about themselves their culture and society and the larger world around them
View PLACES OF CULTURAL ACTIVITY ENGAGEMENT AND INTERACTION There is increasing evidence from quantitative and qualitative studies in different countries that arts-based and other cultural programmes can reduce adverse psychological and physiological symptoms and are positive determinants for survival well-being and quality of life and self-reported health
View Several authors have described the social role of museums particularly their importance as agents to increase social inclusion and reduce socially excluding practices across communities by providing environments and processes to re-examine behaviour attitudes and beliefs
View Given the economic challenges facing the cultural health and social care sectors and an increased focus on community-based public health interventions as part of the current UK governments Big Society policy we argue that the time has never been more pertinent for a closer engagement between museums and health and social care providers
View Silverman suggests that museums contribute to the pursuit of health and well-being in five major ways: promoting relaxation; an immediate intervention of beneficial change in physiology emotions or both; encouraging introspection which can be beneficial for mental health; fostering health education; and acting as public health advocates and enhancing health-care environments
View Recently completed research with medical and psychiatric patients demonstrated the health-care potential of museum objects to assist with counselling on issues of illness death loss and mourning and to help restore dignity respect and a sense of identity
View Mack has described objects as containers or memory and several authors have noted that museum objects trigger memories in ways that other informationbearing materials do not
View During such encounters participants report that object interactions help them recall memories and encourage interactivity
View Some museums have taken the notion of memory and reminiscence interventions a step further and extended such activities to the training of health-care professionals who care for people with dementia and other cognitive disorders
View Sense of connection and belonging Human capital: using and improving skills Optimism and hope Moral values beliefs Identity capital self-esteem Emotional capital resilience Opportunity for success Recognition of achievement Support Quiet rest sanctuary Social capital relationships Meaningful pursuits Safe rich museum environment Access to arts and culture It is argued that when people interact with museums and their collections the objects material physical and intrinsic properties trigger a variety of emotional and sensory responses cognitive associations memories and projections
View The role and interplay of sensory modalities may help explain why kinaesthetic museum interventions afford wellbeing benefits
View proposed that museum interventions draw upon Paivios dual coding model which suggests that verbal and visual material are connected in a short-term working memory store and Baddeleys modality effect which proposes cognitive advantages to working memory when auditory and visual modalities are integrated
View s research also highlighted the interplay of touch in the multi-sensory museum experience and they infer that since three senses are at play during museum interventions a triple-coding model could help explain the cognitive advantages that lead to health and wellbeing outcomes
View Despite an enhanced understanding of the possible cognitive and psychosocial evidence regarding the benefits of artsand health-focused interventions in museums/galleries research is still in an early stage and tends to lack control or comparison groups that would better allow assessment of impact and health economic analysis
View Rather than attempting to address all known health and well-being concerns a more productive and strategic approach would involve museums developing partnerships with local healthcare authorities health-care funders and other local museums and galleries to coordinate resources knowledge and expertise
View While valuing their independence and unique focus as distinct cultural organisations local and shared coordination of museum-based public health services -culture and health planning - can enhance the variety of programmes offered and also increase their sustaina-bility; two exemplars of this type of framework are seen through health-care and museum networks in Boston Massachusetts and the northwest of England
View A further advantage of collaboration and coordination between the heritage and health-care sectors could lead to the development of new research partnerships with universities further adding to the growing evidence of the impact of cultural activities on health a goal that Clift has forcefully argued for in order to support and encourage more evidence-based practice
View Yet these differences in purpose scope and structure can also be drawn upon to help address some of the problems related to health promotion illness prevention wellbeing and quality of life for people across a range of age groups with different risk factors and from different socioeconomic and ethnic groups only some of which we have cited above
View Additional research should also use social comparison and control groups in order to more rigorously assess the impact of the overall museum/art gallery experience but also in relation to measuring specific health and social outcomes
View Educational research indicates the importance of developing educational activities starting from the realities and previous knowledge of the public involved
View Art therapy is a healing art intended to integrate physical, emotional, and spiritual care by facilitating creative ways for patients to respond to their cancer experience
View A new art therapy program was designed to provide cancer patients with opportunities to learn about the McMichael Canadian Art Collection and to explore personal feelings about their cancer experience through combined gallery and studio components
View Evaluation of the art therapy/museum education program demonstrated many benefits for cancer patients including support, psychological strength, and new insights about their cancer experience
View Creative skills used in art therapy help patients explore feelings find meaning and improve coping with their cancer experience
View The evaluation of a new art therapy program that was designed to provide cancer patients with opportunities to leant about the McMichael Canadian Art Collection and to explore personal feelings about their cancer experience through combined gallery and studio components is reported in this paper
View Therapeutic arts and humanistic environments for art therapy educational programs have been shown to promote aspects of healing related to a patients sensibilities and reveal insights about health and illness
View Benefits from participating in an art therapy program have been realized by patients with cancer
View Additional benefits of art therapy programs offered in hospital included cooperation among staff patients families and artists by diminishing barriers and improving morale on the bone marrow transplant unit
View Findings Evaluation findings about the structure of the program described participants* perceptions about attendance duration and supplies
View Process findings related to the organization strengths and weaknesses of the art therapy program
View Program structure Participants anticipated each week to be a special time to explore feelings and develop friendships with those who understood the cancer experience
View Learning about the history of different artists through gallery visits videos and movies allowed participants to increase their awareness of art and its impact on the human spirit
View The facilitator assisted each participant in interpretation of their drawings and encouraged expression of their feelings and thoughts
View A knowledgeable compassionate flexible and thoughtful facilitator created an atmosphere of respect and openness
View The art therapy program facilitated their identification and exploration of deeper feelings and strengthened their ability to balance their cancer experience with other aspects of their lives: / think art
View Participants gained a deeper awareness of their difficult emotions and knowledge of how to copc more effectively with emotional and physical aspects of the cancer experience
View Participants fell more able to get in touch with their feelings and express them in a positive manner
View This personal growth allowed participants to communicate better with people close to them
View Participants understood and valued art therapy as a vehicle for expressing feelings and learning new coping skills
View One participant fell that the experience during the sessions provided a buffer between lhe worry of cancer and the joy of living
View Others relied on the group participation to promote a positive healthy altitude about their disease:
View First comments from participants demonstrated that the program was a success and that the program design allowed patients to accomplish the program objectives
View The gallery component provided a learning environment in which participants increased their knowledge about and appreciation of different types of art
View Participants learned Io focus less on their artistic abilities and
View Secondly the art therapy program helped participants examine their feelings about their cancer experience and develop new ways to think and feel about their respective issues
View Ilie nursescan inform patients about opportunities to participate in an art therapy program in their area
View They could also encourage patients to explore art therapy as a means of coping with difficult emotions throughout the cancer experience
View The demands of different stages of cancer care may affect a patients readiness and the amount of emotional energy that is available to commit to and benefit from an art therapy program
View Continuation of the art therapy program could provide ongoing support for patients throughout their cancer experience
View Examination of a larger sample could strengthen the findings of this program evaluation and quantify the psychosocial benefits of participating in an art therapy program for patients with cancer
View A challenge in the field of aging is developing training regimens that stimulate neuroplasticity and delay or reverse symptoms of cognitive and cerebral decline
View Aims: Loneliness and social isolation negatively affect wellbeing and quality of life
View Findings presented here focus on the qualitative data around the impact of participatory arts on the social relationships in care homes between older people and older people and care staff
View Results: Participatory arts enhanced social relationships between older people and between older people and care staff in care homes
View Through engagement in shared experiences leading to increased communication and interaction, participatory arts facilitated social connectedness between residents, and changed the relationship dynamics between older people and care staff, thus promoting reciprocity
View The direct consequences of loneliness are both social and emotional - but loneliness and social isolation can also be detrimental to health wellbeing and quality of life
View As people age they may be more susceptible to experiencing loneliness and social isolation due to the loss of social networks through life transitions such as retirement bereavement reduced mobility and health deterioration
View Reasons for moving to a care home include poor physical health and/or cognitive impairments which can create barriers to interaction between residents and establishing meaningful interpersonal relationships can be difficult
View The impact of participatory arts on the wellbeing of older people is widely acknowledged
View Arts also facilitated interactions and enhanced social capital helping to strengthen existing relationships and build new ones
View Finally arts enabled older people of all capacities to engage in meaningful social participation and make a valued contribution to their relationships and communities indicating the potential of participatory arts to alleviate loneliness and social isolation experienced in care homes
View Introducing participatory arts in care homes presents an opportunity for residents to engage in meaningful activities as recommended by the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence
View In terms of social relationships it has been found that participatory arts programmes provided opportunities for meaningful social contact support and friendship improved relationships between people living in care homes and fostered a better sense of social cohesion and community for those with dementia in care homes
View More recently outcomes of improved communication increased socialisation and a better atmosphere have been identified
View Research undertaken by Anglia Ruskin University and the Older Peoples Research Group Essex an independent research group led by and for older people aimed to generate evidence for the impact as well as the mechanisms through which participatory arts can build social relationships and address issues of loneliness and social isolation in care homes
View RESULTS The data showed that involvement in participatory arts helped to address issues of loneliness and social isolation by promoting the social relationships between older people and between older people and staff in care homes
View Communication and interaction Observations of the activities showed that residents expressed themselves verbally but also using non-verbal forms of communication including facial expressions smiling and making eye contact and through modelling or mirroring dance moves and dancing with partners: The skills that they picked up over that time were very varied from the actual motor skills of expression and physical movement and then also very creative skills
View Social connectedness between older people For residents participatory arts produced a sense of collective enjoyment
View The closeness and camaraderie that developed through the participatory arts built social connections for example some residents in stage described their new group identity as being a member of a club: Yes its made it more a communal feeling
View Finally through involvement in participatory arts and watching the arts facilitators care home staff learnt new skills and techniques for engaging with residents: I learnt new interaction techniques techniques to get a group of people able to communicate with each other more as well
View DISCUSSION The findings demonstrate the impact of participatory arts on the social relationships between older people and between older people and staff in care homes with the potential to address issues of loneliness and social isolation
View Engagement in shared experiences leading to increased communication and interaction has the potential to address social isolation in particular
View Our findings however showed that the shared experience of participatory arts promoted interactions within sessions and provided new topics of conversation for ongoing interactions
View Our findings show that participatory arts promoted social connectedness through facilitating collective enjoyment supporting and encouraging others developing a sense of camaraderie and community and strengthening friendships
View Residents shared knowledge and memories of objects and histories that staff had little awareness of and took on lead roles during arts activities allowing staff to see them in a new light and value their contribution
View CONCLUSION Participatory arts engage older people enable them to express themselves creatively connect with others including care home staff and provide the opportunity for them to make meaningful contributions to their social relationships in care homes
View Our findings show that the intervention achieved a positive impact on the self-confidence, well-being and engagement of disadvantaged young people
View Used as a tool for promoting social inclusion arts and music have been associated with the enhancement of wellbeing
View While studies show encouraging results in terms of the impact of community interventions on self-efficacy self-esteem well-being and health of adolescents the evidence linking young people's participation in the arts to increased engagement and well-being is fragmented and inconclusive
View Through participatory music making the organisation aims to engage disadvantaged young people in creative activities helping them to express their emotion
View Writing songs and/or composing lyrics was identified as a space where young people feel free to explore their lives emotions and experiences: Its about understanding and accepting and exploring a little bit more about what their care identity means and some of the experiences that have happened to them and I guess just using that in a really expressive way to better manage emotions and all those interpersonal skills that go on
View The results of controlled experiments show that brisk or soothing music can greatly promote the psychological health of adolescence, and brisk music has the better promoting effect; the neurofeedback mechanism for the promoting effect lies in that brisk and soothing music can reduce the electroencephalogram signal fluctuations of adolescents, making their moods more stable, positive and healthy
View The research results provide a good reference for promoting the mental wellbeing of adolescents with music therapy
View MUSIC AND MENTAL HEALTH Relationship between music and mental health Many research studies have shown that music is related to the shaping of emotions and mental health and the shaping of music to emotions is related to internal factors and external factors
View For example research by many scholars show that music can awaken the same kind of emotional experience induce positive or negative emotions and then affect mental health
View The above experimental results show that brisk music can significantly improve the BDI scores of adolescents and the emotional and mental health of adolescents are significantly improved compared with that before the music experiment
View The brisk music is more effective in soothing the emotions of the teenagers and improving their mental health
View Previous research has shown that music plays a positive role in shaping mood and mental health
View The ERP method shows that brisk music and soothing music can effectively reduce the agility of adolescents' brain electricity make the mood more stable and the psychological condition is more positive and healthy
View A comparative study of brisk music and soothing music shows that brisk music is more effective in relaxing emotions and shaping healthy psychology and can enable teenagers to have a more positive attitude
View Bayesian modelling demonstrated moderate evidence of a strong positive impact of training on part A of the Trail Making test , indicating improved visuo-motor skills
View In order to understand the precise mechanisms by which arts engagement practices can help older adults to maintain physical and mental skills we need hypothesis-driven intervention-based research that incorporates quantitative measures to target specific motor and cognitive outcomes
View Older adults experience a myriad of psychosocial benefits from learning to play a musical instrument even beginning as novices and training over relatively short-term periods
View Bugos and colleagues demonstrate that healthy older adults experience significant improvements in cognitive measures as a result of piano training programs when compared against a control group
View Seinfeld and colleagues also show significant improvements in cognitive measures for a group of older adults involved in piano training programs as compared to other leisure activities
View A shortterm mallet training program has also been shown to lead to significant increases in musical self-efficacy and a trend increase in performance of the Trail Making Test part B in comparison to an autobiographical discussion group
View The tasks required in music instrument training employing sensory motor and multimodal brain regions have been shown to stimulate brain plasticity
View Preservation of domain-general fine motor skills may also benefit healthy older adults supporting maintenance of skills required for numerous daily tasks involved in independent living
View It is clear that older participants in a variety of contexts gain cognitive emotional and social benefits from developing the skills to play a musical instrument taking place in a range of formal and informal learning environments
View Older adults frequently cite the ensemble nature of musical activities as a motivating factor to continuing engagement in learning to play an instrument with the social aspect of the ensemble offering its own wellbeing benefits through developing new relationships and decreasing isolation
View As Andrea Creech Susan Hallam and colleagues have noted in the Music for Life project the effective acquisition of musical skills by later-life learners may be highly dependent on their subjective experiences in the dynamic learning environment and the use of learning materials appropriate to their abilities and interests
View training no physical impairments to the hands or arms no cognitive impairments normal to corrected hearing and vision
View Figurenotes was developed in Finland in the mid-s designed primarily to increase accessibility to learning and performing music through lowering the cognitive demand associated with learning and processing musical notation
View After two practice trials participants completed experimental trials
View Participants enjoyment was directly connected to their motivations for learning to play such as being able to learn a skill and/or repertoire that held a certain level of esteem or was familiar enough to everyone to be able to be shown off at certain occasions
View We found moderate evidence to support hypothesized gains in part A of the Trail Making Test suggesting that training positively affected the participants visuo-motor skills
View Following on from Schneider and colleagues recommendation to determine the level of musical exposure required to protect older adults from cognitive decline it appears that a short-term intervention constitutes enough training to see positive benefits in simple visuo-motor skill
View Participants particularly noted their feelings of achievement competence and increased self-efficacy after the training program; this aligns with self-determination theory providing further evidence that music training programs may be linked to increasing wellbeing for older adults
View Sense of agency refers to the ability to influence ones functioning and environment, relating to self-efficacy, and wellbeing
View Sense of agency can be seen as a health resource and significant part of youth development, and current findings provide new insight into when and by which conditions such affordance is likely to be employed
View Sense of agency refers to the ability to influence ones functioning and environment relating to self-efficacy and wellbeing
View Sense of agency can be seen as a health resource and significant part of youth development and current findings provide new insight into when and by which conditions such affordance is likely to be employed
View Indeed several studies have consistently shown that efficacy beliefs contribute to for example smoke-cessation adherence to healthy behavior recovery from traumatic situations and lower levels of depression
View Music for Agency participatory engaged and activeie agentic
View Learning how music can be used empowers the individual to act on their own affective states wellbeing health and agency modes
View Music-Fostered Agency and Wellbeing Seeking and exploring the sense of agency through music seems to be particularly relevant for individuals that are either developing their agency or experiencing a reduction in their ability to control their actions and/or environment
View Their data show that by reflecting on their music uses and learning self-care the participants increased their sense of control and agency
View When using music to cope with pain or stressful medical interventions control and agency have also appeared to matter significantly: the beneficial effects of music have been reported to be especially visible when the participants could choose their own music to listen to
View observed that the sense of agency was key for the participants: after the intervention the young participants reported an increased awareness of their position as agents who can utilize the affordances of music to reduce distress and promote their own development
View Sense of agency has been identified as a defining element in music usages and their role on social-emotional health
View In the conceptual model of health-relevant competencies in music Saarikallio argues that engaging in musical behaviors can foster emotional health when the emotions expressed evoked and regulated through music are surrounded by self-reflective awareness and sense of self-control and agency
View In this line of thought the use of music to increase the sense of agency and beliefs of efficacy can be seen as one way of musical self-enhancement
View Thirdly we expected changes in both internal and external agency to correlate with changes in valence with increased sense of agency correlating positively with mood improvement
View The former informs us that there is a plethora of contextual factors that shape the usages and related affective impact of music in everyday life listening and the latter posits that the sense of agency is embedded context-bound plastic and malleable
View Internal agency change was particularly predicted by positive initial valence and reasons for listening that related to positive mood maintenance or mood repair: entertainment/enjoyment mood enhancement mood improvement and coping
View Entertainment has previously been linked to raising moods while listening to music alone and to higher wellbeing and lower symptomatology and the use of music as a coping resource in general has widely been acknowledged in the recent literature
View Previous research has demonstrated emotional stability as a determinant of affective wellbeing while adolescence has been characterized by higher emotional intensity and lower stability
View The observed relatedness of agency increase with valence increase is a noteworthy addition to the broader literature on music and wellbeing proposing that agency and mood regulation may serve as dialogical determinants for adaptive and health-fostering music engagement
View Overall the findings provide pioneering insight into understanding music listening from the perspective of adolescent agency and wellbeing within the complexity of daily experiences
View Music listening coping peer affiliation and depression in adolescence
View Inhibitory control, the ability to suppress an immediate dominant response, has been shown to predict academic and career success, socioemotional wellbeing, wealth, and physical health
View While music training has been shown to benefit cognitive and language skills, its impact on inhibitory control remains inconclusive
View The results suggest that systematic extracurricular programs, particularly music-based training, may accelerate development of inhibitory control and related brain networks earlier in childhood
View Inhibitory control the ability to suppress an immediate dominant response has been shown to predict academic and career success socioemotional wellbeing wealth and physical health
View While music training has been shown to benefit cognitive and language skills its impact on inhibitory control remains inconclusive
View Inhibitory control has been shown to be predictive of academic success career success positive socioemotional wellbeing wealth reduced substance abuse risk and incarceration and physical health
View In addition to behavioral improvements these interventions produced training-related activation increases in regions of the cognitive control network changes in the cognitive control network in both children and adults
View Recently there has been increasing interest in the impact of music interventions on developing inhibition control
View observed behavioral differences between groups and others have reported no significant benefits of music training on inhibition leaving the findings inconclusive
View used a computerized curriculum with a focus on listening rather than learning to play a musical instrument which involves sensory-motor learning and participation in a group setting
View Differences in individual and group music training between studies may also affect comparability between studies since the social aspect of music making requires more integration of cognitive and social functions than solo playing
View To draw broader conclusions about the impact of music training throughout society more research involving participants from diverse backgrounds is needed
View Additionally by comparing children involved in music training to children involved in sports training we assess whether any effects observed in measures of inhibition are related to music training specifically or are associated with any type of extra-curricular activity that is socially engaging and motivating
View We hypothesize: that children involved in music training will show greater improvements on behavioral measurements of inhibition than will children involved in no systematic training and children involved in sports training evidenced by reduced reaction time and improved accuracy; that during an fMRI inhibition task children involved in music training as compared to children with no systematic training will show greater activation of brain regions associated with inhibitory control including the IFG SMA/pre-SMA ACC and insula continuing the pattern reported after years of training
View Additionally sports training was chosen due to its sensory motor learning a component shared with music training
View Music participants improved their accuracy significantly in incongruent trials after and years of training whereas improvement was observed in the sports and control groups but did not reach a level of significant difference
View Group differences in the delayed gratification and flanker fish tasks albeit not always statistically significant indicate a trend toward enhanced inhibition skills in participants involved in music training and are consistent with other longitudinal findings citing overall greater inhibitory control improvements in musically trained children
View It should be noted that several studies report increased engagement of the cognitive control network related to decreased efficiency in inhibition tasks
View Despite these limitations we provide evidence that years of group-based music training leads to modest positive effects on inhibition skills evidenced by a greater rate of accuracy improvement on a Flanker task and increased rational decisions on a Delayed Gratification task and its neural correlates in children from underserved communities
View Cognitive flexibility modulates maturation and music-training-related changes in neural sound discrimination
View Increased engagement of the cognitive control network associated with music training in children during an fMRI Stroop task
View The EMT group showed a significant increase in IQ , in comparison to 4,3 points for the SSM group, suggesting an effect of musical learning on intelligence
View The novel use of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children provides evidence that musical learning may support development in a childs ability to judge distance, consider velocity, focus and use their proprioceptive, interoceptive and exteroceptive nervous systems
View The novel use of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children provides evidence that musical learning may support development in a childs ability to judge distance consider velocity focus and use their proprioceptive interoceptive and exteroceptive nervous systems
View Keywords intelligence learning memory motor abilities music education socio-emotional wellbeing transfer effects Altenmller and Schneider described performing music as the most demanding of human accomplishments
View Multiple brain regions in both hemispheres and neural networks have been associated with structural and functional changes due to or concomitant with musical training
View Therefore as music is a whole-brain activity and changes in neural architecture have been observed in line with skill-specific learning the study of expert adult musicians has contributed to the phenomenon of metaplasticity
View That is increased exposure to music as well as the provision of musical instrument learning Psychology of Music combines to support the process of enculturation
View Further qualitative data can be found in Rose which supports the importance of the alignment of positive social biological and psychological syzygies in the development of musical learning as described in McPherson et al
View The role of parental influences in the development of musical performance
View Musical training shapes structural brain development
View Brain changes after learning to read and play music
View We investigated the effects of musical training on patients with behavioral and cognitive deficits following a mild traumatic brain injury and found significant functional neuro-plastic changes in the OFCs networks
View Participants in the clinical group had received standardized cognitive rehabilitation treatment during hospitalization without recovering from their impairments
View We hypothesized that playing piano, as designed in the training protocol, may provide a positive increase in both well-being and social interaction
View We investigated the effects of musical training on patients with behavioral and cognitive deficits following a mild traumatic brain injury and found significant functional neuro-plastic changes in the OFCs networks
View Participants in the clinical group had received standardized cognitive rehabilitation treatment during hospitalization without recovering from their impairments
View Optimal treatment and rehabilitation of patients with head injuries can mean the difference between disability or normal functioning
View Vikane concluded in a longitudinal study of patients with mTBI that multidisciplinary outpatient clinical treatment did not have a positive effect on whether the patient return to work or stay on sick-leave
View Emotional recognition is important in social interactions helping individuals to understand intentions and thereby guide behavior
View Increasing evidence suggests that music making could be used as a possible tool in neurologic rehabilitation
View The psychological effects and neurobiological mechanisms underlying the effects of music interventions are likely to share common neural systems for reward arousal affect regulation learning and activity- driven plasticity
View Based on knowledge from music psychology music perception and cognition as well as the effects of music production on changes in neural networks we designed a music supported intervention to explore the behavioral and neuronal changes in patients with cognitive deficits following a mTBI
View demonstrated an interaction effect within OFC where patients showed a specific increase of activity compared to healthy controls
View There is little knowledge about the potential neuroplastic changes induced by musical training within the emotional control and social enhancement of mTBI patients
View Neuroplasticity in OFC After Music-Therapy music-supported interventions for patients with deficits in social behavior may experience a positive enhancement of social interactions and thereby live a better life
View The aim of the present study is to investigate factors during piano training that may be responsible for enhanced social interaction in patients with social deficits following mTBI
View Participants had received rehabilitation treatment prior to the intervention without any improvement of their deficits and had persistent problems with attention concentration memorization fatigue and social behavior and were either on sick-leave or working part time with adjusted work; see Table for the clinical data of the patient group
View Participants in both music groups kept a log of their actual training-time
View Clinical data was obtained from patients medical records neuropsychological test results from a California Verbal Learning Test test and social behavior and wellbeing prior to intervention was obtained from semi-structured interviews
View As described earlier the initial repeated-measure ANOVA revealed a significant group repetition interaction for details showing an increased activity in OFC in patients but not in the controls
View RESULTS Emotional and Social InteractionSemi-structured InterviewsGroup Data from semi-structured interviews demonstrate a qualitative increase in social interaction and well-being post-intervention
View However two of seven patients did not improve their social behavior as reported in Table P had developed post-traumatic depression and felt isolated and P reported difficulties in emotional recognition in social settings followed by poor social activity and a feeling of isolation despite a positive work-situation post intervention
View Neuropsychological Tests As reported earlier the CVLT test demonstrated a significant effect of musical training on executive functions related to attention learning strategies and retrieval of memories in the patient group and the healthy control group with music intervention
View This revealed seven areas that showed an increase in the patient group only
View Compared to the control group that received the same training patients showed reduced functional connectivity from the right OFC to the left posterior OFC and increased functional connectivity from the left posterior to the left anterior OFC after the intervention
View When compared to the control group without training the same increased functional connectivity between the two left-sided OFC nodes was found again as well as an increased functional connectivity from left posterior to the right OFC an increased self-inhibition of the left anterior OFC and a reduced self-inhibition of the left posterior OFC
View The results highlighted areas where patients demonstrated an increase of activity from pre- to post-examination while control subjects did not show an increase or even a slight decrease
View interviews in which six out of seven participants in the clinical group reported improved well-being and social interaction together with a normal work-situation supports the view of increased social behavior after music intervention
View The fact that playing a musical instrument is a complex activity for the brain and activates almost all region of the brain may be an essential key factor in the enhancement of cognitive functions and thereby the improvement of well-being and social interaction
View Music activity also activates areas involved in episodic and semantic memory networks and stimulates and strengthens perception and cognition by activating neural networks that are involved in analyzing perceptual patterns in music
View Music listening and production activate the reward circuitry cortical networks in reference to emotional reward followed by a dopamine releasea neurotransmitter evident in the reward system
View Playing the piano has a profound effect on the neural networks in engaging neural circuits evident in emotion and reward which is important for stimulus-reinforcement learning an essential factor in social interaction
View The three explored areas of the left and right OFC mostly showed increased connectivity and increased activity which corresponds to the findings from the task-related fMRI
View The areas that showed signs of recovery are all areas related to attention and cognitive control but also to social cognition Interestingly nearly all detected brain areas that showed a recovery effect also received direct or indirect dopaminergic connections like the prefrontal cortex and the anterior insular cortex
View Finally the increased activity of the bilateral OFC could be seen in light of the increased scores in social interaction
View However given the size of the sample this description remains of a more qualitative nature and further studies with larger samples with a control patient group to rule out which effects are dedicated to the music intervention and which effects might result from increased social interaction during and because of the training are required
View CONCLUSION We have demonstrated that playing the piano may induce neuroplasticity and thereby enhance social interaction and well-being in patients with cognitive deficits following mTBI
View We suggest that neural activation during weeks of intense and structured music intervention promoted social interaction and enhanced cognitive performance in the clinical group a view supported by the literature of neuroplastic changes in the brain during music-training
View Altered resting state effective connectivity of anterior insula in depression
View Structural changes induced by daily music listening in the recovering brain after middle cerebral artery stroke; a voxel-based morphometry study
View Listening to and making music facilitates brain recovery processes in The Neuroscience and Music III
View Music-based interventions in neurological rehabilitation
View Effects of music production on cortical plasticity within cognitive rehabilitation of patients with mild traumatic brain injury
View The current study explored the circumstances in which seven young people with a tendency to depression chose different styles of music to listen to, and their level of awareness of the impact of their music listening habits on mood and wellbeing
View The current study explored the circumstances in which seven young people with a tendency to depression chose different styles of music to listen to and their level of awareness of the impact of their music listening habits on mood and wellbeing
View Depression also has an impact on the social and intellectual development of young people as well as reducing engagement with education at a crucial developmental stage
View It is therefore imperative to address depression in young people before its impact on their lives increases
View This increased engagement with media includes music listening with emotional dependency on music also tending to increase during periods of depression
View Music and Young People With Depression a ruminative coping style which is highly predictive of clinical depression tend to be attracted to music that can intensify symptoms of depression
View This is implied by one study conducted by Garrido and Schubert in which participants with high levels of rumination reported having benefited from listening to sad music while at the same time reporting an increase in depressive symptoms
View Similarly in a study on listening to nostalgic music Garrido found that implicit mood measures indicated a much higher level of negative mood responses after listening to nostalgic music than participants reported in response to direct questioning
View In other cases study participants demonstrated a tendency to construe music listening positively regardless of its effect on their mood
View Thus it appears that there is a need to develop nuanced strategies for increasing awareness of the effect that music listening can have on young peoples mood and wellbeing
View Given the central role that music plays in the lives of young people increasing such awareness has the potential for positive benefits through increased understanding of adaptive and maladaptive behaviors more generally
View There is a need to further understand how young people are enabled to increase their awareness about the effects of music on their wellbeing
View The current study uses a grounded theory approach to explore the following research question through interviews with seven young people: To what degree are young people with symptoms of depression aware of the effect their music-listening has on mood and wellbeing and how do they reach a state of awareness? METHODS The research question lends itself to an inductive approach in which a topic is explored with no prior hypothesis
View Participant also described successfully listening to upbeat music when feeling down
View Music That Mirrored Current Mood The other prevalent theme we perceived across most participants was the use of music to mirror mood in an attempt to cope with feelings of sadness and depression
View Others listened to mood-matching music with the express aim of intensifying their negative emotions
View Two participants described their motivation as being to drown in or wallow in the negative emotions
View Thus there was a recognition that intense or frequent listening to music that reflected negative thinking was likely to have a more negative impact on wellbeing
View Music and Young People With Depression A number of participants described using music to distract from or mask unpleasant emotional states
View For example Participant described herself as having an anxiety disorder and being able to use music to distract herself or calm herself down
View Awareness In examining some of the factors that influenced the outcome of music listening for people with symptoms of depression it seemed possible that a key factor was the level of awareness and consciousness with which individuals selected music
View Music was intensely important to this participant
View DISCUSSION This study focused on exploring the degree to which young people with symptoms of depression are aware of the effect their music listening choices have on mood and wellbeing and how they reach that state of awareness
View Previous research has demonstrated that increased awareness of the effect of music listening choices can be deliberately influenced such as through use of the Healthy-Unhealthy Music Scale as an awareness raising tool
View When seeking to change an anxious mood for example participants reported listening to calming music music that did not match their current mood
View In contrast when dealing with depression many of the participants reported using music that maintained their current mood in order to feel validated and to have their feelings acknowledged
View In a systematic review of studies relating to music and people with dementia for example it was found that music can reliably reduce agitation in patients while the effects of music on symptoms of depression are less consistent
View This has further been noted in Cheong- Clinchs study of adolescents with mental illness where music was found to mediate mood momentarily but it was more difficult for young people to achieve sustained benefits
View Some theorists suggest that the cumulative benefits of positive moments can serve as protective factors that eventually lead to improved wellbeing
View Interventions that focus on self-reflection and raising awareness of the interaction between thoughts and feelings triggered by our music listening choices are likely to be more successful than those targeting particular music genres or styles
View Music listening and mental health: variations on internalizing psychopathology in Music Health and Wellbeing eds A
View The impact of social media on children adolescents and families
View Research Design and Methods )e research reported in this paper aimed to investigate the effect and impact of song-task association and musical reminiscence techniques delivered via a mobile or tablet app upon the wellbeing of a sample from the population of people living with dementia in UK residential care as well as the care home staff supporting them
View Although the results of the present study show once again that music can impact the wellbeing of participants it has also produced new themes and quantitative data that suggest music can be used as a daily aid in care not just as a therapy or for social activity
View useful neurorehabilitation tool in patients with chronic stroke and leads to neural reorganization in the sensorimotor cortex
View Several studies have highlighted the positive effects of group music-making and have suggested that it may be the creative and social aspects of such activities, which have a positive effect on participants' wellbeing
View Through analysis of video observations, pre- and post-project interviews, video recall interviews, and questionnaires, this article aims to: evaluate the impact of participation in collaborative composition workshops on the subjective and psychological wellbeing of older adults and identify skills and approaches employed by the composer-facilitators in order to understand more fully the approach and skills employed to engage participants effectively in the creative process
View For older adults, collaborative composition has much to offer as an activity encouraging social interaction with others with shared interests, increasing positive affect, and enhancing self-esteem
View Several studies have highlighted the positive effects of group music-making and have suggested that it may be the creative and social aspects of such activities which have a positive effect on participants wellbeing
View Through analysis of video observations pre- and post-project interviews video recall interviews and questionnaires this article aims to: evaluate the impact of participation in collaborative composition workshops on the subjective and psychological wellbeing of older adults and identify skills and approaches employed by the composer-facilitators in order to understand more fully the approach and skills employed to engage participants effectively in the creative process
View For older adults collaborative composition has much to offer as an activity encouraging social interaction with others with shared interests increasing positive affect and enhancing self-esteem
View Keywords: wellbeing collaborative composition older adults creativity Hull PERMA INTRODUCTION Since ancient times humans have been fascinated with how to live a good life with prominent thinkers such as Aristotle arguing that wellbeing is the overarching purpose of all human actions
View In recent years there has been increased research interest in wellbeing as people seek to learn how they might lead healthier and happier lives
View Collaborative Composition: Wellbeing and Creativity broadly conceptualizing two dimensions of wellbeing: subjective and psychological
View More recently positive psychologists have suggested that in order for humans to flourish fully a balance of the elements of both subjective and psychological dimensions of wellbeing is required
View Seligman has proposed a framework that incorporates elements of both dimensions of wellbeing: PERMA
View Positive emotions are the subjective wellbeing element of the PERMA model
View Having a clear sense of meaning or purpose in life seems to be a major component of human wellbeing and is the key to understanding motivation
View Research has found that social engagement in the form of social activities productive activities helping activities formal and informal learning and leisure is positively correlated with older adults physical and mental health and that joint participation in leisure activities with members of ones social network has been positively associated with life satisfaction
View Elsewhere studies have found that participation in adult education has positive impacts on older adults psychological wellbeing
View Through mastering a new skill or acquiring knowledge as well as engaging in a new activity and socializing with others participants psychological wellbeing increases
View Musical Engagement and Wellbeing The field of Arts and Health in the UK is flourishing at present particularly in light of the current emphasis on health promotion and the formation of the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Arts for Health and Wellbeing in
View Most recently in the UK there has been a movement toward social prescribing which advocates for engagement in arts-based activities to enhance wellbeing
View Several studies have highlighted the positive relationship between musical engagement and both subjective and psychological dimensions of wellbeing
View It has been argued that active rather than passive musical engagement tends to provide benefits for an individuals psychological as well as subjective wellbeing
View Croom has proposed that the PERMA framework provides a useful lens through which to examine musical engagement and wellbeing
View He cites evidence for musical engagement increasing positive affect offering opportunities for deep engagement connecting with other people bringing a sense of meaning or purpose to peoples lives and accomplishment
View Collaborative Composition: Wellbeing and Creativity example the benefits of everyday musical engagement for older adults adults with dementia and the impact learning a musical instrument can have on wellbeing for older adults
View Group Musicking Wellbeing in relation to engagement in group music activities has been a particular focus of studies as researchers seek to understand more fully this long-acknowledged positive impact of musicking with others
View investigated the relationship between engagement in group music-making activities and wellbeing according to the Basic Psychological Needs Scale and the CASP- measure of quality of life in later life finding that even compared to other group activities group music-making had a significant positive impact on participants self-reported wellbeing for the purpose control and autonomy and social affirmation components of these scales
View Similarly in a study characterizing collaborative and communal creativities in instrumental group learning and performance Burnard and Dragovic found the physicality of performance and levels of performance development to be sites for enhancing pupil wellbeing
View Collaborative Composition Although such studies have considered that it may be the creative and social aspects of group music-making which particularly influence wellbeing so far only one study has explored the potential benefits of group music-making involving the collaborative creation of new musical material
View The researchers found that the sense of control over musical materials opportunities for creativity and identity formation as well as social interaction with other participants and musicians were all beneficial for participants wellbeing
View Enjoyment Participants described or displayed Enjoyment of sessions
View Social cohesion Musical cohesion Empowerment Engagement Meaning Accomplishment The positive emotion dimension of PERMA is connected to subjective wellbeing: the more positive affect we experience the happier we will be
View Since the participants found the workshops uplifting and fun it seems likely that their participation in the workshops will have increased their subjective wellbeing
View Research in group music-making has suggested that creating music together involves communication cooperation empathy and ultimately may facilitate increased social cohesion
View The finding of the present study that engaging in collaborative composition and group musicking may lead to flow experiences adds further weight to the existing evidence that group musical engagement in general and collaborative composition in particular can positively contribute to psychological wellbeing
View Collaborative Composition and Wellbeing There are many similarities between collaborative composition and other forms of active group music-making such as ensemble playing
View Both activities involve musical interaction potential for experiencing flow and socioemotional bonding
View Since there is compelling evidence in the rich qualitative data analyzed here that collaborative composition had numerous benefits for older adults subjective and psychological wellbeing it is important that we also seek to understand how these participants can be engaged successfully in collaborative composition
View By emphasizing the voluntary nature of participation the composers empower the participants giving them control over their level of engagement in the creative process
View Analysis revealed that participants in the -month collaborative composition residencies for Hull perceived a positive impact on their subjective and psychological wellbeing with participants experiences being closely associated with all five dimensions of the PERMA framework
View For older adults collaborative composition has much to offer as an activity encouraging social interaction with others with shared interests increasing positive affect and enhancing self-esteem
View While there is strong evidence here for the value of collaborative composition as an activity that may enhance wellbeing the intersubjective process of collaborative composition is complex and requires a range of skills from the composer-facilitator in order to engage participants effectively
View Future work should engage in practices of reconfiguring and re-reading what counts as generative forces of wellbeing and the physicality of collaborative composition and performance practice/engagement and to evaluate the legacy of collaborative composition and performance projects such as this in terms of participants continued engagement with music-making and the perceived impact on their wellbeing over time
View It is surely high time we recognized the importance of continued engagement with such music-making in terms of impact on wellbeing because it allows for ways to think differently and produce juxtapose contrast combine and communicate ideas through collaborative composition
View Resounding meaning: a PERMA wellbeing profile of classical musicians
View Collaborative creativity in instrumental group learning as a site for enhancing pupil wellbeing
View Music practice and participation for psychological wellbeing: a review of how music influences positive emotion engagement relationships meaning and accomplishment
View Perceived benefits of active engagement with making music in community settings
View Article Systematic review of the impact of arts for health activities on health wellbeing and quality of life of older people living in care homes Amy Curtis Lucy Gibson Mary OBrien and Brenda Roe Edge Hill University UK Dementia Vol
View Keywords older adults arts for health care home systematic review wellbeing quality of life Introduction As the population of older adults increases it is likely that the number who require long- term care will also rise
View Due to the physical and social changes associated with living within a care home environment residents are also susceptible to depression and loneliness
View Research suggests residents can maintain quality of life health and wellbeing by participation in arts-based activities
View Search terms included arts activities: dance therapy music therapy art therapy singing reading poetry reminis- cence therapy memory box sew knit creative art paint performing art arts and health arts and humanities life story life narrative life review theatre visual art and arts and wellbeing combined with terms related to care homes: nursing home residential home and care home
View This provides an overview and high level comparison of the different studies their charac- teristics key findings in relation to health wellbeing and quality of life and their quality appraisal
View Lesser reported outcomes included feasibility of carrying out arts for health activities physical health satisfaction with living environment socialisation and neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with dementia
View In addition Simard and Volicer reported most participants to have severe Cognitive Performance Scale scores
View Psychological wellbeing Nine studies analysing depression showed significantly reduced scores over time
View found that whilst those taking part in the arts activity displayed more levels of anger and fear they also displayed less neutral affect
View In contrast two studies showed an impact of the arts activity one via increased prescriptions of antipsychotic medications for the control group and the second through decreased anti-anxiety prescriptions through- out but no changes in antidepressants
View Quality of life and general wellbeing Evidence of benefit on general quality of life and wellbeing measures was limited with improvements being reported by six studies
View Whilst subsequent studies have also explored the role of cognition these also aimed to explore other areas such as quality of life or psychological wellbeing
View Further evidence of the latter is provided by increased engagement with the arts activity and increased expressions of positive affect along with a decrease in negative affect
View Despite positive findings over time for those taking part in arts activities there was limited evidence for arts activities to foster improvements more than comparison activities
View Many quantitative studies exploring the effects of the arts activity on behaviour and psychological wellbeing showed improvements over time but not compared with another activity
View Conclusion International evidence emerging to date for arts for health activities for older people in care homes whether within or external to the home looks promising and can benefit residents health wellbeing and quality of life
View A randomized controlled trial exploring the effect of music on quality of life and depression in older people with dementia
View Impact of TimeSlips a creative expression intervention program on nursing home residents with dementia and their caregivers
View The influence of caregiver singing and background music on vocally expressed emotions and moods in dementia care: A qualitative analysis
View Effect of music therapy on anxiety and depression in patients with Alzheimers type dementia: Randomised controlled study
View Using humour to promote psychological wellbeing in residential homes for older people
View An evaluation of the effect of group music therapy on stress anxiety and depression levels in nursing home residents
View Effects of a creative expression intervention on emotions communication and quality of life in persons with dementia
View A comparison of the effects of three treatment interventions on cognitive functioning of Alzheimer patients
View Effects of group music therapy on quality of life affect and participation in people with varying levels of dementia
View The effects of music therapy on mood and congruent memory of elderly adults with depressive symptoms
View The impact of community-based arts and health interventions on cognition in people with dementia: A systematic literature review
View Music engages an extensive network of auditory, cognitive, motor, and emotional processing regions in the brain
View Coupled with the fact that the emotional and cognitive impact of music is often well preserved in ageing and dementia, music is a powerful tool in the care and rehabilitation of many ageing-related neurological diseases
View In addition to formal music therapy, there has been a growing interest in self- or caregiver-implemented musical leisure activities or hobbies as a widely applicable means to support psychological wellbeing in ageing and in neurological rehabilitation
View In addition to formal music therapy there has been a growing interest in self- or caregiver-implemented musical leisure activities or hobbies as a widely applicable means to support psychological wellbeing in ageing and in neurological rehabil- itation
View Keywords music singing ageing rehabilitation stroke dementia Introduction Different musical activities ranging from music listening to active musical participation through singing playing an instrument and dancing have been an essential part of human culture across history
View Evidence accumulated in the past years of neuroimaging studies indicates that music activates extremely complex and wide-spread bilateral networks of cortical and subcortical areas that control many auditory cognitive sensory-motor and emotional functions
View The initial perception of the basic auditory features of music takes place along the ascending auditory pathway from the inner ear to brain stem and thalamus and projecting to the auditory cortex as well directly to limbic areas such as the amygdala and the medial orbitofrontal cortex
View Keeping track of music as it unfolds over time activates the attention and working memory system located in inferior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex cingulate cortex and inferior parietal cortex
View Finally the emotional impact of music and the pleasure derived from music is closely linked to a network of many dopaminergic limbic/paralimbic areas including various midbrain areas nucleus accumbens amygdala hippocampus cin- gulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex which together form the reward system of the brain
View Dementia The fact that musical activities are not only rewarding and motivating but also engage and stimulate a wide-scale distributed neural network that is closely linked to many neu- rochemical systems regulating emotions arousal and cognitive functions make music a very potent tool to use also in neurological rehabilitation
View Given the rapid ageing of the worlds population and the increasing societal and economical burden brought about ageing-related sensory cognitive and motor decline there has been increasing interest in the potential of music-based interventions to promote brain and cog- nitive reserve and emotional well-being during normal ageing
View Similarly in response to the growing prevalence of many ageing-related severe neurological illnesses such as stroke and dementia many music-based neurological rehabilitation methods have been developed to enhance recovery or sustain functioning in the cognitive motor language emotional or social domain
View Broadly speaking these music interventions can be classified either as music therapy which is implemented by a trained music therapist and follows an established music therapy protocol or as other music-based interventions comprising musical activities implemented by other professionals the patients themselves or family caregivers
View This review article focuses on the latter category and provides an overview of the current evidence for the effects of musical activities such as music listening singing instrument playing and dancing on cognitive emotional and neural functioning in normal ageing as well as in the care and rehabilitation of persons suffering from ageing-related neurological dis- eases particularly stroke and dementia
View Musical activities in healthy ageing Emotional and social impact of musical activities Although the emotional and social impact of music in adolescence as a means for construct- ing the self-identity forming interpersonal relationships and dealing with stress and nega- tive emotions is often emphasized music continues to play an important role also in adulthood and old age as a way for regulating mood evoking memories maintaining self-esteem competence and independence as well as reducing feelings of loneliness and isolation
View Overall questionnaire/interview studies and more recent experimental studies of healthy older adults participating in community choirs have linked choir singing to multiple psy- chosocial and health-related benefits suggesting that regular choral singing can bring about enjoyment cognitive stimulation better physical and mental health and increased social interaction
View compared older adults participating in a -week choir pro- gram with control older adults over a -month follow-up and observed that choir singing was associated with better self-rating of health and morale less loneliness and higher level of activity
View The singing intervention had a long-term positive effect on health-related QOL as well as a short-term positive effect on mental health-related QOL anxiety and depression
View Elderly persons who have had long-term musical training earlier in life have been shown to have faster performance and neural timing in language tasks as well as enhanced auditory attention and executive function including working memory and cognitive control
View found that older adults reported enhanced musical self-efficacy after the training but no significant transfer was observed to general self-efficacy or to physiological measures of stress
View In addition to piano training also the impact of other music-based interventions focusing on music and movement have been explored in healthy seniors
View The dance training improved performance on a broad range of test motor/cognitive measures including posture hand motor control tactile processing attention memory and processing speed as well as increased subjective well-being
View Finally the association between musical activity and cognitive wellbeing was found also in large prospective cohort study of persons > years by Verghese et al
View This pivotal finding was very recently followed up in a three- arm single-blind RCT study of Japanese older adults with mild cognitive impairment which compared the cognitive effects of a dancing intervention and a music intervention to a control group receiving only health education
View Musical activities in ageing-related neurological diseases Musical activities in stroke Aesthetic and cultural leisure activities such as listening to music or dancing are important for stroke survivors but unfortunately the patients are often not able to participate in these Sarkamo due to health issues or inaccessibility of services
View Even in rehabilitation centres stroke patients typically spend % of their daily time not engaged in therapeutic activities or social interaction and many patients experience that their true rehabilitation needs are not properly met by the health care system
View performed a parallel-group RCT comparing the long-term effects of a -month daily music listening intervention to an audio book listening intervention and standard care in acute stroke patients
View In a -month follow-up music listening was found to be superior to audio book listening and standard care in improving the recovery of verbal memory and focused attention and reducing depres- sion and confusion as well as in increasing positive mood relaxation and motor activity
View In addition to the generic effects of daily music listening there are recent studies explor- ing also the use of music-based interventions specifically targeted towards the rehabilitation of different cognitive language and motor deficits caused by stroke
View For aphasic stroke patients Melodic Intonation Therapy where the patient trains speech production through singing intonation and rhythmic tapping has been found to improve verbal expression in tests measuring continuous speech repetition and naming in case studies and in one small-scale two-arm cross-over RCT
View In addition to aphasia singing-based interventions have been used in dysarthria a relatively common motor speech disorder after stroke with two small within-subjects studies reporting benefits in speech motor coordination and prosody and in speech intelligibility and naturalness
View Qualitatively participating in a community choir is perceived by stroke and Parkinsons disease patients as helpful in the self-management of the social and emo- tional consequences caused by the illness such as social isolation low mood and commu- nication deficits
View In a within-subjects questionnaire and interview study by Tamplin Baker Jones Way and Lee aphasic stroke patients Sarkamo reported reduced psychological distress and enhanced confidence mood motivation and communication after participating weekly in a community choir for weeks
View Musical activities in dementia Given the dramatically increasing prevalence of Alzheimers disease and other demen- tia illnesses there is a pressing need for effective ways to support cognitive emotional and social functioning in this population both in persons with demen- tia and their family members and caregivers
View Importantly music-induced emotions and memories are often preserved even in more advanced stages of dementia possibly owing to relative preservation of medial frontal and limbic areas in AD which enables the therapeutic use of music across the dementia spectrum from MCI to severe dementia
View Notably in one study the playing of Baroque music on the background in a long-term dementia care unit was found to increase the number of observed behavioural disturbance episodes compared to a control period
View There are also a few RCT studies reporting no significant benefits of musical activities on neuropsychiatric symp- toms when compared to another control intervention or to standard care in moderate-severe dementia
View In summary the evidence seems to suggest that exposure to music may have short-term positive emo- tional and cognitive effects and that songs may function as a mnemonic aid in dementia but overall the efficacy of musical activities on alleviating behavioural disturbances or neuro- psychiatric symptoms in moderate-severe dementia remains inconclusive
View Singing however was more effective than music listening or standard care in enhancing working memory and episodic memory especially in PWDs who had mild dementia as well as in reducing the psychological stress and burden experienced by the caregivers
View Regarding the social perspective singing a recent dyadic study of PWDs and their family carers participating in group singing together showed no significant effects of singing on standardized measures of cognition mood and QOL whereas engagement levels were very high and qualitative data showed strong positive effects on wellbeing
View Concluding remarks Based on the studies reviewed above there is now emerging evidence that musical leisure activities or music-based interventions performed outside a formal music therapy context can have many potential benefits for cognitive motor emotional and social functioning both in normal ageing and for elderly persons with debilitating neurological illnesses includ- ing stroke and dementia
View In summary music listening has an enhancing effect on mood and Sarkamo arousal which can temporarily improve cognitive performance in attention or memory tasks in healthy older adults as well as in stroke patients with neglect and in PWDs
View Active musical hobbies such as playing an instrument singing or dancing have been shown enhance executive functions mood or QOL in healthy aged adults
View In stroke rehabilitation active playing- or singing-based interventions have shown very promising effects for improving upper-extremity motor recovery speech production and mood and have potential applications also in the rehabilitation of the neglect syndrome
View In PWDs the specific impact of musical activities seem to depend on the severity of dementia symptoms: while positive effects on neuropsychiatric symptoms such as agitation and social interaction are seen in more advanced dementia the cognitive benefits of music for example on working memory are limited to singing-based group interventions in mild-moderate dementia
View This suggests that the combination of cognitive motor and social stimulation provided by active music interventions could be important for slowing the progression of cognitive symptoms in the early stages of dementia but again this claim needs to be put to test in large-scale longitudinal trials with a follow-up spanning many years
View Overall although positive findings from individual small studies are converging to support the use of music in neurological care and rehabilitation large and high-quality RCTs are still needed to build a more solid clinical evidence base and to establish the use of music more widely in the rehabilitation and care units
View For example MST has successfully been used in motor stroke rehabilitation but it could potentially have benefits also for the physical health and the emotional and cognitive wellbeing of PWDs
View Preservation of musical memory and engagement in healthy aging and Alzheimers disease
View The effect of music and audio book listening on people recovering from stroke: The patients point of view
View A rehabilitation program based on music practice for patients with unilateral spatial neglect: A single-case study
View Effect of music-based multitask training on cognition and mood in older adults
View Study of accent-based music speech protocol development for improving voice problems in stroke patients with mixed dysarthria
View Participation in active singing leads to cognitive improvements in individuals with dementia
View Music and speech listening enhance the recovery of early sensory processing after stroke
View Structural changes induced by daily music listening in the recovering brain after middle cerebral artery stroke: A voxel-based morphometry study
View Music listening enhances cognitive recovery and mood after middle cerebral artery stroke
View Music therapy using singing training improves psychomotor speed in patients with Alzheimers disease: A neuropsychological and fMRI study
View Music-sup- ported training is more efficient than functional motor training for recovery of fine motor skills in stroke patients
View Effects of music learning and piano practice on cognitive function mood and quality of life in older adults
View Music enhances category fluency in healthy older adults and Alzheimers disease patients
View Teppo Sarkamo is psychologist and neuroscientist whose research focuses on the neural mechanisms of music and speech processing and their deficits neuroplasticity ageing and music-based interventions for neurological illnesses
View There is evidence that arts interventions have positive effects on psychological and physiological outcomes on patients in a hospital environment
View There is evidence that arts interven- tions have positive effects on psychological and physiological outcomes on patients in a hospital environment
View The medical model of healthcare that developed was predicated on the principles of the eradication of illness through diagnosis and effective treatment
View With increased life expectancy chronic and degenerative diseases have replaced infectious disease leading to a shift in the model of healthcare provided to a more social model with an emphasis on the multiple and interrelated factors influencing health
View suggested that the movement towards a more integrative and social model of health has opened the space for creative arts activities in healthcare
View The growing recognition of the arts having an important role to play in improving the health and well-being of individuals has been a key driver
View Yet despite this the recent publication of Creative Health: The Arts for Health and Wellbeing signals new possibilities for in- fluencing policy makers and healthcare commissioners to re-consider the potential to embed such approaches into mainstream healthcare
View In Staricoff and Clift updated this review and provided further evidence of the positive effects of arts interventions on psychological and physiological outcome of patients in a hospital environment
View Evidence of the positive effects of music interventions on both psychological and physiological outcomes for pa- tients in healthcare environments
View |Emphasis on measurable effects and clinical outcomes Cultural activities Health-related outcomes Healthcare settings There were just four studies that were informed by a qualitative Music Clinical outcome* Surgery Painting* Dementia Care unit/Care units Art/Arts Health Care home Singing Pain Hospital* Drama Symptom* Primary care Dance/Dancing Illness* Acute care Sculpture Anxiety Hospice* Poetry Depression Clinical setting* Patient/patients Therapeutic setting* Inpatient* Residential care Outpatient* Well-being/well-being Service user *Indicates truncation
View The quantitative studies using a pre- and post-test study design compared and measured the degree of physiological change that oc- curred following a music listening intervention and/or the effects of music listening on patients/service users in relation to anxiety stress and pain levels
View Canada Adult intensive care unit mechanically ventilated patients Crossover design No change in vital signs over placebo control but biological response observedreduced stress hormone Chen Wang Shih and Wu Taiwan Oncology Department patients Quasi- experimental pre-/post-tests Music listening decreased anxiety levels and blood pressure in oncology patients Chiasson Baldwin Mclaughlin Cook and Sethi USA Adult intensive care unit patients Casecontrol design pre-/ post-tests Harp music significantly decreased patient perception of pain but heart rate not affected Chlan et al
View USA Adult intensive care unit? patients RCT Significant decrease in pain scores in the music group anxiety levels but not statistically significant difference compared to control group Dementia patients Exploratory Reduction in angry vocabulary enjoyment improve- ments in diction and increased eye contacts
View Dementia patients Pre-/post-test The use of both music and nature images has the potential to reduce disordered behaviours and improve engagement of patients
View Taiwan Hospital patients Uncontrolled observational study Experimental design Significant reduction in participants anxiety after they had listened to music
View Significant decreases in State Anxiety Scale and VAS scores in intervention group
View No significant differences between groups in blood pressure but music group reported significantly less anxiety than control group Kipnis et al
View Operating theatre patients Interventional study using systematic probability sampling Exposure to background music was associated with decreased levels of state anxiety irrespective of age sex and previous exposure to surgery or anaesthesia
View Women who listened to music reported significant increase in positive emotions and decline in negative emotions and perceived threat of situation Visual analogue ratings of anxiety significantly decreased in both the broadcast and headphone groups
View Music group demonstrated significant reductions in visual analogue scores heart rate low frequency heart rate variability
View In the music group respiratory rate and systolic blood pressure was significantly lower than the control group on the st and nd post-operative days In the music group patients pain intensity and pain distress in bed rest and in deep breathing were significantly lower on the nd day post-operative day compared to control group
View Positive impact on residents and staff well-being
View Parents found it provided distraction participation opportunity to share and hope
View In contrast Kipnis Tabak and Koton evaluated the effect of background music on preoperative anxiety in elective surgery patients whereas Hsu Chen Chen Tseng and Lin examined the effects of music listening on anxiety levels for patients undergoing knee replacement
View Zhou Li Yan Dang and Wang also examined duration of hos- pital stay along with depression rates for breast cancer patients after a mastectomy
View |Impact of music listening on anxiety stress and pain The papers that explored anxiety stress and pain in relation to music listening overwhelmingly reported positive outcomes which in most cases were also statistically significant
View timeframe as Koca-Kutlu and Eren found when they exam- ined the effects of music listening on patients during sessions of haemodialysis
View found after a mastectomy women in the music listening group had significantly lower depression scores than the control group
View investigated the effects of music listening in the management of chronic pain found the music group had significantly reduced anxiety and depression scores in comparison to the control group
View reported evidence of strong posi- tive effects on the quality of life of hospitalised patients who received live therapeutic harp music during the first hr of their hospital stay
View measured the ef- fects of music listening on blood pressure heart rate and respiratory rate in abdominal surgery patients
View Likewise in the mixed-methods study Trangeberg and Stomberg ex- plored patients experiences of music listening during anaesthesia and music listening was found to offer patients a sense of calm and detach- ment from what was going on around them and was overall a positive empowering experience
View Overall patients responded positively and welcomed background music recognising that it could improve mood and relieve pain
View investigated the processes and outcomes of an arts intervention for patients with common mental health prob- lems such as anxiety depression and stress
View both studies reported improvements in well-being that was aided by the mental stimulation and interaction gained from the intervention
View The evaluative feedback comments for an art-project for older people in a mental health trust by Shorters reported that creative expression had a role in recovery from mental distress that the authors suggest could be as important for some as medication
View A similar finding was drawn in the study by Hurdle and Quinlan in their interviews with artists who delivered participatory art activities to patients in a hospital set- ting as most artists felt participation in the arts could facilitate healing and well-being
View The study by Haraldsottir evaluated poetry reading and writing sessions for hospice patients and identified that the intervention was positively received by patients and enabled connections with staff by fostering dialogue and sharing of stories
View Patients/service users also recorded posi- tive effects in the reduction of anxiety and stress levels although in relation to the effects on pain levels opinions and evidence differed particularly in a surgical setting
View Other benefits to the individuals included increased enjoyment and satisfaction and the opportunity to share and connect with others and increased social interaction
View The findings from this review fur- ther support the growing body of evidence that strongly attests to the benefits and positive impact on the health and well-being of patients/ service users in introducing arts activities into a variety of healthcare settings
View Similarly if anxiety and depression can be reduced through participating in arts activities use of anti-depressants may be reduced with a subsequent reduction in costs and fewer side effects for patients
View The meaning and value of taking part in a person-centred arts programme to hospital- based stroke patients: Findings from a qualitative study
View The effect of complementary music therapy on the patients postoperative state anxiety pain control and environmental noise satisfaction
View Preferences for photographic art among hospitalised patients with can- cer
View Effectiveness of music listening in patients with total knee replace- ment during CPM rehabilitation
View Effect of music on pain anxiety and patient satisfaction in patients who present to the emergency department in Turkey
View Effects of music listening on cortisol levels and propofol consumption during spinal anesthesia
View The effects of music as therapy on the overall well-being of elderly patients on maintenance hemodialysis
View The influence of music on aEEG activity in neurologically healthy newborns weeks gestational age
View Effect of music on postoperative pain and physiologic parameters of patients after open heart surgery
View Attitudes and perceptions of patients caregivers and health care providers toward background music in patient care areas: An ex- ploratory study
View Music as a nursing intervention: Effects of music listening on blood pressure heart rate and respiratory rate in abdominal surgery patients
View Effects of music therapy on depression and duration of hospital stay of breast cancer patients after radical mastectomy
View The impact of the arts in healthcare on patients and service users: A critical review
View Keywords: music live customized pediatrics postoperative neuropsychology transformative joy MUsic MeDiciNe: tWO DecADes OF eXPerieNce iN HOsPitAL settiNGs In the Childrens Cancer Association in partnership with Randall Childrens Hospital and the Legacy Research Institute aimed to deter- mine if there was a measureable benefit to a well-established music delivery program for hospitalized children
View Due to growth of its programs over the years CCA now delivers music medicine to all pediatric patients regardless of diagnosis; as the model of joy shouldnotbe limitedtocancerpatients
View In the largest systematic review to date of music and postop- erative recovery music improved outcomes and was significantly associated with reduced pain anxiety and analgesia usage as well as increased patient satisfaction
View Several randomized controlled trials exam- ining the clinical outcomes of music intervention in surgical patients show conflicting results
View Music therapy in these studies tended to involve complementary techniques such as hypnosis guided imagery controlled beat or tempo and relaxation with multiple or lengthy sessions employed to achieve a desired effect such as reduction in heart rate
View In a similar study thoracic surgery patients receiving music therapy with recorded soft melodious and pleasant rhythms at beats/min or less versus no music therapy had improved pain and anxiety scores and decreased systolic blood pressure
View Similarly alargecohort of patients undergoing two sessions of shockwave lithotripsy and receiving recorded self-selected music at different time intervals showed improved anxiety and pain scores but equivalent vital signs measurements
View Our pilot study was designed to explore the short-term effects of one short music interaction on physiologic parameters standardized pain scores and the amount of medication given in the immediate postoperative period and not how MyMusicRx transforms the moment for children and their families on a daily basis
View This is true for other stress-mitigating strategies in chronically ill children; cognitive-behavioral interventions in asthma psychosocial family systems in chronic illness and patient empowerment through therapeutic video games in pediatric cancer
View Music Medicine in Postoperative Patients Conflict of Interest Statement: The funding for the costs of conducting the research was provided by Randall Childrens Hospital and the Childrens Cancer Association as joint sponsors of the research
View Background: Studies have shown music therapy can improve depression symptoms in dementia and the use of music activities show promise to have positive impacts on wellbeing
View However, few studies show the influence of a music intervention led by certified nursing assistants trained by music therapists to address depression symptoms and wellbeing in individuals with dementia
View Methods: Credentialed music therapists administered 2-weeks of music therapy, a 3-days training to CNAs, followed by 2-weeks of music activities, singing and music-with-movement, led by CNAs for 62 nursing home residents with moderate dementia, then measured depression symptoms using the Cornell Scale for Depression
View A video analysis and paired sampled t-test demonstrated a significant improvement in wellbeing in residents who engaged in music with movement, p = 0.0.3
View Conclusion: Findings suggest that music therapy can significantly decrease depression symptoms in nursing home residents with dementia
View Music activities designed by music therapists and facilitated by CNAs may help sustain the reduction of depression symptoms and improve wellbeing in nursing home residents with moderate to severe dementia
View The Use of Music and Music Therapy in Ameliorating Depression Symptoms and Improving Well-Being in Nursing Home Residents With Dementia Kendra D
View Background: Studies have shown music therapy can improve depression symptoms in dementia and the use of music activities show promise to have positive impacts on wellbeing
View However few studies show the influence of a music intervention led by certified nursing assistants trained by music therapists to address depression symptoms and wellbeing in individuals with dementia
View Using the Music in Dementia Scale over h of video data was observed and raters measured changes in well-being eg levels of enjoyment mood and engagement in the residents during the CNA facilitated music activities
View Residents baseline depression symptoms significantly declined following weeks of music therapy p
View A video analysis and paired sampled t-test demonstrated a significant improvement in wellbeing in residents who engaged in music with movement p =
View Conclusion: Findings suggest that music therapy can significantly decrease depression symptoms in nursing home residents with dementia
View Music activities designed by music therapists and facilitated by CNAs may help sustain the reduction of depression symptoms and improve wellbeing in nursing home residents with moderate to severe dementia
View People with dementia are at risk for developing depression due to memory loss which may lead to loss of independence and social isolation that can negatively impact wellbeing
View In music therapy singing can lead to a sense of wellbeing as indicated by positive self-esteem a sense of accomplishment and feelings of belonging
View For caregivers the use of Music Therapeutic Caregiving which involves singing while providing care has been shown to evoke positive emotions reduce aggression and create a sense of mutuality
View Depression symptoms in dementia is an ongoing issue as elderly are transitioning to nursing homes and experiencing cognitive decline
View Although research has shown that many music therapists have developed techniques that may be easily duplicated by care staff to address symptoms in dementia and nursing research has demonstrated positive effects of music incorporated during caregiving few studies show how collaborative efforts between music therapy and nursing may help to maintain reduction of depression symptoms
View This study used an exploratory design which all participants served as his/her own control to measure the effectiveness of music therapy and music activities on depression symptoms and wellbeing
View We compared changes between baseline depression symptoms with the effects of weeks of music therapy
View The Music in Dementia Assessment Scale was used to measure wellbeing of nursing home residents in the video FIGURE | Figure illustrates change over time for depression symptoms in nursing home residents with dementia
View The video observers rated average changes in wellbeing as demonstrated by levels of interest response initiation involvement and enjoyment during the first min of music and during the most clinically significant min of the music activity
View Residents depression symptoms significantly declined following weeks of music therapy increased during a -weeks wash-out period but appeared to stabilize following the - weeks music activity
View Our video analysis and paired sampled t-test demonstrated a significant improvement in wellbeing during -the most clinically significant min of the music-with-movement intervention in comparison with the beginning of the intervention t =
View DISCUSSION The aim of our research was to measure the effectiveness of a music therapy intervention on depression symptoms in nursing home residents with dementia and; measure the effectiveness of a singing and music-with-movement activity facilitated by CNAs on depression symptoms and wellbeing
View We found that music therapy significantly decreased depression symptoms and while symptoms began to increase weeks following music therapy stabilized when CNAs added singing and music-with-movement to their caregiving activities
View Systematic reviews demonstrate that music therapy and behavioral management techniques such as caregiver implemented interventions incorporated with appropriate training are the only nonpharmacological interventions shown to significantly reduce behavioral disturbances in people with dementia but since music therapists are not available to nursing home residents / the Center for Medicare and Medicaid have suggested that diversional activities such as singing or movement be considered as a nonpharmacological treatment to help manage symptoms of dementia
View Limitations The MIDAS a measurement tool created to rate wellbeing through responses to music allowed us to capture levels of interest response and communication that was not accounted for using the Cornell Scale for Depression
View Though the sample was reduced the video provided hundreds of hours of data and visual representations of how the music may have been positively improving wellbeing and sustaining reductions in depression symptoms
View An additional approach may have been to compare wellbeing in music therapy vs
View The study interventions show an effective example of how music therapy skills can be shared to extend musics therapeutic benefits and sustain reductions of depression symptoms
View By promoting and leading ongoing training programs in institutional settings together with nursing professionals music therapists can provide a quality continuum of care for aging adults with depression in dementia
View The effect of reminiscence music therapy sessions on changes in depressive symptoms in elderly persons with dementia
View The influence of caregiver singing and background music on vocally expressed emotions and moods in dementia care: a qualitative analysis
View Music therapy with Alzheimers patients and their family caregivers: a pilot project
View Early introduction of psycho-social interventions can address cognitive decline and significantly impact quality of life and the wellbeing of elderly individuals
View This pilot study explores the feasibility of using art therapy and music reminiscence activity to improve the cognition of community living elderly with mild cognitive impairment
View Early introduction of psycho-social interventions can address cognitive decline and significantly impact quality of life and the wellbeing of elderly individuals
View This pilot study explores the feasibility of using art therapy and music reminiscence activity to improve the cognition of community living elderly with mild cognitive impairment
View Interven- tions from stimulating leisure activities and an active cognitive lifestyle to address cognitive decline at this stage have a significant impact on the quality of life and well- being of elderly individuals and also illness progression []
View Listening to music effectively stimulates the auditory cortex and other brain areas related to attention semantic processing memory motor function and emotional pro- cessing []
View Most of the research has examined music therapy with components of reminis- cence for mood symptoms where listening to music they preferred [] and choosing the type of music to listen to reduced anxiety and depression in the elderly [ ]
View The research on music therapy and cognitive changes however has shown positive improvements on Mini- Mental State Examination scores even one month post intervention [] and on the short-term for working memory and quality of life in elderly with mild or moderate dementia []
View We hypothesize that participants in both active inter- vention arms will have improved functional connect- ivity improved neuropsychological cognitive test scores increased telomere lengths and enhanced psychological wellbeing and reductions in anxiety and depressive symptoms compared with the control group
View Psychological wellbeing assessment will be assessed with the: Geriatric Depression Scale : a -item yes/ no questionnaire with higher total scores associated with higher risk of depression; Geriatric Anxiety Inventory : a -item agree/ disagree questionnaire measuring dimensional anxiety with higher total scores associated with anxiety symptoms
View Active cognitive lifestyle is associated with positive cognitive health transitions and compression of morbidity from age sixty-five
View Combined cognitive- psychological-physical intervention induces reorganization of intrinsic functional brain architecture in older adults
View A year multidomain intervention of diet exercise cognitive training and vascular risk monitoring versus control to prevent cognitive decline in at-risk elderly people : A randomised controlled trial
View Review of the effect of music interventions on symptoms of anxiety and depression in older adults with mild dementia
View How arts training improves attention and cognition
View It examines music participation as a determinant of wellbeing and as a transformative tool to impact on wider social, cultural and environmental conditions
View While arts therapy approaches have a clear place in the text, the emphasis is on music making outside of clinical contexts and the broader roles musicians, music facilitators and educators can play in enhancing wellbeing in a range of settings beyond the therapy room
View Whelan's per sonal and professional experience of being a parent and community musician with young people on the autism spectrum provides insight into the value of creative programmes and well-being outcomes
View Sunderland has an extensive back ground in participatory creative and community-based research in the areas of health wellbeing and arts-based community development
View She has written widely on the topics of health promotion partnerships music and wellbeing disability and happiness and transformative ethics
View At the clinical level for example a review of the academic literature on the neurochemistry of music examined the scientific evidence supporting claims that music influ ences health through neurochemical changes relating to reward moti vation and pleasure; stress and arousal; immunity; and social affiliation
View Taking part in performing arts in particular singing in a choir and dancing with a group of people is associated with both increased social affiliation and health
View At a broader level strong social relationships and a sense of connectedness and participation in communities have been shown to have a profound impact on health and consistent evidence indicates that a sense of connectedness is protective of mental and emo tional well-being
View Choral singing also impacted on social health and wellbeing positively through feeling excitement and importance to life as well as longer duration of involvement in the choir after adjusting for the effects from socio-demographic variables in the models
View Findings from this study suggest that choral singing plays a very important role in psychological health as a component of the quality of life and also has benefits for emotional well-being
View We found that the vast majority of participants reported that HYPE was a positive experience and felt it offered a valuable opportunity to engage both with their peers and with the broader community
View In research terms there are many qualitative studies that have described the wide range of social psychological spiritual and health benefits associated with music making and that such benefits reach across the whole of the lifespan and with people of diverse social back grounds and health status
View Cognitive enhancement and social skills can be devel oped at any time across the lifespan and since music demands these intel lectual and collaborative behaviours it is particularly effective in accessing elements that help people feel in control socially included and conse quently experience positive well-being outcomes
View Music therapy has had a strong emphasis on the medical model of treatment much of which has emerged from the discipline's roots in hospital settings-for example being part of a multidisciplinary team treating a specific condi tion for functional health gain such as physical function improvement after stroke or mood regulation for bipolar disorder
View For example a modified mood management theory suggests that humans will delay immediate gratification in order to enjoy more complex bene fits such as being able to build up and then release negative emotions through a process of catharsis
View Other studies have additionally found that depressed individuals disliked energetic music
View People with depression are reported as having a reduced capacity to regulate their moods suc cessfully
View Krause Garrido and Schubert also explored the relationship between the enjoyment of music evoking negative emotions and certain personal ity traits such as absorption empathy and rumination
View Research supports the link between control and health
View For exam ple it has been found that preferred music increased one's tolerance and decreased anxiety when experiencing cold pressor pain and a trip to the dentist or having minor surgery under local anaesthetic can be better tolerated ifwe attend to music we know and like and use it as a distractor
View Social-Psychological Research on Music Making and Well-Being Participation Benefits to Well-Being We begin this exploration of music making research by highlighting a challenge for researchers to identify the specific benefits that diverse forms of musical engagement may afford
View Previous studies have highlighted positive relationships between music participation health and well-being in terms of social emo tional cognitive and physical health musicianship spiritual identity self-improvement and life satisfaction benefits
View Emotional benefits include the use of music for mood regulation producing positive emotions such as feeling uplifted stress release and relaxation processing and expressing emotions
View Music participation can facilitate spiritual experiences and transcendent feelings
View In addition to the consideration of the benefits or outcomes associated with music making a social-psychological perspective considers the motivations people have to participate in music making activities
View Such motivations can be related to the perceived health and well-being benefits of participating in music making activities
View Supporting previous research participation in the singing group pro vided the opportunity to experience benefits to health and well-being including experiencing and working through emotions socialising with other people and sharing experiences and creating purpose and meaning in life
View Moreover the consideration of pleasure arousal and dominance Goals Catharsis Stimulation/Arousal Reflection Relaxation/Calming Distraction Adaptive outcomes Resolution Improved mood Maladaptive outcomes Rumination Worsened mood Fig
View Punkanen M Eerola T & Erkkila J 'Biased emotional preferences in depression: Decreased liking of angry and energetic music by depressed patients' Music and Medicine vol
View Autism is a complex disorder of the brain which is characterised by vary ing degrees of difficulty in social interaction communicating and using language and abstract concepts
View My interest in autism spectrum condition was drawn sharply into focus when my first child was diagnosed with autism in the late s and the intervening years have served as an intensive apprenticeship in embracing difference and a comprehensive distraction from my academic work in film music and creative technologies
View some cases family members can herald an erosion in self-esteem confi dence and social functioning for many young people with autism that without intervention and support can entrench experiences of social anxiety depression and agoraphobia
View I coordi nated music workshops for association members and directed plays whose participants experienced a range of disabilities and access issues ranging from autism and hearing impairment to mental illness and acquired brain injury
View In an organisation staffed with teachers occupa tional therapists clinical psychologists speech pathologists and physio therapists the appointment ofa musician in a senior program development role was a testament to the then Chief Executive Officer's flair for innovaPromoting Social Inclusion Equity and Well-Being for Young
View By commissioning an arts program as opposed to a multi disciplinary clinical team the emphasis shifted immediately from critiqu ing participants' deficits to the range of finely tuned creative skills that over nine hours a day of intense engagement can provide
View Having access to a supportive and inclusive environment technology labs and a recording studio played a substantial role in the participants being able to achieve their creative goals
View Two program participants had strengths in music and with the support of their music mentor I had the privilege of watching these young people blossom socially creatively and person ally over a period of months as they engaged in a process of musical discovery and social development
View But evidence gathered over a six month period in the second year of the program's delivery suggests the model offers an effective framework to support young people with autism to build self-esteem and social participation which are vital determi nants of health and well-being for this group and their families
View Family members and program participants agreed that Studio G was supporting learning and development outcomes in the areas of both skill development and an increased awareness of future work and study options
View Young people with autism can experience a range of comorbid condi tions including depression anxiety sleep disorders aggression obsessive compulsive disorder eating disorders and agorapho bia that can be exacerbated by the stresses ofsocial interaction and environ mental and sensory overload
View These included high levels of motivation to attend the program enjoyment of the program increases in social participation and friendship and improved emotional wellbeing
View Depressed people are restricted in their ability to adequately express emotions and modulate their moods
View Neuroscientific literature demon strates that participation in music activities enables appropriate expres sion of emotions and mood modulation in people with depression
View People can learn new music skills by imitation and concentration
View This improves significantly after involvement in singing or music listening activities demonstrating the powerful nature of emotional expression through music
View Brain studies demonstrate that active participation in music can assist learning emotional regulation evidenced by changes in the fronto-temporo-parietal areas of the brain for people with major depressive disorder
View Depression Depression is well known for its long-term deleterious effects on cogni tive psychological physical and social functioning reducing quality of life and well-being for millions of people throughout the Western world K
View Features of Depression Typical symptoms associated with depression include depressed mood loss of interest in life activities anxiety irritation numbness gastro intestinal disturbances sleep disturbances worry rumination suicidal ideations with attempted and completed suicides memory loss social isolation and loneliness anger hostility and irritability
View It can be closely linked to serious medical conditions such as heart disease diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis
View Phases of Treatment in Depression In the acute phase of a major depressive episode treatment is aimed at reducing and eliminating as many symptoms as possible to restore the patient to adequate work and psychosocial functioning
View They also reported significant improvements to their quality of life emotional well-being self-confidence and appreciation of singing
View The choir members contributed to the cultural economy and social fabric of Glasgow with increased visits to museums and concerts and active participation in the cultural life of the city
View Choir participation generated improved moods and social interactions
View They described increased positive feelings and well-being reduced stress improved self-perceptions improved singing abilities feelings of belong ing to a group connecting with the local community increased social networks and social functioning
View Robertson-Gillam investigated the benefits of a community choir for reducing depression and anxiety symptoms in middle to later aged adults
View Robertson-Gillam In their weekly surveys members reported experiencing reduced back pain after singing more confidence when talking with people during supper breaks and increased pleasure in their improved voice quality
View For instance Bannan and Montgomery-Smith con cluded that it is possible for people with Alzheimer's disease to participate in group singing with longer-term benefits being reported by their carers conferring more opportunities for increased quality of life
View He showed increased confidence and enjoyment
View Ahessy's study followed the same choir protocol as the Robertson-Gillam study and results showed a significant decrease in depression and increase in quality of life
View Music can generate positive responses and play an important role in emotional expression and mood modulation
View Naranjo C Kornreich C Campanella S Noel X Vandriette Y Gillain B & Constant E 'Major depression is associated with impaired processing of emotion in music as well as in facial and vocal stimuli' journal ofAffective Disorders vol
View It reported strong evidence on the positive effects of singing on feelings of happiness and well-bei